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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240680, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373379

RESUMO

Social ostracism triggers an increase in affiliative behaviours. One such behaviour is the rapid copying of others' facial expressions, called facial mimicry. Insofar, it remains unknown how individual differences in intrinsic affiliation motivation regulate responses to social ostracism during early development. We examined children's facial mimicry following ostracism as modulated by individual differences in the affiliation motivation, expressed in their attachment tendencies. Resistant and avoidant tendencies are characterized by high and low affiliation motivation, and were hypothesized to lead to facial mimicry enhancement or suppression towards an ostracizing partner, respectively. Following an ostracism manipulation in which children played a virtual game (Cyberball) with an includer and an excluder peer, mimicry of the two peers' happy and sad facial expressions was recorded with electromyography (EMG). Attachment was assessed via parent-report questionnaire. We found that 5-year-olds smiled to sad facial expressions of the excluder peer, while they showed no facial reactions for the includer peer. Neither resistant nor avoidant tendencies predicted facial mimicry to the excluder peer. Yet, securely attached children smiled towards the excluder peer, when sad facial expressions were displayed. In conclusion, these findings suggest a modulation of facial reactions following ostracism by early attachment.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Apego ao Objeto , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Eletromiografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
2.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 45: 100851, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890960

RESUMO

From early in life, we activate our neural motor system when observing others' actions. In adults, this so-called mirroring is modulated not only by the saliency of an action but also by top-down processes, like the intention to imitate it. Yet, it remains unknown whether neural processing of others' actions can be modulated by top-down processes in young children who heavily rely on learning from observing and imitating others but also still develop top-down control skills. Using EEG, we examined whether the intention to imitate increases 4-year-olds' motor activation while observing others' actions. In a within-subjects design, children observed identical actions preceded by distinct instructions, namely to either imitate the action or to name the toy's color. As motor activation index, children's alpha (7-12 Hz) and beta (16-20 Hz) power over motor cortices was analyzed. The results revealed more motor activity reflected by significantly lower beta power for the Imitation compared to the Color-naming Task. The same conditional difference, although differently located, was detected for alpha power. Together, our results show that children's neural processing of others' actions was amplified by their intention to imitate the action. Thus, already at age 4 top-down attention to others' actions can modulate neural action processing.

3.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(6): 612-623, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757604

RESUMO

Predictive processing accounts of autism posit that individuals with autism rely less on expectations than those without autism when it comes to interpreting incoming sensory information. Since these expectations are claimed to underlie all information processing, we reason that any differences in how they are formed or adjusted should be persistent across multiple cognitive domains and detectable much earlier than clinicians can currently diagnose autism, around 3 years of age. This experiment is part of a longitudinal prospective study of young children with increased familial likelihood of autism. Around 20% of these children will receive an autism diagnosis, compared to 1% of the general population. The current electroencephalography study used an adaptation paradigm to investigate whether a reduced effect of expectations is already present in high-likelihood 2-year-olds, before autism can reliably be diagnosed. While we did not observe the adaptation aftereffect we expected, high-likelihood children habituated more than low-likelihood children, and the two groups did not differ in their overall responses to the manipulation, contrary to our hypotheses and previous findings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Prog Brain Res ; 254: 187-204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859287

RESUMO

Crucial for interacting successfully with other people is the ability to coordinate one's actions with those of others. Interpersonal coordination can be planned or emergent (spontaneous). Although typically easy for adults, coordinating successfully and smoothly with others may be far from trivial for infants and toddlers. What do we know about the developmental trajectory of interpersonal coordination in the first years of life? Which processes play a role in successfully coordinating with others? And how does the development of interpersonal coordination impact other aspects of children's development? In this chapter, we review when and how infants and young children develop successful interpersonal coordination skills (planned and emergent) in early childhood. We argue that insights from the field of cognitive (neuro-) science have significantly advanced our knowledge on which social-cognitive processes underlie interpersonal coordination and its development. In particular, we discuss four important social-cognitive processes; monitoring and predicting others' actions as well as planning and controlling one's own actions. We then present findings on the impact of interpersonal coordination on young children's social understanding, their prosocial behavior and affiliation. Together, we conclude that for future research on the development of interpersonal coordination interdisciplinary exchanges between fields like cognitive (neuro-) science and developmental science offer promising avenues.

