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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052929

RESUMO

Dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma (DDEC) is a rare but highly aggressive type of endometrial cancer, in which an undifferentiated carcinoma arises from a low-grade endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. The low-grade component is often eclipsed, likely due to an outgrowth of the undifferentiated component, and the tumor may appear as a pure undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma (UEC). We and others have recently identified inactivating mutations of SMARCA4, SMARCB1 or ARID1B, subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, that are unique to the undifferentiated component and are present in a large portion of DDEC and UEC. However, the understanding of whether and how these mutations drive cancer progression and histologic dedifferentiation is hindered by lack of cell line models of DDEC or UEC. Here, we established the first UEC cell line, VOA1066, which is highly tumorigenic in vivo. This cell line has a stable genome with very few somatic mutations, which do include inactivating mutations of ARID1A and ARID1B (2 mutations each), and a heterozygous hotspot DICER1 mutation in its RNase IIIb domain. Immunohistochemistry staining confirmed the loss of ARID1B, but ARID1A staining was retained due to the presence of a truncating non-functional ARID1A protein. The heterozygous DICER1 hotspot mutation has little effect on microRNA biogenesis. No additional DICER1 hotspot mutations have been identified in a cohort of 33 primary tumors. Therefore, we have established the first UEC cell line with dual inactivation of both ARID1A and ARID1B as the main genomic feature. This cell line will be useful for studying the roles of ARID1A and ARID1B mutations in the development of UEC.

2.
J Pathol ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901952

RESUMO

Low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSOC) is associated with a poor response to existing chemotherapy, highlighting the need to perform comprehensive genomic analysis and identify new therapeutic vulnerabilities. The data presented here represents the largest genetic study of LGSOC to date (n = 71), analysing 127 candidate genes derived from whole exome sequencing cohorts to generate mutation and copy-number variation data. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed on our LGSOC cohort assessing estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, TP53 and CDKN2A status. Targeted sequencing identified 47% of cases with mutations in key RAS/RAF pathway genes (KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS), as well as mutations in putative novel driver genes including USP9X (27%), MACF1 (11%), ARID1A (9%), NF2 (4%), DOT1L (6%) and ASH1L (4%). Immunohistochemistry evaluation revealed frequent estrogen/progesterone receptor positivity (85%); along with CDKN2A protein loss (10%) and CDKN2A protein overexpression (6%) which were linked to shorter disease outcomes. Indeed, 90% of LGSOC samples harboured at least one potentially actionable alteration, which in 19/71 (27%) cases were predictive of clinical benefit from a standard treatment, either in another cancer's indications or in LGSOC specifically. In addition, we validated ubiquitin-specific protease 9X (USP9X), which is a chromosome X linked substrate-specific deubiquitinase and tumour suppressor, as a relevant therapeutic target for LGSOC. Our comprehensive genomic study highlighted that there is an addiction to a limited number of unique 'driver' aberrations that could be translated into improved therapeutic paths. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792599

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-independent vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is an aggressive clinical entity. Current diagnostic guidelines for premalignant lesions are ambiguous, and their molecular profile and progression events are still unclear. We selected 75 samples, from 40 patients, including 33 VSCC, 8 verrucous carcinomas (VC), 13 differentiated-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN), 11 suspicious for dVIN (?dVIN), 6 differentiated exophytic vulvar intraepithelial lesions (DE-VIL), 2 vulvar acanthosis with altered differentiation (VAAD), and 2 usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN/HSIL). Invasive and precursor lesions were matched in 29 cases. Clinical information, p16 immunohistochemistry, and mutation analysis were performed on all lesions. All dVIN, ?dVIN, DE-VIL, and VAAD were p16 negative, all uVIN/HSIL were p16 positive. In the HPV-independent group, mutations were identified in 6 genes: TP53 (n = 40), PIK3CA (n = 20), HRAS (n = 12), MET (n = 5), PTEN (n = 4), and BRAF (n = 1). TP53 mutations occurred in 73% (22/30) VSCC, 85% (11/13) dVIN, 70% (7/10) ?dVIN and no VC (0/8), DE-VIL (0/6) nor VAAD (0/2). Basal atypia was the only reliable feature of TP53 mutations. ?dVIN lesions that were non-acanthotic and atypical but obscured by inflammation, all harbored TP53 mutations. In lesions without TP53 mutations, PIK3CA (50% VC, 33% DE-VIL, 100% VAAD, 40% VSCC) and HRAS (63% VC, 33% DE-VIL, 0% VAAD, 20% VSCC) mutations were found. Mutational progression from in situ to invasive was seen (7/26, 27%) and usually involved TP53 (4/26, 15%). Cases with TP53 and PIK3CA co-mutations had the worse clinical outcomes (p < 0.001). We recommend testing for p53 in all HPV-independent lesions suspicious for dVIN, even in the presence of marked inflammation or non-acanthotic skin, particularly when close to a margin. VC, VAAD, and DE-VIL, were almost never mutated for TP53, but instead often harbored PIK3CA and HRAS mutations. In VSCC, combined TP53 and PIK3CA mutations may inform prognosis.

