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Neurology ; 97(22): e2204-e2212, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635563


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise has become a useful method to assist with postconcussion management. Exercise can exacerbate concussion symptoms even when symptoms are not apparent at rest. Few studies have examined the reasons for symptom exacerbation during exercise following a concussion. We had 2 primary objectives: (1) to delineate cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular responses to exercise in adolescents and young adults with a concussion and healthy controls and (2) to determine the association between cerebrovascular responses and symptom burden. METHODS: We recruited participants with a recent concussion from a sport concussion clinic between September 1, 2018, and February 22, 2020. They were included if their concussion occurred <3 weeks before initial testing and if they were symptomatic at rest. Participants were excluded if they sustained a concussion in the past year (excluding index injury), reported history of neurologic disorders, or were using medications/devices that may alter neurologic function. Participants completed a progressive, symptom-limited, submaximal exercise protocol on a stationary bicycle. We assessed heart rate, blood pressure, fraction of end tidal CO2 (FETCO2), and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBF) and cerebrovascular function (vasoactivity and autoregulation) at seated rest and during exercise. RESULTS: We conducted 107 exercise tests (40 concussed, 37 healthy participants initially; 30 concussed at follow-up). Concussed participants were tested initially (mean 17.6 ± 2.2 [SD] years of age; 55% female; mean 12.5 ± 4.7 days postconcussion) and again 8 weeks later (mean 73.3 ± 9.5 days postconcussion). Control participants (mean 18.3 ± 2.4 years; 62% female) were tested once. FETCO2 increased throughout the exercise protocol as heart rate increased, reached a plateau, and declined at higher exercise intensities. CO2 explained >25% of the variation in resting CBF (R 2 > 0.25; p < 0.01) in most (73% individuals). Within the concussion group, resting symptom severity and the heart rate at which FETCO2 reached a plateau explained ∼2/3s of variation in exercise-induced symptom exacerbation (R 2 = 0.65; FETCO2 ß = -1.210 ± 0.517 [SE], p < 0.05). There was a moderate, statistically significant relationship between cerebrovascular responses to CO2 at rest (cerebral vasoactivity) and cerebrovascular responses to exercise-induced changes in FETCO2 (R 2 = 0.13, p = 0.01). DISCUSSION: The arterial CO2 response and symptom exacerbation relationship during postconcussion aerobic exercise may be mediated by increased sensitivity of cerebral vasculature to exercise-related increase in CO2.

Physiol Meas ; 42(9)2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450608


Objective.We investigated the relation between prior concussion history and working memory (WM), self-reported cognitive symptom burden, and cerebrovascular function in adolescents and young adults (14-21 years old).Approach.We recruited 59 participants, 34 clinically diagnosed with a sports-related concussion and 25 controls. Concussed subjects were studied at baseline (within 28 days of their injury) and eight weeks after, while control subjects only had one assessment. We assessed WM (n-back task up to four-back), and neurovascular coupling (cerebrovascular responses at middle cerebral artery duringn-back tasks) using a transcranial Doppler ultrasonograph.Main results.There was no significant difference in WM between controls and concussed participants (p = 0.402). However, WM capacity was lower in those who had sustained ≥3 concussions (7.1% with WM capacity of four) compared to those with their first ever concussion (33.3%) and controls (28.0%, overallp = 0.025). At the sub-acute point (n = 24), self-reported cognitive symptom burden was mostly resolved in all but two participants. Despite the resolution of symptoms, WM performance was not different eight weeks post injury (p = 0.706). Neurovascular coupling was not different between controls and concussed participants regardless of prior concussion history.Significance. Up to 20% of concussed individuals experience covert sequelae lasting beyond the resolution of self-reported overt symptoms. How a prior history of concussion impacts the potential for sequelae is not well established, and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Despite no alterations in neurovascular coupling, a history of prior concussion was associated with significant deficits in WM capacity, and lasted beyond self-reported cognitive symptom resolution.