5.
Prog Brain Res ; 254: xv-xvi, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859296
6.
Dev Psychol ; 56(9): 1623-1631, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700945

RESUMO

Parents modulate their speech and their actions during infant-directed interactions, and these modulations facilitate infants' language and action learning, respectively. But do these behaviors and their benefits cross these modality boundaries? We investigated mothers' infant-directed speech and actions while they demonstrated the action-effects of 4 novel objects to their 14-month-old infants. Mothers (N = 35) spent the majority of the time either speaking or demonstrating the to-be-learned actions to their infant while hardly talking and acting at the same time. Moreover, mothers' infant-directed speech predicted infants' action learning success beyond the effect of infant-directed actions. Thus, mothers' speech modulations during naturalistic interactions do more than support infants' language learning; they also facilitate infants' action learning, presumably by directing and maintaining infants' attention toward the to-be learned actions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

7.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 42: 100760, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072933

RESUMO

Research into the developing sense of agency has traditionally focused on sensitivity to sensorimotor contingencies, but whether this implies the presence of a causal action-effect model has recently been called into question. Here, we investigated whether 3- to 4.5-month-old infants build causal action-effect models by focusing on behavioral and neural measures of violation of expectation. Infants had time to explore the causal link between their movements and audiovisual effects before the action-effect contingency was discontinued. We tested their ability to predict the consequences of their movements and recorded neural (EEG) and movement measures. If infants built a causal action-effect model, we expected to observe their violation of expectation in the form of a mismatch negativity (MMN) in the EEG and an extinction burst in their movement behavior after discontinuing the action-effect contingency. Our findings show that the group of infants who showed an MMN upon cessation of the contingent effect demonstrated a more pronounced limb-specific behavioral extinction burst, indicating a causal action-effect model, compared to the group of infants who did not show an MMN. These findings reveal that, in contrast to previous claims, the sense of agency is only beginning to emerge at this age.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Movimento
8.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12869, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132212

RESUMO

Parents tend to modulate their movements when demonstrating actions to their infants. Thus far, these modulations have primarily been quantified by human raters and for entire interactions, thereby possibly overlooking the intricacy of such demonstrations. Using optical motion tracking, the precise modulations of parents' infant-directed actions were quantified and compared to adult-directed actions and between action types. Parents demonstrated four novel objects to their 14-month-old infants and adult confederates. Each object required a specific action to produce a unique effect (e.g. rattling). Parents were asked to demonstrate an object at least once before passing it to their demonstration partner, and they were subsequently free to exchange the object as often as desired. Infants' success at producing the objects' action-effects was coded during the demonstration session and their memory of the action-effects was tested after a several-minute delay. Indicating general modulations across actions, parents repeated demonstrations more often, performed the actions in closer proximity and demonstrated action-effects for longer when interacting with their infant compared to the adults. Meanwhile, modulations of movement size and velocity were specific to certain action-effect pairs. Furthermore, a 'just right' modulation of proximity was detected, since infants' learning, memory, and parents' prior evaluations of their infants' motor abilities, were related to demonstrations that were performed neither too far from nor too close to the infants. Together, these findings indicate that infant-directed action modulations are not solely overall exaggerations but are dependent upon the characteristics of the to-be learned actions, their effects, and the infant learners.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Movimento , Pais , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Movimento (Física)
9.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12873, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144771