5.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(8): e386-e397, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758476

RESUMO

Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome that is characterised by a high prevalence of diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer. It is largely caused by inactivating germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene CDH1, although pathogenic variants in CTNNA1 occur in a minority of families with HDGC. In this Policy Review, we present updated clinical practice guidelines for HDGC from the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium (IGCLC), which recognise the emerging evidence of variability in gastric cancer risk between families with HDGC, the growing capability of endoscopic and histological surveillance in HDGC, and increased experience of managing long-term sequelae of total gastrectomy in young patients. To redress the balance between the accessibility, cost, and acceptance of genetic testing and the increased identification of pathogenic variant carriers, the HDGC genetic testing criteria have been relaxed, mainly through less restrictive age limits. Prophylactic total gastrectomy remains the recommended option for gastric cancer risk management in pathogenic CDH1 variant carriers. However, there is increasing confidence from the IGCLC that endoscopic surveillance in expert centres can be safely offered to patients who wish to postpone surgery, or to those whose risk of developing gastric cancer is not well defined.


Assuntos
Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos
6.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3480-3491, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641414

RESUMO

The somatic missense point mutation c.402C>G (p.C134W) in the FOXL2 transcription factor is pathognomonic for adult-type granulosa cell tumors (AGCT) and a diagnostic marker for this tumor type. However, the molecular consequences of this mutation and its contribution to the mechanisms of AGCT pathogenesis remain unclear. To explore these mechanisms, we engineered V5-FOXL2WT- and V5-FOXL2C134W-inducible isogenic cell lines and performed chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and transcriptome profiling. FOXL2C134W associated with the majority of the FOXL2 wild-type DNA elements as well as a large collection of unique elements genome wide. This model enabled confirmation of altered DNA-binding specificity for FOXL2C134W and identification of unique targets of FOXL2C134W including SLC35F2, whose expression increased sensitivity to YM155. Our results suggest FOXL2C134W drives AGCT by altering the binding affinity of FOXL2-containing complexes to engage an oncogenic transcriptional program. SIGNIFICANCE: A mechanistic understanding of FOXL2C134W-induced regulatory state alterations drives discovery of a rationally designed therapeutic strategy.

