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1.
New Phytol ; 225(1): 48-50, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788821
2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770430

RESUMO

The diversity of colour vision systems found in extant vertebrates suggests that different evolutionary selection pressures have driven specialisations in photoreceptor complement and visual pigment spectral tuning appropriate for an animal's behaviour, habitat and life history. Aquatic vertebrates in particular show high variability in chromatic vision and have become important models for understanding the role of colour vision in prey detection, predator avoidance and social interactions. In this study, we examined the capacity for chromatic vision in elasmobranch fishes, a group that have received relatively little attention to date. We used microspectrophotometry to measure the spectral absorbance of the visual pigments in the outer segments of individual photoreceptors from several ray and shark species, and we sequenced the opsin mRNAs obtained from the retinas of the same species, as well as from additional elasmobranch species. We reveal the phylogenetically widespread occurrence of dichromatic colour vision in rays based on two cone opsins, RH2 and LWS. We also confirm that all shark species studied to date appear to be cone monochromats, but report that in different species the single cone opsin may be of either the LWS or the RH2 class. From this, we infer that cone monochromacy in sharks has evolved independently on multiple occasions. Together with earlier discoveries in secondarily aquatic marine mammals, this suggests that cone-based colour vision may be of little use for large marine predators such as sharks, pinnipeds and cetaceans.

3.
Top Magn Reson Imaging ; 28(5): 265-273, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592993

RESUMO

The white matter structure of the human brain undergoes critical developmental milestones in utero, which we can observe noninvasively using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. In order to understand this fascinating developmental process, we must establish the variability inherent in such a challenging imaging environment and how measurable quantities can be transformed into meaningful connectomes. We review techniques for reconstructing and studying the brain connectome and explore promising opportunities for in utero studies that could lead to more accurate measurement of structural properties and allow for more refined and insightful analyses of the fetal brain. Opportunities for more sophisticated analyses of the properties of the brain and its dynamic changes have emerged in recent years, based on the development of iterative techniques to reconstruct motion-corrupted diffusion-weighted data. Although reconstruction quality is greatly improved, the treatment of fundamental quantities like edge strength requires careful treatment because of the specific challenges of imaging in utero. There are intriguing challenges to overcome, from those in analysis due to both imaging limitations and the significant changes in structural connectivity, to further image processing to address the specific properties of the target anatomy and quantification into a developmental connectome.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395540

RESUMO

Reconstruction of white matter connectivity in the fetal brain from in utero diffusion-weighted MRI faces many challenges, including subject motion, small anatomical scale, and limited image resolution and signal. These issues are compounded by the need to track significant changes in structural connectivity throughout development. We present an automated method for improved reliability and completeness of tract extraction across a wide range of gestational ages, based on the geometry of coherent patterns in streamline tractography, and apply it to the reconstruction of the corpus callosum. This method, focused specifically at addressing the challenges of fetal brain imaging, avoids depending on a tractography atlas and handles variations in size, shape, and tissue properties of developing brains, both between subjects and across ages. Although tractography from in utero MRI generally suffers from a significant number of misleading and missing pathways, we demonstrate the feasibility of extracting the coherent bundle of the corpus callosum while avoiding inappropriate diversions into other tracts.

5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 301: 202-224, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176138

RESUMO

This paper presents some of the more commonly encountered non-metric traits and minor anatomical variants in the adult human skeleton that can mimic or be mistaken for trauma. Distinguishing non-metric traits is contingent upon both a knowledge of potential non-metric traits as well as the normal developmental timing, location, and anatomy of maturational markers in the human skeleton. Distinguishing non-metric traits from trauma in dry bone is an essential component in establishing an accurate and thorough forensic analysis of human remains, especially as it deals with antemortem and perimortem trauma, and postmortem damage.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Antropologia Forense , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
6.
Hum Mutat ; 40(12): 2270-2285, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206972

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene ZC4H2, which encodes a zinc-finger protein, cause an infrequently described syndromic form of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) with central and peripheral nervous system involvement. We present genetic and detailed phenotypic information on 23 newly identified families and simplex cases that include 19 affected females from 18 families and 14 affected males from nine families. Of note, the 15 females with deleterious de novo ZC4H2 variants presented with phenotypes ranging from mild to severe, and their clinical features overlapped with those seen in affected males. By contrast, of the nine carrier females with inherited ZC4H2 missense variants that were deleterious in affected male relatives, four were symptomatic. We also compared clinical phenotypes with previously published cases of both sexes and provide an overview on 48 males and 57 females from 42 families. The spectrum of ZC4H2 defects comprises novel and recurrent mostly inherited missense variants in affected males, and de novo splicing, frameshift, nonsense, and partial ZC4H2 deletions in affected females. Pathogenicity of two newly identified missense variants was further supported by studies in zebrafish. We propose ZC4H2 as a good candidate for early genetic testing of males and females with a clinical suspicion of fetal hypo-/akinesia and/or (neurogenic) AMC.