Concussão Encefálica , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Adolescente , Adulto , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320557


OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between postconcussion exercise volume and changes in depression, anxiety, dizziness, and postural stability. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a single-site prospective clinical trial. SETTING: Cerebrovascular research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Participants completed questionnaires and underwent tests of gait and balance within 2 weeks of a concussion (mean = 11 ± 3 days postconcussion) and approximately 1 month later (mean = 41 ± 7 days postconcussion). Exercise volume was tracked by weekly exercise logs. INTERVENTIONS: On the basis of a previous work classifying exercise volume following concussion, we grouped participants according to self-reported exercise volume between visits as high exercise volume (≥150 min/wk) or low exercise volume (<150 min/wk). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed assessments evaluating anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), dizziness (Dizziness Handicap Inventory), and postural stability (tandem gait and modified Balance Error Scoring System). RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants completed the study, of which 22 were in the high exercise volume group (mean = 71 ± 40 min/wk; 16.8 ± 2.1 years; 59% female) and 16 were in the low exercise volume group (mean = 379 ± 187 min/wk; 17.5 ± 2.1 years; 31% female). Although depression symptoms were not significantly different initially (mean difference = 1.5; 95% CI, -0.68 to 3.68; P = .24), the high exercise volume group had significantly lower depression symptom scores at follow-up (mean difference = 3.0; 95% CI, 1.40 to 4.47; P < .001). Anxiety symptoms (mean difference = 2.8; 95% CI, 0.3 to 5.4; P = 0.03), dizziness symptoms (mean difference = 10.9; 95% CI, 0.2 to 21.5; P = .047), single-task tandem gait (mean difference = 3.1 seconds; 95% CI, 0.2 to 6.0; P = .04), and dual-task tandem gait (mean difference = 4.2 seconds; 95% CI, 0.2 to 8.2; P = .04) were significantly better among the high exercise volume group. CONCLUSION: Greater exercise volumes were associated with lower depression, anxiety, and dizziness symptoms, and faster tandem gait performance. These preliminary findings suggest a potentially beneficial role for exercise within several different domains commonly affected by concussion.

Clin J Sport Med ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009789


OBJECTIVE: To examine if self-reported dizziness is associated with concussion symptoms, depression and/or anxiety symptoms, or gait performance within 2 weeks of postconcussion. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were diagnosed with a concussion within 14 days of initial testing (N = 40). Participants were divided into 2 groups based on their Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) score: 36 to 100 = moderate/severe dizziness and 0 to 35 = mild/no dizziness. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were tested on a single occasion and completed the DHI, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI). Three different postural control tests were use: modified Balance Error Scoring System, single-/dual-task tandem gait, and a single-/dual-task instrumented steady-state gait analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of patient-reported outcomes and postural control outcomes between moderate/severe (DHI ≥ 36) and mild/no (DHI < 36) dizziness groups. RESULTS: Participants with moderate/severe dizziness (n = 19; age = 17.1 ± 2.4 years; 63% female) reported significantly higher symptom burden (PSCI: 43.0 ± 20.6 vs 22.8 ± 15.7; P = 0.001) and had higher median HADS anxiety (6 vs 2; P < 0.001) and depression (6 vs 1; P = 0.001) symptom severity than those with no/minimal dizziness (n = 21; age = 16.5 ± 1.9; 38% female). During steady-state gait, moderate/severe dizziness group walked with significantly slower single-task cadence (mean difference = 4.8 steps/minute; 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8; P = 0.02) and dual-task cadence (mean difference = 7.4 steps/minute; 95% confidence interval = 0.7, 14.0; P = 0.04) than no/mild dizziness group. CONCLUSION: Participants who reported moderate/severe dizziness reported higher concussion symptom burden, higher anxiety scores, and higher depression scores than those with no/mild dizziness. Cadence during gait was also associated with the level of dizziness reported.