7.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724153

RESUMO

TP53 mutations are implicated in the progression of mucinous borderline tumors (MBOT) to mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOC). Optimized immunohistochemistry (IHC) for TP53 has been established as a proxy for the TP53 mutation status in other ovarian tumor types. We aimed to confirm the ability of TP53 IHC to predict TP53 mutation status in ovarian mucinous tumors and to evaluate the association of TP53 mutation status with survival among patients with MBOT and MOC. Tumor tissue from an initial cohort of 113 women with MBOT/MOC was stained with optimized IHC for TP53 using tissue microarrays (75.2%) or full sections (24.8%) and interpreted using established criteria as normal or abnormal (overexpression, complete absence, or cytoplasmic). Cases were considered concordant if abnormal IHC staining predicted deleterious TP53 mutations. Discordant tissue microarray cases were re-evaluated on full sections and interpretational criteria were refined. The initial cohort was expanded to a total of 165 MBOT and 424 MOC for the examination of the association of survival with TP53 mutation status, assessed either by TP53 IHC and/or sequencing. Initially, 82/113 (72.6%) cases were concordant using the established criteria. Refined criteria for overexpression to account for intratumoral heterogeneity and terminal differentiation improved concordance to 93.8% (106/113). In the expanded cohort, 19.4% (32/165) of MBOT showed evidence for TP53 mutation and this was associated with a higher risk of recurrence, disease-specific death, and all-cause mortality (overall survival: HR = 4.6, 95% CI 1.5-14.3, p = 0.0087). Within MOC, 61.1% (259/424) harbored a TP53 mutation, but this was not associated with survival (overall survival, p = 0.77). TP53 IHC is an accurate proxy for TP53 mutation status with refined interpretation criteria accounting for intratumoral heterogeneity and terminal differentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors. TP53 mutation status is an important biomarker to identify MBOT with a higher risk of mortality.

8.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(3): 702-709, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and ovarian cancer survival have been limited by lack of hormone regimen detail and insufficient sample sizes. To address these limitations, a comprehensive analysis of 6419 post-menopausal women with pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinoma was conducted to examine the association between MHT use prior to diagnosis and survival. METHODS: Data from 15 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium were included. MHT use was examined by type (estrogen-only (ET) or estrogen+progestin (EPT)), duration, and recency of use relative to diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between hormone therapy use and survival. Logistic regression and mediation analysis was used to explore the relationship between MHT use and residual disease following debulking surgery. RESULTS: Use of ET or EPT for at least five years prior to diagnosis was associated with better ovarian cancer survival (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87). Among women with advanced stage, high-grade serous carcinoma, those who used MHT were less likely to have any macroscopic residual disease at the time of primary debulking surgery (p for trend <0.01 for duration of MHT use). Residual disease mediated some (17%) of the relationship between MHT and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-diagnosis MHT use for 5+ years was a favorable prognostic factor for women with ovarian cancer. This large study is consistent with prior smaller studies, and further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanism.

9.
J Pathol ; 252(2): 201-214, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686114

RESUMO

Endometrial carcinoma, the most common gynaecological cancer, develops from endometrial epithelium which is composed of secretory and ciliated cells. Pathologic classification is unreliable and there is a need for prognostic tools. We used single cell sequencing to study organoid model systems derived from normal endometrial endometrium to discover novel markers specific for endometrial ciliated or secretory cells. A marker of secretory cells (MPST) and several markers of ciliated cells (FAM92B, WDR16, and DYDC2) were validated by immunohistochemistry on organoids and tissue sections. We performed single cell sequencing on endometrial and ovarian tumours and found both secretory-like and ciliated-like tumour cells. We found that ciliated cell markers (DYDC2, CTH, FOXJ1, and p73) and the secretory cell marker MPST were expressed in endometrial tumours and positively correlated with disease-specific and overall survival of endometrial cancer patients. These findings suggest that expression of differentiation markers in tumours correlates with less aggressive disease, as would be expected for tumours that retain differentiation capacity, albeit cryptic in the case of ciliated cells. These markers could be used to improve the risk stratification of endometrial cancer patients, thereby improving their management. We further assessed whether consideration of MPST expression could refine the ProMiSE molecular classification system for endometrial tumours. We found that higher expression levels of MPST could be used to refine stratification of three of the four ProMiSE molecular subgroups, and that any level of MPST expression was able to significantly refine risk stratification of the copy number high subgroup which has the worst prognosis. Taken together, this shows that single cell sequencing of putative cells of origin has the potential to uncover novel biomarkers that could be used to guide management of cancers. © 2020 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