RESUMO

Body movements, as well as faces, communicate emotions. Research in adults has shown that the perception of action kinematics has a crucial role in understanding others' emotional experiences. Still, little is known about infants' sensitivity to body emotional expressions, since most of the research in infancy focused on faces. While there is some first evidence that infants can recognize emotions conveyed in whole-body postures, it is still an open question whether they can extract emotional information from action kinematics. We measured electromyographic (EMG) activity over the muscles involved in happy (zygomaticus major, ZM), angry (corrugator supercilii, CS) and fearful (frontalis, F) facial expressions, while 11-month-old infants observed the same action performed with either happy or angry kinematics. Results demonstrate that infants responded to angry and happy kinematics with matching facial reactions. In particular, ZM activity increased while CS activity decreased in response to happy kinematics and vice versa for angry kinematics. Our results show for the first time that infants can rely on kinematic information to pick up on the emotional content of an action. Thus, from very early in life, action kinematics represent a fundamental and powerful source of information in revealing others' emotional state.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Adulto , Ira , Músculos Faciais , Medo , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
10.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225493, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725804

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218676.].

12.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218676, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260488

RESUMO

From early in life, facial mimicry represents an important example of implicit non-verbal communication. Facial mimicry is conceived of as the automatic tendency to mimic another person's facial expressions and is thought to serve as a social glue among interaction partners. Although in adults mimicry has been shown to be moderated by the social context and one's needs to affiliate with others, evidence from behavioural mimicry studies suggest that 3-year-olds do not yet show sensitivity to social dynamics. Here, we examined whether attachment tendencies, as a proxy for interindividual differences in affiliation motivation, modulates facial mimicry in 3-year-olds. Resistant and avoidant insecure attachment tendencies are characterized by high and low affiliation motivation, respectively, and these were hypothesized to lead to either enhancement or suppression of mimicry. Additionally, we hypothesized that these effects will be moderated by inhibitory control skills. Facial mimicry of happy and sad expressions was recorded with electromyography (EMG), attachment tendencies were assessed with a parent-report questionnaire and inhibitory control with the gift delay task. The final sample consisted of 42 children, with overall scores suggesting secure attachment. Our findings revealed that 3-year-olds mimicked happy and sad facial expressions. Moreover, resistant tendencies predicted enhanced sad but not happy facial mimicry, whereas avoidant tendencies were not significantly related to mimicry. These effects were not moderated by inhibitory control skills. In conclusion, these findings provide the first evidence for the modulation of mimicry by attachment tendencies and their underlying motivation for affiliation in young children, specifically for negatively-valenced emotional expressions.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação/fisiologia , Tristeza/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Eletromiografia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/fisiologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Individualidade , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0200976, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116742

RESUMO

From early on in life, children are able to use information from their environment to form predictions about events. For instance, they can use statistical information about a population to predict the sample drawn from that population and infer an agent's preferences from systematic violations of random sampling. We investigated whether and how young children infer an agent's sampling biases. Moreover, we examined whether pupil data of toddlers follow the predictions of a computational model based on the causal Bayesian network formalization of predictive processing. We formalized three hypotheses about how different explanatory variables (i.e., prior probabilities, current observations, and agent characteristics) are used to predict others' actions. We measured pupillary responses as a behavioral marker of 'prediction errors' (i.e., the perceived mismatch between what one's model of an agent predicts and what the agent actually does). Pupillary responses of 24-month-olds, but not 18-month-olds, showed that young children integrated information about current observations, priors and agents to make predictions about agents and their actions. These findings shed light on the mechanisms behind toddlers' inferences about agent-caused events. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which young children's pupillary responses are used as markers of prediction errors, which were qualitatively compared to the predictions by a computational model based on the causal Bayesian network formalization of predictive processing.