Ann Neurol ; 90(1): 43-51, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855730


OBJECTIVE: To assess acute cerebrovascular function in concussed adolescents (14-21 years of age), whether it is related to resting cerebral hemodynamics, and whether it recovers chronically. METHODS: Cerebral vasoreactivity and autoregulation, based on middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity, was assessed in 28 concussed participants (≤14 days of injury) and 29 matched controls. The participants in the concussion group returned for an 8-week follow-up assessment. Over the course of those 8-weeks, participants recorded aerobic exercise frequency and duration. RESULTS: Between groups, demographic, clinical, and hemodynamic variables were not significantly different. Vasoreactivity was significantly higher in the concussed group (p = 0.02). Within the concussed group, 60% of the variability in resting cerebral blood flow velocity was explained by vasoreactivity and two components of autoregulation - falling slope and effectiveness of autoregulation (adjusted R2  = 0.60, p < 0.001). Moreover, lower mean arterial pressure, lower responses to increases in arterial pressure, and lower vasoreactivity were significantly associated with larger symptom burden (adjusted R2  = 0.72, p < 0.01). By the 8-week timepoint, symptom burden, but not vasoreactivity, improved in all but four concussed participants (p < 0.01). 8-week change in vasoreactivity was positively associated with aerobic exercise volume (adjusted R2  = 0.19, p = 0.02). INTERPRETATION: Concussion resulted in changes in cerebrovascular regulatory mechanisms, which in turn explained the variability in resting cerebral blood flow velocity and acute symptom burden. Furthermore, these alterations persisted chronically despite symptom resolution, but was positively modified by aerobic exercise volume. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for further investigation into underlying cerebrovascular related symptomatology. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:43-51.

Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Neuroproteção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
Am J Sports Med ; 49(7): 1912-1920, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856860


BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise has emerged as a useful treatment to improve outcomes among individuals who experience a concussion. However, compliance with exercise recommendations and the effect of exercise volume on symptom recovery require further investigation. PURPOSE: To examine (1) if an 8-week aerobic exercise prescription, provided within 2 weeks of concussion, affects symptom severity or exercise volume; (2) whether prescription adherence, rather than randomized group assignment, reflects the actual effect of aerobic exercise in postconcussion recovery; and (3) the optimal volume of exercise associated with symptom resolution after 1 month of study. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Individuals randomized to an exercise intervention (n = 17; mean age, 17.2 ± 2.0 years; 41% female; initially tested a mean of 11.3 ± 2.8 days after injury) or standard of care (n = 20; mean age, 16.8 ± 2.2 years; 50% female; initially tested a mean of 10.7 ± 3.2 days after injury) completed an aerobic exercise test within 14 days of injury. They returned for assessments 1 month and 2 months after the initial visit. The aerobic exercise group was instructed to exercise 5 d/wk, 20 min/d (100 min/wk), at a target heart rate based on an exercise test at the initial visit. Participants reported their exercise volume each week over the 8-week study period and reported symptoms at each study visit (initial, 1 month, 2 months). Because of low compliance in both groups, there was no difference in the volume of exercise between the 2 groups. RESULTS: There were no significant symptom severity differences between the intervention and standard-of-care groups at the initial (median Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory, 15 [interquartile range = 10, 42] vs 20 [11, 35.5]; P = .26), 1-month (4 [0, 28] vs 5.5 [0.5, 21.5]; P = .96), or 2-month (6.5 [0, 27.5] vs 0 [0, 4]; P = .11) study visits. Exercise volume was similar between groups (median, 115 [54, 225] vs 88 [28, 230] min/wk for exercise intervention vs standard of care; P = .52). Regardless of group, those who exercised <100 min/wk reported significantly higher symptom severity at the 1-month evaluation compared with those who exercised ≥100 min/wk (median, 1.5 [0, 7.5] vs 12 [4, 28]; P = .03). Exercising ≥160 min/wk successfully discriminated between those with and those without symptoms 1 month after study commencement (classification accuracy, 81%; sensitivity, 90%; specificity, 78%). CONCLUSION: Greater exercise volume was associated with lower symptom burden after 1 month of study, and an exercise volume >160 min/wk in the first month of the study was the threshold associated with symptom resolution after the first month of the study. Because our observation on the association between exercise volume and symptom level is a retrospective and secondary outcome, it is possible that participants who were feeling better were more likely to exercise more, rather than the exercise itself driving the reduction in symptom severity.

Concussão Encefálica , Terapia por Exercício , Síndrome Pós-Concussão , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem