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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 138, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chloroplast genome resources can provide useful information for the evolution of plant species. Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is among the most economically valuable member of Camellia. Here, we determined the chloroplast genome of the first natural triploid Chinary type tea ('Wuyi narcissus' cultivar of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, CWN) and conducted the genome comparison with the diploid Chinary type tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, CSS) and two types of diploid Assamica type teas (Camellia sinensis var. assamica: Chinese Assamica type tea, CSA and Indian Assamica type tea, CIA). Further, the evolutionary mechanism of the chloroplast genome of Camellia sinensis and the relationships of Camellia species based on chloroplast genome were discussed. RESULTS: Comparative analysis showed the evolutionary dynamics of chloroplast genome of Camellia sinensis were the repeats and insertion-deletions (indels), and distribution of the repeats, indels and substitutions were significantly correlated. Chinese tea and Indian tea had significant differences in the structural characteristic and the codon usage of the chloroplast genome. Analysis of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) using sequences of the intergenic spacers (trnE/trnT) showed none of 292 different Camellia sinensis cultivars had similar sequence characteristic to triploid CWN, but the other four Camellia species did. Estimations of the divergence time showed that CIA diverged from the common ancestor of two Assamica type teas about 6.2 Mya (CI: 4.4-8.1 Mya). CSS and CSA diverged to each other about 0.8 Mya (CI: 0.4-1.5 Mya). Moreover, phylogenetic clustering was not exactly consistent with the current taxonomy of Camellia. CONCLUSIONS: The repeat-induced and indel-induced mutations were two important dynamics contributed to the diversification of the chloroplast genome in Camellia sinensis, which were not mutually exclusive. Chinese tea and Indian tea might have undergone different selection pressures. Chloroplast transfer occurred during the polyploid evolution in Camellia sinensis. In addition, our results supported the three different domestication origins of Chinary type tea, Chinese Assamica type tea and Indian Assamica type tea. And, the current classification of some Camellia species might need to be further discussed.

2.
Nano Lett ; 21(1): 875-886, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395313

RESUMO

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have had a transformative impact on treating cancers and immune disorders. However, their use is limited by high development time and monetary cost, manufacturing complexities, suboptimal pharmacokinetics, and availability of disease-specific targets. To address some of these challenges, we developed an entirely synthetic, multivalent, Janus nanotherapeutic platform, called Synthetic Nanoparticle Antibodies (SNAbs). SNAbs, with phage-display-identified cell-targeting ligands on one "face" and Fc-mimicking ligands on the opposite "face", were synthesized using a custom, multistep, solid-phase chemistry method. SNAbs efficiently targeted and depleted myeloid-derived immune-suppressor cells (MDSCs) from mouse-tumor and rat-trauma models, ex vivo. Systemic injection of MDSC-targeting SNAbs efficiently depleted circulating MDSCs in a mouse triple-negative breast cancer model, enabling enhanced T cell and Natural Killer cell infiltration into tumors. Our results demonstrate that SNAbs are a versatile and effective functional alternative to mAbs, with advantages of a plug-and-play, cell-free manufacturing process, and high-throughput screening (HTS)-enabled library of potential targeting ligands.

3.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 12457-12469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299329

RESUMO

Background/Objective: The immunotoxin α-MSH-PE38KDEL consisting of α-MSH and PE38KDEL showed high cytotoxicity on MSH receptor-positive melanoma cells, suggesting that α-MSH-PE38KDEL might be a potent drug for the treatment of melanoma. Herein, we explored whether the Erk1/2/MITF/TYR signaling, a verified target of α-MSH/MC1R, was involved in α-MSH-PE38KDEL-mediated cytotoxicity. Methods: Human melanoma cell line A375, mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10, human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and human primary epidermal melanocytes (HEMa) with different expression levels of MC1R were used in this study. Cell apoptosis and viability were determined by using flow cytometry and MTT assays. Protein expressions were tested by Western blotting. Results: The expression levels of MC1R in A375 and B16-F10 cells were significantly higher than that of MDA-MB-231 and HEMa. α-MSH-PE38KDEL treatment induced a significant inhibition in cell viability in A375 and B16-F10 cells, while showed no obvious influence in the viability of MDA-MB-231 and HEMa cells. However, knockdown of MC1R abolished α-MSH-PE38KDEL role in promoting cell apoptosis in A375 and B16-F10 cells, and upregulation of MC1R endowed α-MSH-PE38KDEL function to promote cell apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and HEMa cells. Additionally, α-MSH-PE38KDEL treatment increased the phosphorylation levels of Erk1/2 and MITF (S73), and decreased MITF and TYR expressions in an MC1R-dependent manner. All of the treatments, including inhibition of Erk1/2 with PD98059, MC1R downregulation and MITF overexpression weakened the anti-tumor role of α-MSH-PE38KDEL in melanoma. Conclusion: Collectively, this study indicates that α-MSH-PE38KDEL promotes melanoma cell apoptosis via modulating Erk1/2/MITF/TYR signaling in an MC1R-dependent manner.