Assuntos
Cognição , Percepção , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Física , Psicologia Social/métodos , Pupila/fisiologia
14.
Neurosci Conscious ; 2019(1): niz006, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110817

RESUMO

The development of a sense of agency is indispensable for a cognitive entity (biological or artificial) to become a cognitive agent. In developmental psychology, researchers have taken inspiration from adult cognitive psychology and neuroscience literature and use the comparator model to assess the presence of a sense of agency in early infancy. Similarly, robotics researchers have taken components of the proposed mechanism in attempts to build a sense of agency into artificial systems. In this article, we identify an invalidating theoretical flaw in the reasoning underlying this conversion from adult studies to developmental science and cognitive systems research, rooted in an oversight in the conceptualization of the comparator model as currently used in experimental practice. In these experiments, the emphasis has been put solely on testing for a match between predicted and observed sensory consequences. We argue that the match by itself can exclusively generate a simple categorization or a representation of equality between predicted and observed sensory consequences, both of which are insufficient to generate the causal representations required for a sense of agency. Consequently, the comparator model, as it has been described in the context of the sense of agency and as it is commonly used in experimental designs, is insufficient to generate the sense of agency: infants and robots require more than developing the ability to match predicted and observed sensory consequences for a sense of agency. We conclude with outlining possible solutions and future directions for researchers in developmental science and artificial intelligence.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6049, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988372

RESUMO

Top-down control processes are essential for guiding attention and working memory towards task-relevant information. Recently, theta oscillations were suggested as critical for these cognitive processes. Infant studies testing a mixture of bottom-up and top-down processes support adult theta findings. Yet, since infants cannot be instructed, it remains unclear to what extent theta oscillations are involved particularly in top-down control in early childhood. That is especially relevant towards school age when children need top-down control to solve the increasingly complex tasks. In this EEG study, we investigated whether theta-power in 4-year-olds is sensitive to task engagement and to different cognitive task demands. In a within-subjects design, children had three different instructions before watching videos including either no demands (No Task), language-related (Color-naming Task), or action-related (Imitation Task) demands. We analyzed children's theta-power (3-6 Hz) in two contrasts: (1) Task vs. No Task and (2) Color-naming vs. Imitation Task. The findings revealed more frontomedial theta-power when children were engaged in a task and their frontomedial theta-power increased during their cognitive engagement. Theta-power was stronger over left fronto-temporal sites for language- compared to action-related demands. These findings support recent theoretical work highlighting theta oscillations in top-down control and extend this neurocognitive framework to preschoolers.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia
16.
Neuropsychologia ; 126: 92-101, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487250

RESUMO

Infants are sensitive to structure and patterns within continuous streams of sensory input. This sensitivity relies on statistical learning, the ability to detect predictable regularities in spatial and temporal sequences. Recent evidence has shown that infants can detect statistical regularities in action sequences they observe, but little is known about the neural process that give rise to this ability. In the current experiment, we combined electroencephalography (EEG) with eye-tracking to identify electrophysiological markers that indicate whether 8-11-month-old infants detect violations to learned regularities in action sequences, and to relate these markers to behavioral measures of anticipation during learning. In a learning phase, infants observed an actor performing a sequence featuring two deterministic pairs embedded within an otherwise random sequence. Thus, the first action of each pair was predictive of what would occur next. One of the pairs caused an action-effect, whereas the second did not. In a subsequent test phase, infants observed another sequence that included deviant pairs, violating the previously observed action pairs. Event-related potential (ERP) responses were analyzed and compared between the deviant and the original action pairs. Findings reveal that infants demonstrated a greater Negative central (Nc) ERP response to the deviant actions for the pair that caused the action-effect, which was consistent with their visual anticipations during the learning phase. Findings are discussed in terms of the neural and behavioral processes underlying perception and learning of structured action sequences.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
17.
Neuroimage ; 185: 947-954, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225063

RESUMO

Motor theories of action prediction propose that our motor system combines prior knowledge with incoming sensory input to predict other people's actions. This prior knowledge can be acquired through observational experience, with statistical learning being one candidate mechanism. But can knowledge learned through observation alone transfer into predictions generated in the motor system? To examine this question, we first trained infants at home with videos of an unfamiliar action sequence featuring statistical regularities. At test, motor activity was measured using EEG and compared during perceptually identical time windows within the sequence that preceded actions which were either predictable (deterministic) or not predictable (random). Findings revealed increased motor activity preceding the deterministic but not the random actions, providing the first evidence that the infant motor system can use knowledge from statistical learning to predict upcoming actions. As such, these results support theories in which the motor system underlies action prediction.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Atividade Motora
18.
Cognition ; 181: 58-64, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125740