10.
J Pathol ; 252(2): 178-188, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686118

RESUMO

Deep learning-based computer vision methods have recently made remarkable breakthroughs in the analysis and classification of cancer pathology images. However, there has been relatively little investigation of the utility of deep neural networks to synthesize medical images. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of generative adversarial networks to synthesize high-resolution pathology images of 10 histological types of cancer, including five cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the five major histological subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. The quality of these images was assessed using a comprehensive survey of board-certified pathologists (n = 9) and pathology trainees (n = 6). Our results show that the real and synthetic images are classified by histotype with comparable accuracies and the synthetic images are visually indistinguishable from real images. Furthermore, we trained deep convolutional neural networks to diagnose the different cancer types and determined that the synthetic images perform as well as additional real images when used to supplement a small training set. These findings have important applications in proficiency testing of medical practitioners and quality assurance in clinical laboratories. Furthermore, training of computer-aided diagnostic systems can benefit from synthetic images where labeled datasets are limited (e.g. rare cancers). We have created a publicly available website where clinicians and researchers can attempt questions from the image survey (http://gan.aimlab.ca/). © 2020 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(16): 4402-4413, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409304

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many rare ovarian cancer subtypes, such as small-cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT), have poor prognosis due to their aggressive nature and resistance to standard platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy. The development of effective therapeutics has been hindered by the rarity of such tumors. We sought to identify targetable vulnerabilities in rare ovarian cancer subtypes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We compared the global proteomic landscape of six cases each of endometrioid ovarian cancer (ENOC), clear cell ovarian cancer (CCOC), and SCCOHT to the most common subtype, high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC), to identify potential therapeutic targets. IHC of tissue microarrays was used as validation of arginosuccinate synthase (ASS1) deficiency. The efficacy of arginine-depriving therapeutic ADI-PEG20 was assessed in vitro using cell lines and patient-derived xenograft mouse models representing SCCOHT. RESULTS: Global proteomic analysis identified low ASS1 expression in ENOC, CCOC, and SCCOHT compared with HGSC. Low ASS1 levels were validated through IHC in large patient cohorts. The lowest levels of ASS1 were observed in SCCOHT, where ASS1 was absent in 12 of 31 cases, and expressed in less than 5% of the tumor cells in 9 of 31 cases. ASS1-deficient ovarian cancer cells were sensitive to ADI-PEG20 treatment regardless of subtype in vitro. Furthermore, in two cell line mouse xenograft models and one patient-derived mouse xenograft model of SCCOHT, once-a-week treatment with ADI-PEG20 (30 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies identified ADI-PEG20 as a potential therapy for patients with rare ovarian cancers, including SCCOHT.

12.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This review examines how response rates to progestin treatment of low-grade endometrial cancer can be improved. In addition to providing a brief overview of the pathogenesis of low-grade endometrial cancer, we discuss limitations in the current classification of endometrial cancer and how stratification may be refined using molecular markers to reproducibly identify 'low-risk' cancers which may represent the best candidates for progestin therapy. We also discuss constraints in current approaches to progestin treatment of low-grade endometrial cancer and perform a systematic review of predictive biomarkers. METHODS: PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Library were searched for studies reporting pre-treatment biomarkers associated with outcome in women with low-grade endometrial cancer or endometrial hyperplasia with an intact uterus who received progestin treatment. Studies of fewer than 50 women were excluded. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (ID 152374). A descriptive synthesis of pre-treatment predictive biomarkers reported in the included studies was conducted. RESULTS: Of 1908 records reviewed, 19 studies were included. Clinical features such as age or body mass index cannot predict progestin response. Lesions defined as 'low-risk' by FIGO criteria (stage 1A, grade 1) can respond well; however, the reproducibility and prognostic ability of the current histopathological classification system is suboptimal. Molecular markers can be reproducibly assessed, have been validated as prognostic biomarkers, and may inform patient selection for progestin treatment. DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE)-ultramutated tumors and a subset of p53 wild-type or DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient tumors with 'low-risk' features (eg, progesterone and estrogen receptor-positive) may have improved response rates, though this needs to be validated. DISCUSSION: Molecular markers can identify cases which may be candidates for progestin treatment. More work is needed to validate these biomarkers and potentially identify new ones. Predictive biomarkers are anticipated to inform future research into progestin treatment of low-grade endometrial cancer and ultimately improve patient outcomes.