7.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(9): 1059-1067, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neurofilament is a biomarker of axonal injury proposed as a useful adjunct in the monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies that have measured neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of people with MS (pwMS), in order to determine whether, and to what degree, CSF NfL levels differentiate MS from controls, or the subtypes or stages of MS from each other. METHODS: Guidelines on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were followed. Electronic databases were searched for published and 'grey' literature, with 151 hits. Of 51 full articles screened, 20 were included in qualitative analysis, and 14 in meta-analysis. RESULTS: CSF NfL was higher in 746 pwMS than 435 (healthy and disease) controls, with a moderate effect size of 0.61 (p < 0.00001). Mean CSF NfL levels were significantly higher in 176 pwMS with relapsing disease than 92 with progressive disease (2124.8 ng/L, SD 3348.9 vs 1121.4 ng/L, SD 947.7, p = 0.0108). CSF NfL in 138 pwMS in relapse (irrespective of MS subtype) was double that seen in 268 pwMS in remission (3080.6 ng/L, SD 4715.9 vs 1541.7 ng/L, SD 2406.5, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: CSF NfL correlates with MS activity throughout the course of MS, reflecting the axonal damage in pwMS. Relapse is more strongly associated with elevated CSF NfL levels than the development of progression, and NfL may be most useful as a marker of disease 'activity' rather than as a marker of disability or disease stage.

9.
Elife ; 82019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977723

RESUMO

Understanding the principles governing neuronal diversity is a fundamental goal for neuroscience. Here, we provide an anatomical and transcriptomic database of nearly 200 genetically identified cell populations. By separately analyzing the robustness and pattern of expression differences across these cell populations, we identify two gene classes contributing distinctly to neuronal diversity. Short homeobox transcription factors distinguish neuronal populations combinatorially, and exhibit extremely low transcriptional noise, enabling highly robust expression differences. Long neuronal effector genes, such as channels and cell adhesion molecules, contribute disproportionately to neuronal diversity, based on their patterns rather than robustness of expression differences. By linking transcriptional identity to genetic strains and anatomical atlases, we provide an extensive resource for further investigation of mouse neuronal cell types.

10.
Mol Vis ; 25: 183-193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996587

RESUMO

Purpose: In Bornholm eye disease, a defect in the splicing of transcripts from a variant OPN1LW opsin gene leads to a depletion in spliced transcript levels and, consequently, a reduction in photopigment in photoreceptors expressing the variant gene. Methods: Myopic and age-matched control subjects were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and the Norfolk Island Eye Study groups. The OPN1LW opsin gene was amplified using long-range PCR methodology and was fully sequenced. Expression of variant opsins was evaluated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). RNA secondary structure changes arising from identified variants were predicted by modeling. Results: Forty-two nucleotide sites were found to vary across the 111 subjects studied. Of these, 15 had not been previously reported, with three present only in myopic individuals. Expression of these variants in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells demonstrated that splicing efficiencies were not affected. However, gene transcripts from two of the three variants were significantly depleted. RNA secondary structure modeling predicted that these single nucleotide changes could affect RNA stability. Conclusions: None of the variants identified in myopic individuals appeared to alter the efficiency of transcript splicing. However, two resulted in a significant reduction in the number of spliced and unspliced transcripts, indicating an overall reduction in steady-state transcript stability. Such a change would be expected to result in a reduced amount of photopigment, and this may be a contributing factor in the development of myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia/genética , Processamento de RNA , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Opsinas de Bastonetes/genética , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clonagem Molecular , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ilhas , Masculino , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Opsinas de Bastonetes/deficiência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 3(9): 741-753, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936430

RESUMO

Electrophysiology is the most used approach for the collection of functional data in basic and translational neuroscience, but it is typically limited to either intracellular or extracellular recordings. The integration of multiple physiological modalities for the routine acquisition of multimodal data with microelectrodes could be useful for biomedical applications, yet this has been challenging owing to incompatibilities of fabrication methods. Here, we present a suite of glass pipettes with integrated microelectrodes for the simultaneous acquisition of multimodal intracellular and extracellular information in vivo, electrochemistry assessments, and optogenetic perturbations of neural activity. We used the integrated devices to acquire multimodal signals from the CA1 region of the hippocampus in mice and rats, and show that these data can serve as ground-truth validation for the performance of spike-sorting algorithms. The microdevices are applicable for basic and translational neurobiology, and for the development of next-generation brain-machine interfaces.