4.
Nano Lett ; 20(12): 8866-8873, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227207

RESUMO

Stacking of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) atomic sheets has been established as a powerful approach to fabricating new materials with broad versatilities and emergent functionalities. Here we demonstrate a bottom-up approach to fabricating isolated single W6Te6 wires and their lateral assemblies, offering a unique platform for investigating the elegant role of vdW coupling in 1D systems with atomic precision. We find experimentally and theoretically a single W6Te6 wire is a 1D semiconductor with a band gap of ∼60 meV, and a semiconductor-to-metal transition takes place upon interwire vdW stacking. The metallic multiwires exhibit strong Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid characteristics with the correlation parameter g varying from g = 0.086 for biwire to g = 0.136 for six-wire assemblies, all much reduced from the Fermi liquid regime (g = 1). The present study demonstrates wire-by-wire vdW stacking is a versatile means for fabrication of 1D systems with tunable electronic properties.

5.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 495, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hESC-RPE) cell transplants have served as a cell therapy for treating retinal degenerative diseases. However, how to optimize the survival and engraftment of hESC-RPE cells is a great challenge. METHODS: Here, we report hESC-RPE cells that are embedded with polyelectrolytes gelatin and alginate by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique, based on the opposite charge of alternate layers. Cells were assessed for cell survival, immunogenicity, and function in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: This strategy obviously decreased the immunogenicity of hESC-RPE cells without affecting its activity. LbL-RPE cell transplants into the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats optimized cell engraftment and decreased immunogenicity compared to untreated RPE cell transplants (immunosuppression was not used during the 21-week study). Visual-functional assay with electroretinogram recordings (ERGs) also showed higher B wave amplitudes in RCS rats with LbL-RPE cell transplants. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that transplanted LbL-RPE cells have better viability and grafting efficiency, optimized immunogenicity, and visual function. Therefore, LbL engineering is a promising method to increase the efficacy of hESC-RPE cell transplantation.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115509, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038634

RESUMO

The exacerbation of global warming has driven changes in environmental factors, including water temperature and oxygen concentration. The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, an economically important aquatic animal, is constantly and directly challenged by heat and hypoxia. In this study, 12 small RNA libraries were constructed for this species, and a total of 21, 26 and 22 differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were clarified in A. japonicus under thermal (26 °C), hypoxic (2 mg/L) and the combined stresses. Comparative miRNA sequencing analysis and real-time PCR were used to identify and validate the representative miRNAs, including Aja-miR-novel-299, Aja-let-7b-3p, Aja-miR-71b-5p, Aja-miR-novel-13218 and Aja-miR-2004 in response to high temperature, and Aja-miR-92b-3p, Aja-miR-210-5p and Aja-miR-novel-26331 in response to oxygen limitation. GO and KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the potential target genes of DE-miRNAs involved in biosynthesis, metabolism, immunity, cell growth and death, translation and signaling transduction. Key DE-miRNAs with potentially targeted genes associated with heat shock and hypoxia response were also determined. These results may help explaining the role of miRNA regulation in stress resistance, as well as the potential molecular regulation mechanism of the echinoderm A. japonicus in the context of global warming.

8.
J Biomed Res ; 34(6): 458-469, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122473

RESUMO

Global prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) calls for an urgent development of anti-viral regime. Compared with the development of new drugs, drug repurposing can significantly reduce the cost, time, and safety risks. Given the fact that coronavirus harnesses spike protein to invade host cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), hence we see if any previous anti-virtual compounds can block spike-ACE2 interaction and inhibit the virus entry. The results of molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations revealed that remdesivir exhibits better than expected anti-viral invasion potential against COVID-19 among the three types of compounds including remdesivir, tenofovir and lopinavir. In addition, a positive correlation between the surface area occupied by remdesivir and anti-viral invasion potential was also found. As such, the structure of remdesivir was modified by linking an N-benzyl substituted diamidine derivative to its hydroxyl group through an ester bond. It was found that this compound has a higher anti-viral invasion potential and greater specificity.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931501