13.
Hum Pathol ; 101: 40-52, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360491

RESUMO

The current World Health Organization classification does not distinguish transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC) from conventional tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), despite evidence suggesting improved prognosis for patients with TCC; instead, it is considered a morphologic variant of HGSC. The immunohistochemical (IHC) markers applied to date do not distinguish between TCC and HGSC. Therefore, we sought to compare the proteomic profiles of TCC and conventional HGSC to identify proteins enriched in TCC. Prognostic biomarkers in HGSC have proven to be elusive, and our aim was to identify biomarkers of TCC as a way of reliably and reproducibly identifying patients with a favorable prognosis and better response to chemotherapy compared with those with conventional HGSC. Quantitative global proteome analysis was performed on archival material of 12 cases of TCC and 16 cases of HGSC using SP3 (single-pot, solid phase-enhanced, sample preparation)-Clinical Tissue Proteomics, a recently described protocol for full-proteome analysis from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. We identified 430 proteins that were significantly enriched in TCC over HGSC. Unsupervised co-clustering perfectly distinguished TCC from HGSC based on protein expression. Pathway analysis showed that proteins associated with cell death, necrosis, and apoptosis were highly expressed in TCCs, whereas proteins associated with DNA homologous recombination, cell mitosis, proliferation and survival, and cell cycle progression pathways had reduced expression. From the proteomic analysis, three potential biomarkers for TCC were identified, claudin-4 (CLDN4), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (UCHL1), and minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7), and tested by IHC analysis on tissue microarrays. In agreement with the proteomic analysis, IHC expression of those proteins was stronger in TCC than in HGSC (p < 0.0001). Using global proteomic analysis, we are able to distinguish TCC from conventional HGSC. Follow-up studies will be necessary to confirm that these molecular and morphologic differences are clinically significant.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2020, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332753

RESUMO

The functional consequences of somatic non-coding mutations in ovarian cancer (OC) are unknown. To identify regulatory elements (RE) and genes perturbed by acquired non-coding variants, here we establish epigenomic and transcriptomic landscapes of primary OCs using H3K27ac ChIP-seq and RNA-seq, and then integrate these with whole genome sequencing data from 232 OCs. We identify 25 frequently mutated regulatory elements, including an enhancer at 6p22.1 which associates with differential expression of ZSCAN16 (P = 6.6 × 10-4) and ZSCAN12 (P = 0.02). CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of this enhancer induces downregulation of both genes. Globally, there is an enrichment of single nucleotide variants in active binding sites for TEAD4 (P = 6 × 10-11) and its binding partner PAX8 (P = 2×10-10), a known lineage-specific transcription factor in OC. In addition, the collection of cis REs associated with PAX8 comprise the most frequently mutated set of enhancers in OC (P = 0.003). These data indicate that non-coding somatic mutations disrupt the PAX8 transcriptional network during OC development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(15): 3908-3917, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156746

RESUMO

Small-cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a rare and highly aggressive ovarian malignancy. In almost all cases, it is associated with somatic and often germline pathogenic variants in SMARCA4, which encodes for the SMARCA4 protein (BRG1), a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Approximately 20% of human cancers possess pathogenic variants in at least one SWI/SNF subunit. Because of their role in regulating many important cellular processes including transcriptional control, DNA repair, differentiation, cell division, and DNA replication, SWI/SNF complexes with mutant subunits are thought to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. Fewer than 500 cases of SCCOHT have been reported in the literature and approximately 60% are associated with hypercalcemia. SCCOHT primarily affects females under 40 years of age who usually present with symptoms related to a pelvic mass. SCCOHT is an aggressive cancer, with long-term survival rates of 30% in early-stage cases. Although various treatment approaches have been proposed, there is no consensus on surveillance and therapeutic strategy. An international group of multidisciplinary clinicians and researchers recently formed the International SCCOHT Consortium to evaluate current knowledge and propose consensus surveillance and therapeutic recommendations, with the aim of improving outcomes. Here, we present an overview of the genetics of this cancer, provide updates on new treatment targets, and propose management guidelines for this challenging cancer.