12.
Drug Saf ; 42(8): 941-956, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830572

RESUMO

Biologic immunotherapies have transformed the treatment landscape of multiple sclerosis. Such therapies include recombinant proteins (interferon beta), as well as monoclonal antibodies (natalizumab, alemtuzumab, daclizumab, rituximab and ocrelizumab). Monoclonal antibodies show particular efficacy in the treatment of the inflammatory phase of multiple sclerosis. However, the immunological perturbations caused by biologic therapies are associated with significant immunological adverse reactions. These include development of neutralising immunogenicity, secondary immunodeficiency and secondary autoimmunity. These complications can affect the balance of risks and benefits of biologic agents, and 2018 saw the withdrawal from the market of daclizumab, an anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody, due to concerns about the development of severe, unpredictable autoimmunity. Here we review established and emerging risks associated with multiple sclerosis biologic agents, with an emphasis on their immunological adverse effects. We also discuss the specific challenges that multiple sclerosis biologics pose to drug safety systems, and the potential for improvements in safety frameworks.

13.
eNeuro ; 6(1)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820446

RESUMO

Mutations in the KCNV2 gene, which encodes the voltage-gated K+ channel protein Kv8.2, cause a distinctive form of cone dystrophy with a supernormal rod response (CDSRR). Kv8.2 channel subunits only form functional channels when combined in a heterotetramer with Kv2.1 subunits encoded by the KCNB1 gene. The CDSRR disease phenotype indicates that photoreceptor adaptation is disrupted. The electroretinogram (ERG) response of affected individuals shows depressed rod and cone activity, but what distinguishes this disease is the supernormal rod response to a bright flash of light. Here, we have utilized knock-out mutations of both genes in the mouse to study the pathophysiology of CDSRR. The Kv8.2 knock-out (KO) mice show many similarities to the human disorder, including a depressed a-wave and an elevated b-wave response with bright light stimulation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and immunohistochemistry indicate that the changes in six-month-old Kv8.2 KO retinae are largely limited to the outer nuclear layer (ONL), while outer segments appear intact. In addition, there is a significant increase in TUNEL-positive cells throughout the retina. The Kv2.1 KO and double KO mice also show a severely depressed a-wave, but the elevated b-wave response is absent. Interestingly, in all three KO genotypes, the c-wave is totally absent. The differential response shown here of these KO lines, that either possess homomeric channels or lack channels completely, has provided further insights into the role of K+ channels in the generation of the a-, b-, and c-wave components of the ERG.


Assuntos
Distrofia de Cones/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio Shab/metabolismo , Animais , Distrofia de Cones/diagnóstico por imagem , Distrofia de Cones/patologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Canais de Potássio Shab/genética , Transmissão Sináptica , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
14.
Mol Ecol ; 28(8): 2013-2028, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767303

RESUMO

Dermal phototaxis has been reported in a few aquatic vertebrate lineages spanning fish, amphibians and reptiles. These taxa respond to light on the skin of their elongate hind-bodies and tails by withdrawing under cover to avoid detection by predators. Here, we investigated tail phototaxis in sea snakes (Hydrophiinae), the only reptiles reported to exhibit this sensory behaviour. We conducted behavioural tests in 17 wild-caught sea snakes of eight species by illuminating the dorsal surface of the tail and midbody skin using cold white, violet, blue, green and red light. Our results confirmed phototactic tail withdrawal in the previously studied Aipysurus laevis, revealed this trait for the first time in A. duboisii and A. tenuis, and suggested that tail photoreceptors have peak spectral sensitivities between blue and green light (457-514 nm). Based on these results, and an absence of photoresponses in five Aipysurus and Hydrophis species, we tentatively infer that tail phototaxis evolved in the ancestor of a clade of six Aipysurus species (comprising 10% of all sea snakes). Quantifying tail damage, we found that the probability of sustaining tail injuries was not influenced by tail phototactic ability in snakes. Gene profiling showed that transcriptomes of both tail skin and body skin lacked visual opsins but contained melanopsin (opn4x) in addition to key genes of the retinal regeneration and phototransduction cascades. This work suggests that a nonvisual photoreceptor (e.g., Gq rhabdomeric) signalling pathway underlies tail phototaxis, and provides candidate gene targets for future studies of this unusual sensory innovation in reptiles.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 319-330, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639322