RESUMO

Holothuria leucospilota (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) is a widespread tropical sea cucumber with strong value for the ecological restoration of coral reefs. Therefore, some studies regarding the artificial breeding and cultivation of H. leucospilota have been undertaken recently. However, the biological functions of the digestive system of this species have not been elucidated. In this study, a cDNA coding for α-amylase, an indicator of digestive maturity in animals, was identified from H. leucospilota and designated Hl-Amy. The full-length cDNA of the Hl-Amy gene, which is 1734 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1578 bp, encodes a 525 amino acid (a.a.) protein with a deduced molecular weight of 59.34 kDa. According to the CaZy database annotation, Hl-Amy belongs to the class of GH-H with the official nomenclature of α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) or 4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase. The Hl-Amy protein contains a signal peptide at the N-terminal followed by a functional amylase domain, which includes the catalytic activity site. The mRNA expression of Hl-Amy was abundantly exhibited in the intestine, followed by the transverse vessel with a low level, but was hardly detected in other selected tissues. During embryonic and larval development, Hl-Amy was constitutively expressed in all stages, and the highest expression level was observed in the blastula. By in situ hybridization (ISH), positive Hl-Amy signals were observed in different parts of the three different intestinal segments (foregut, midgut and hindgut). The Hl-Amy recombinant protein was generated in an E. coli system with codon optimization, which is necessary for Hl-Amy successfully expressed in this heterogenous system. The Hl-Amy recombinant protein was purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), and its activity of starch hydrolysis was further detected. The optimal temperatures and pH for Hl-Amy recombinant protein were 55°C and 6.0, respectively, with an activity of 62.2 U/mg. In summary, this current study has filled a knowledge gap on the biological function and expression profiles of an essential digestive enzyme in sea cucumber, which may encourage future investigation toward rationalized diets for H. leucospilota in artificial cultivation, and optimized heterogenous prokaryotic systems for producing recombinant enzymes of marine origins.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar/enzimologia , Pepinos-do-Mar/genética , alfa-Amilases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Biológicos , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Códon/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Equinodermos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/métodos , Distribuição Tecidual/genética , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
10.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-8, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862749

RESUMO

The optimal chemotherapy-free regimens for treatment-naive CLL still remains undefined. We searched relevant published reports. Three trials with 1017 subjects were identified. In the network meta-analysis, acalabrutinib plus obinutuzumab (Aca + Obi) improved PFS than ibrutinib plus obinutuzumab (Ibu + Obi) (HR:0.43, p = .02) and venetoclax plus obinutuzumab (Ven + Obi) (HR:0.30, p < .001) as IRC assessment. Sensitivity analysis of investigator assessment also showed improved PFS with Aca + Obi than Ibu + Obi (HR:0.46, p = .04) and Ven + Obi (HR:0.34, p = .002). Among these first-line treatments (Aca + Obi, Ibu + Obi, Ven + Obi and chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab (Chl + Obi)), Aca + Obi regimen had the highest probability of 99.1% (IRC assessment) or 98.0% (investigator assessment) to reach the longest PFS. The survival advantage with Aca + Obi was not statistically significant, compared to Ibu + Obi (HR:0.51, p = .21) and Ven + Obi (HR:0.38, p = .07). No significant difference was found in AEs analysis. Our data indicated that Aca + Obi seemed to prolong the PFS than Ibu + Obi and Ven + Obi. Considering our limits, prospective clinical trials directly comparing these regimens are warranted.

11.
Adv Mater ; 32(25): e2000660, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383215

RESUMO

Phase-change materials (PCMs) have emerged as a novel class of thermo-responsive materials for controlled release, where the payloads encapsulated in a solid matrix are released only upon melting the PCM to trigger a solid-to-liquid phase transition. Herein, the advances over the past 10 years in utilizing PCMs as a versatile platform for the encapsulation and release of various types of therapeutic agents and biological effectors are highlighted. A brief introduction to PCMs in the context of desired properties for controlled release and related applications is provided. Among the various types of PCMs, a specific focus is placed on fatty acids and fatty alcohols for their natural availability, low toxicity, biodegradability, diversity, high abundance, and low cost. Then, various methods capable of processing PCMs, and their mixtures with payloads, into stable suspensions of colloidal particles, and the different means for triggering the solid-to-liquid phase transition are discussed. Finally, a range of applications enabled by the controlled release system based on PCMs are presented together with some perspectives on future directions.