16.
Mod Pathol ; 33(8): 1595-1605, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203095

RESUMO

The recent literature has shown that vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) can be stratified into two prognostically relevant groups based on human papillomavirus (HPV) status. The prognostic value of p53 for further sub-stratification, particularly in the HPV-independent group, has not been agreed upon. This disagreement is likely due to tremendous variations in p53 immunohistochemical (IHC) interpretation. To address this problem, we sought to compare p53 IHC patterns with TP53 mutation status. We studied 61 VSCC (48 conventional VSCC, 2 VSCC with sarcomatoid features, and 11 verrucous carcinomas) and 42 in situ lesions (30 differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia [dVIN], 9 differentiated exophytic vulvar intraepithelial lesions [deVIL], and 3 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia [HSIL/uVIN]). IHC for p16 and p53, and sequencing of TP53 exons 4-9 were performed. HPV in situ hybridization (ISH) was performed in selected cases. We identified six major p53 IHC patterns, two wild-type patterns: (1) scattered, (2) mid-epithelial expression (with basal sparing), and four mutant patterns: (3) basal overexpression, (4) parabasal/diffuse overexpression, (5) absent, and (6) cytoplasmic expression. These IHC patterns were consistent with TP53 mutation status in 58/61 (95%) VSCC and 39/42 (93%) in situ lesions. Cases that exhibited strong scattered staining and those with a weak basal overexpression pattern could be easily confused. The mid-epithelial pattern was exclusively observed in p16-positive lesions; the basal and parabasal layers that had absent p53 staining, appeared to correlate with the cells that were positive for HPV-ISH. This study describes a pattern-based p53 IHC interpretation framework, which can be utilized as a surrogate marker for TP53 mutational status in both VSCC and vulvar in situ lesions.

17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(2): 221.e1-221.e11, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fallopian tube may often be the site of origin for the most common and lethal form of ovarian cancer, high-grade serous ovarian cancer. As a result, many colleges of obstetrics and gynecology, which include the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, are recommending surgical removal of the fallopian tube (bilateral salpingectomy) at the time of other gynecologic surgeries (particularly hysterectomy and tubal sterilization) in women at general population risk for ovarian cancer, collectively referred to as opportunistic salpingectomy. Previous research has illustrated no increased risk of complications after opportunistic salpingectomy. However, most studies that have examined potential hormonal consequences of opportunistic salpingectomy have had limited follow-up time and have focused on surrogate hormonal markers. OBJECTIVE: We examine whether there are differences in physician visits for menopause and filling a prescription for hormone replacement therapy among women who undergo opportunistic salpingectomy in the population of British Columbia, Canada. STUDY DESIGN: We identified all women who were ≤50 years old in British Columbia who underwent opportunistic salpingectomy from 2008-2014. We compared women who underwent opportunistic salpingectomy at hysterectomy with women who underwent hysterectomy alone and women who underwent opportunistic salpingectomy for sterilization with women who underwent tubal ligation. We used Cox Proportional hazards models to model time to physician visits for menopause and for filling a prescription for hormone replacement therapy. We calculated adjusted hazards ratios for these outcomes and adjusted for other gynecologic conditions, surgical approach, and patient age. We performed an age-stratified analysis (<40, 40-44, 45-49 years) and conducted a sensitivity analysis that included only women with ≥5 years of follow up. RESULTS: We included 41,413 women in the study. There were 6861 women who underwent hysterectomy alone, 6500 who underwent hysterectomy with opportunistic salpingectomy, 4479 who underwent hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 18,621 who underwent tubal ligation, and 4952 who underwent opportunistic salpingectomy for sterilization. In women who underwent opportunistic salpingectomy, there was no difference in time to the first physician visit related to menopause for both women who underwent hysterectomy with opportunistic salpingectomy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.09) and women who underwent opportunistic salpingectomy for sterilization (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.10). There was also no difference in time to filling a prescription for hormone replacement therapy for women who underwent hysterectomy with opportunistic salpingectomy or opportunistic salpingectomy for sterilization (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.92; and adjusted hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.12; respectively). In contrast, we report significantly increase hazards for time to physician visit for menopause (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.78, 2.13) and filling a prescription for hormone replacement therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.80; 95% confidence interval, 3.45, 4.18) among women who underwent hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. There were no increased hazards for physician visits for menopause or initiation of hormone replacement therapy among women who underwent opportunistic salpingectomy in any of the age-stratified analyses, nor among women with at least 5 years of follow up. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal no indication of an earlier age of onset of menopause among the population of women who underwent hysterectomy with opportunistic salpingectomy and opportunistic salpingectomy for sterilization as measured by physician visits for menopause and initiation of hormone replacement therapy. Our findings are reassuring, given that earlier age at menopause is associated with increased mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Menopausa Precoce , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Salpingectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Salpingectomia/métodos
18.
Epidemiology ; 31(3): 402-408, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopausal estrogen-alone therapy is a risk factor for endometrial and ovarian cancers. When a progestin is included with the estrogen daily (continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy), there is no increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, the effect of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy on risk of ovarian cancer is less clear. METHODS: We pooled primary data from five population-based case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, including 1509 postmenopausal ovarian cancer cases and 2295 postmenopausal controls. Information on previous menopausal hormonal therapy use, as well as ovarian cancer risk factors, was collected using in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy and risk of ovarian cancer by duration and recency of use and disease histotype. RESULTS: Ever postmenopausal use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy was not associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer overall (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.72, 1.0). A decreased risk was observed for mucinous ovarian cancer (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.18, 0.91). The other main ovarian cancer histotypes did not show an association (endometrioid: OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.57, 1.3, clear cell: OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.40, 1.2; serous: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.2). CONCLUSIONS: Given that estrogen-alone therapy has been shown to be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adding a progestin each day ameliorates the carcinogenic effects of estrogen on the cells of origin for all histotypes of ovarian cancer.