RESUMO

The development of a sense of agency is essential for understanding the causal structure of the world. Previous studies have shown that infants tend to increase the frequency of an action when it is followed by an effect. This was shown, for instance, in the mobile-paradigm, in which infants were in control of moving an overhead mobile by means of a ribbon attached to one of their limbs. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for a sense of agency early in life, as infants were thought to have detected the causal action-movement relation. We argue that solely the increase in action frequency is insufficient as evidence for this claim. Computer simulations are used to demonstrate that systematic, limb-specific increase in movement frequency found in mobile-paradigm studies can be produced by an artificial agent (a 'babybot') implemented with a mechanism that does not represent cause-effect relations at all. Given that a sense of agency requires representing one's actions as the cause of the effect, a behavior that is reproduced with this non-representational babybot can be argued to be, in itself, insufficient as evidence for a sense of agency. However, a behavioral pattern that to date has received little attention in the context of sense of agency, namely an additional increase in movement frequency after the action-effect relation is discontinued, is not produced by the babybot. Future research could benefit from focusing on patterns whose production cannot be reproduced by our babybot as these may require the capacity for causal learning.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Autoimagem , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Lactente , Aprendizagem
19.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194102, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29513741

RESUMO

During adult interactions, behavioral mimicry, the implicit copying of an interaction partner's postures and mannerisms, communicates liking and affiliation. While this social behavior likely develops during early childhood, it is unclear which factors contribute to its emergence. Here, the roles of inhibitory control and social understanding on 5-year-olds' behavioral mimicry were investigated. Following a social manipulation in which one experimenter shared a sticker with the child and the other experimenter kept two stickers for herself, children watched a video in which these experimenters each told a story. During this story session, children in the experimental group (n = 28) observed the experimenters perform face and hand rubbing behaviors whereas the control group (n = 23) did not see these behaviors. Children's inhibitory control was assessed using the day-night task and their social understanding was measured through a parental questionnaire. Surprisingly, group-level analyses revealed that the experimental group performed the behaviors significantly less than the control group (i.e. a negative mimicry effect) for both the sticker-sharer and sticker-keeper. Yet, the hypothesized effects of inhibitory control and social understanding were found. Inhibitory control predicted children's selective mimicry of the sticker-keeper versus sticker-sharer and children's overall mimicry was correlated with social understanding. These results provide the first indications to suggest that factors of social and cognitive development dynamically influence the emergence and specificity of behavioral mimicry during early childhood.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Compreensão , Inibição Psicológica , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Feminino , Gestos , Humanos , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal , Comportamento Social
20.
Mem Cognit ; 46(4): 600-613, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344925

RESUMO

Humans are sensitive to the statistical regularities in action sequences carried out by others. In the present eyetracking study, we investigated whether this sensitivity can support the prediction of upcoming actions when observing unfamiliar action sequences. In two between-subjects conditions, we examined whether observers would be more sensitive to statistical regularities in sequences performed by a human agent versus self-propelled 'ghost' events. Secondly, we investigated whether regularities are learned better when they are associated with contingent effects. Both implicit and explicit measures of learning were compared between agent and ghost conditions. Implicit learning was measured via predictive eye movements to upcoming actions or events, and explicit learning was measured via both uninstructed reproduction of the action sequences and verbal reports of the regularities. The findings revealed that participants, regardless of condition, readily learned the regularities and made correct predictive eye movements to upcoming events during online observation. However, different patterns of explicit-learning outcomes emerged following observation: Participants were most likely to re-create the sequence regularities and to verbally report them when they had observed an actor create a contingent effect. These results suggest that the shift from implicit predictions to explicit knowledge of what has been learned is facilitated when observers perceive another agent's actions and when these actions cause effects. These findings are discussed with respect to the potential role of the motor system in modulating how statistical regularities are learned and used to modify behavior.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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