12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104362, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422352

RESUMO

Determining the source and genetic characteristics of the imported pathogen is critical in the control of infectious diseases. Here, we reported the investigation of an imported cholera case in China in 2018 with a recent travel history in Nepal and India. Stool culture from the patient was identified as Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa. The strain 2018HL24 possessed intact Vibrio seventh pandemic island I (VSP-I), Vibrio pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (VPI-1, VPI-2). A VSP-II variant with a 13 kb deletion was also detected, which was identical to those observed in V. cholerae in cluster "Nepal-4". Phylogenetic analysis based on the core genome SNPs showed that the isolate was most closely related to the V. cholerae isolated in northern India not far from the border of Nepal in 2012 (16 SNPs). Combining the epidemiological data with phylogenetic analysis results, we speculate that the patient may got infected in Nepal-India region.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(9): 8622-8639, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392535

RESUMO

The lemon essential oil (LEO), extracted from the fruit of lemon, has been used to treat multiple pathological diseases, such as diabetes, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, depression and hepatobiliary dysfunction. The study was designed to study the effects of LEO on cognitive dysfunction induced by Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used APP/PS1 double transgene (APP/PS1) AD mice in the experiment; these mice exhibit significant deficits in synaptic density and hippocampal-dependent spatial related memory. The effects of LEO on learning and memory were examined using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test, Novel object recognition test, and correlative indicators, including a neurotransmitter (acetylcholinesterase, AChE), a nerve growth factor (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF), a postsynaptic marker (PSD95), and presynaptic markers (synapsin-1, and synaptophysin), in APP/PS1 mice. Histopathology was performed to estimate the effects of LEO on AD mice. A significantly lowered brain AChE depression in APP/PS1 and wild-type C57BL/6L (WT) mice. PSD95/ Synaptophysin, the index of synaptic density, was noticeably improved in histopathologic changes. Hence, it can be summarized that memory-enhancing activity might be associated with a reduction in the AChE levels and is elevated by BDNF, PSD95, and synaptophysin through enhancing synaptic plasticity.

14.
Front Psychol ; 11: 589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411036

RESUMO

Building upon social exchange theory and the current voice research, we posit that employee workplace "currencies of exchange" with the leader (i.e., social currency and work-related currency) are key predictors of employee promotive and prohibitive voice. Furthermore, we distinguish between the different roles of social currency and work-related currency in predicting promotive and prohibitive voice, respectively. More importantly, this study further explores the moderating effects of two important individual characteristics, psychological safety and power distance orientation, on the relationships between currencies and voice. We randomly sampled 598 Chinese employees via an online survey platform to test our hypotheses. Our results show that both social currency and work-related currency are determinants of promotive voice and prohibitive voice. Moreover, the boundary conditions for the two kinds of currencies are different. Specifically, employee psychological safety strengthens the influence of social currency on both types of employee voice, while employee power distance orientation could only amplify the relationship between work-related currency and promotive voice. Our research provides important implications for both theory and practice. Limitations and future directions are also discussed.

16.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 306, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota belongs to echinoderm, which is evolutionally the most primitive group of deuterostomes. Sea cucumber has a cavity between its digestive tract and the body wall that is filled with fluid and suspended coelomic cells similar to blood cells. The humoral immune response of the sea cucumber is based on the secretion of various immune factors from coelomocytes into the coelomic cavity. The aim of this study is to lay out a foundation for the immune mechanisms in echinoderms and their origins in chordates by using RNA-seq. RESULTS: Sea cucumber primary coelomocytes were isolated from healthy H. leucospilota and incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 µg/ml), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly (I:C), 10 µg/ml] and heat-inactived Vibrio harveyi (107 cell/ml) for 24 h, respectively. After high-throughput mRNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq2500, a de novo transcriptome was assembled and the Unigenes were annotated. Thirteen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected randomly from our data and subsequently verified by using RT-qPCR. The results of RT-qPCR were consistent with those of the RNA-seq (R2 = 0.61). The top 10 significantly enriched signaling pathways and immune-related pathways of the common and unique DEGs were screened from the transcriptome data. Twenty-one cytokine candidate DEGs were identified, which belong to 4 cytokine families, namely, BCL/CLL, EPRF1, IL-17 and TSP/TPO. Gene expression in response to LPS dose-increased treatment (0, 10, 20 and 50 µg/ml) showed that IL-17 family cytokines were significantly upregulated after 10 µg/ml LPS challenge for 24 h. CONCLUSION: A de novo transcriptome was sequenced and assembled to generate the gene expression profiling across the sea cucumber coelomocytes treated with LPS, Poly (I:C) and V. harveyi. The cytokine genes identified in DEGs could be classified into 4 cytokine families, in which the expression of IL-17 family cytokines was most significantly induced after 10 µg/ml LPS challenge for 24 h. Our findings have laid the foundation not only for the research of molecular mechanisms related to the immune response in echinoderms but also for their origins in chordates, particularly in higher vertebrates.