19.
Annu Rev Pathol ; 15: 467-492, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977292

RESUMO

The SWI/SNF (mating type SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable) chromatin remodeling complexes interact with histones and transcription factors to modulate chromatin structure and control gene expression. These evolutionarily conserved multisubunit protein complexes are involved in regulating many biological functions, such as differentiation and cell proliferation. Genomic studies have revealed frequent mutations of genes encoding multiple subunits of the SWI/SNF complexes in a wide spectrum of cancer types, including gynecologic cancers. These SWI/SNF mutations occur at different stages of tumor development and are restricted to unique histologic types of gynecologic cancers. Thus, SWI/SNF mutations have to function in the appropriate tissue and cell context to promote gynecologic cancer initiation and progression. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of SWI/SNF mutations in the development of gynecologic cancers to provide insights into both molecular pathogenesis and possible treatment implications for these diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
20.
Virchows Arch ; 476(6): 855-862, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897818

RESUMO

Acid ceramidase (ASAH1) is a key player in sphingolipid metabolism and signaling. It has prognostic value for several cancers, but histotype-specific analyses of ovarian cancer are not yet available. We used three retrospective TMA cohorts encompassing a total of 1106 ovarian cancers with follow-up data for immunohistochemical analysis of acid ceramidase (ASAH1) expression. Patients with sub-optimal debulking and persistent residual tumor after surgery introduced bias in the prognostic analysis and were excluded from further studies. Overall, we detected an association of ASAH1 expression with better prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. ASAH1 expression differed between histological ovarian cancer histotypes with most frequent expression in endometrioid and clear cell ovarian cancer, which are both associated with good prognosis. Stratified subgroup analyses within these histotypes did not reveal significant survival differences, but the power of the analysis may be limited by smaller sample sizes. In contrast to breast cancer, we found only a modest concordance between estrogen receptor status and ASAH1 expression within the endometrioid ovarian cancer histotype. In an exploratory analysis of estrogen receptor negative endometrioid ovarian cancer, ASAH1 expression was associated with significantly better overall survival (P = 0.007). Acid ceramidase is most frequently expressed in endometrioid and clear cell histotypes and could add independent prognostic value to estrogen receptor in endometrioid ovarian cancer. Modulating sphingolipid metabolism may lead to novel therapeutic intervention strategies for this disease.


Assuntos
Ceramidase Ácida/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Endometrioide/enzimologia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ovário/enzimologia , Ovário/patologia , Prognóstico
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