RESUMO

ZMIZ1 is a coactivator of several transcription factors, including p53, the androgen receptor, and NOTCH1. Here, we report 19 subjects with intellectual disability and developmental delay carrying variants in ZMIZ1. The associated features include growth failure, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and various other congenital malformations. Of these 19, 14 unrelated subjects carried de novo heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) or single-base insertions/deletions, 3 siblings harbored a heterozygous single-base insertion, and 2 subjects had a balanced translocation disrupting ZMIZ1 or involving a regulatory region of ZMIZ1. In total, we identified 13 point mutations that affect key protein regions, including a SUMO acceptor site, a central disordered alanine-rich motif, a proline-rich domain, and a transactivation domain. All identified variants were absent from all available exome and genome databases. In vitro, ZMIZ1 showed impaired coactivation of the androgen receptor. In vivo, overexpression of ZMIZ1 mutant alleles in developing mouse brains using in utero electroporation resulted in abnormal pyramidal neuron morphology, polarization, and positioning, underscoring the importance of ZMIZ1 in neural development and supporting mutations in ZMIZ1 as the cause of a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação Puntual , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Síndrome , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Genet Med ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin-Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting. METHODS: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey. RESULTS: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified. CONCLUSION: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.

18.
Open Biol ; 8(9)2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257895

RESUMO

We examined the genes encoding the proteins that mediate the Ca-feedback regulatory system in vertebrate rod and cone phototransduction. These proteins comprise four families: recoverin/visinin, the guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs), the guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and the sodium/calcium-potassium exchangers (NCKXs). We identified a paralogon containing at least 36 phototransduction genes from at least fourteen families, including all four of the families involved in the Ca-feedback loop (recoverin/visinin, GCAPs, GCs and NCKXs). By combining analyses of gene synteny with analyses of the molecular phylogeny for each of these four families of genes for Ca-feedback regulation, we have established the likely pattern of gene duplications and losses underlying the expansion of isoforms, both before and during the two rounds of whole-genome duplication (2R WGD) that occurred in early vertebrate evolution. Furthermore, by combining our results with earlier evidence on the timing of duplication of the visual G-protein receptor kinase genes, we propose that specialization of proto-vertebrate photoreceptor cells for operation at high and low light intensities preceded the emergence of rhodopsin, which occurred during 2R WGD.

19.
Int J Urol ; 25(10): 887-893, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a rodent model of persistent non-inflammatory bladder pain and to test macrophage migration inhibitory factor and high mobility box group 1 as mediators of bladder pain. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice received intravesical instillations of protease activated receptor 4 (100 µmol/L, for 1 h) three times every other day and abdominal mechanical hypersensitivity (50% mechanical threshold) was tested on day 0 (baseline), and at days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9 after the first protease-activated receptor 4 injection. At the end of the experiment, micturition changes were measured and bladders were examined for histological changes. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor antagonist (MIF098; 40 mg/kg i.p. b.i.d.) or high mobility group box 1 inhibitor (glycyrrhizin; 50 mg/kg i.p. daily) was administered from day 2 until day 8. RESULTS: There was a significant and persistent decrease in abdominal mechanical threshold starting from day 3 in the protease-activated receptor 4-treated group that persisted until day 9 (5 days post-last instillation), but not in the control group. Glycyrrhizin fully reversed while MIF098 partially reversed abdominal mechanical hypersensitivity in protease-activated receptor 4-treated mice. The changes started on day 3 after the first protease-activated receptor 4 instillation, and analgesic effects lasted throughout the rest of the testing period. None of the groups had significant micturition changes or overt bladder histological changes. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated intravesical protease activated receptor 4 instillations produce persistent bladder pain without inflammation. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and high mobility group box 1 are possible effective target molecules for bladder pain alleviation.

20.
J Vis Exp ; (136)2018 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985347

RESUMO

The main aim of this protocol is to describe the development and validation of an interferon (IFN)-α single molecule array digital Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) assay. This system enables the quantification of human IFN-α protein with unprecedented sensitivity, and with no cross-reactivity for other species of IFN. The first key step of the protocol is the choice of the antibody pair, followed by the conjugation of the capture antibody to paramagnetic beads, and biotinylation of the detection antibody. Following this step, different parameters such as assay configuration, detector antibody concentration, and buffer composition can be modified until optimum sensitivity is achieved. Finally, specificity and reproducibility of the method are assessed to ensure confidence in the results. Here, we developed an IFN-α single molecule array assay with a limit of detection of 0.69 fg/mL using high-affinity autoantibodies isolated from patients with biallelic mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein causing autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1/autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APS1/APECED). Importantly, these antibodies enabled detection of all 13 IFN-α subtypes. This new methodology allows the detection and quantification of IFN-α protein in human biological samples at attomolar concentrations for the first time. Such a tool will be highly useful in monitoring the levels of this cytokine in human health and disease states, most particularly infection, autoimmunity, and autoinflammation.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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