17.
Mol Ecol ; 29(8): 1560-1573, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243633

RESUMO

The potential of biodiversity loss to impair the delivery of ecosystem services has motived ecologists to better understand the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Although increasing evidence underlines the collective contribution of different biodiversity components on the simultaneous performance of multiple functions (multifunctionality), we know little about the trade-offs between individual diversity effects and the extent to which they determine multifunctionality differentially. Here, at a subcontinental scale of 62 dryland sites, we show in phototrophic microbiota of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) that, whereas richness alone is unable to guarantee the maxima of multifunctional performance, interspecies facilitation and compositional identity are particularly stronger but often neglected predictors. The inconsistent effects of different biodiversity components imply that soil multifunctionality can be lost despite certain species remaining present. Moreover, we reveal a significant empirical association between species functional importance and its topological feature in co-occurrence networks, indicating a functional signal of species interaction. Nevertheless, abundant species tend to isolate and merely interact within small topological structures, but rare species were tightly connected in complicated network modules. Our findings suggest that abundant and rare species of soil phototrophs exhibit distinct functional relevance. These results give a comprehensive view of how soil constructive species drive multifunctionality in biocrusts and ultimately promote a deeper understanding of the consequences of biodiversity loss in real-world ecosystems.

18.
Insects ; 11(4)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272643

RESUMO

Fopius arisanus is a solitary endoparasitoid that parasitizes a variety of tephritid species. Native to the Indo-Australian region, it is currently exploited worldwide as a biological control agent due to its exceptional efficiency in reducing pest populations. The efficiency of any biological control program is affected by the host location ability of the parasitoids. The present study used a Y-tube olfactometer to test the behavioural responses of female F. arisanus to four fruit species which had undergone different types of damages: undamaged, damaged through Bactrocera dorsalis ovipositioning (i.e., infested), or different levels of mechanical damage. Our results suggest that F. arisanus females were significantly attracted to mangoes and pears (vs. purified air), regardless of their condition; however, whilst infested mangoes did not attract more female parasitoids compared to healthy or mechanically damaged fruits, infested pears attracted significantly more. For citrus fruits and peaches, oviposition damage caused them to be more attractive to parasitoid females. In terms of the longevity of the effects, infested mango fruits remained attractive for up to 5 days after infestation, whereas for infested peaches, pears, and citrus fruits, the attractiveness tended to decrease as time passed. Regarding mechanical damage, mango fruits that had undergone any intensity of damage were equally attractive to parasitoid females; however, peach and citrus fruits with high levels of mechanical damage were more attractive, and pears were found to be most attractive with slight mechanical damage. Additional to the above, we also tested the effect of insecticides on behavioural responses using mangoes. We found that the treatment of infested fruits with lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin remained attractive to F. arisanus females, albeit to different extents, which is in contrast to spinosad, cyantraniliprole, and acetamiprid. Finally, we suggest that the host-searching behaviour of F. arisanus females is mainly mediated by oviposition-induced volatiles, either emitted from the fruit or left by the fruit fly.

19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 125, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) are reported to be associated with enterovirus D68 infection. Though an increasing number of AFM cases were reported with EV-D68 infection in the US, few such cases have been found in China. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6-year-old boy presented with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) involving left arm after fever and respiratory symptoms for 6 days. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed inflammation in both lungs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spine showed swelling in the left frontal lobe and brain stem. The patient was diagnosed with meningomyelitis. EV-D68 was detected from pharyngeal samples 36 days after the onset of the disease. CONCLUSION: We report the first EV-D68 infection in case of AFM in mainland China. AFM surveillance systems is recommended to be established in China to guide diagnosis, case reporting, and specimen collection and testing for better understanding its etiologies.


Assuntos
Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Enterovirus Humano D/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterovirus/etiologia , Mielite/virologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/virologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Criança , China , Encefalite Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Enterovirus Humano D/genética , Enterovirus Humano D/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Enterovirus/terapia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Mielite/etiologia , Mielite/terapia , Doenças Neuromusculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Neuromusculares/etiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/terapia , Faringe/virologia , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 709: 136045, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905562

RESUMO

The aquatic environment can be greatly impacted by thermal and hypoxic stresses, particularly caused by intensified global warming. Hence, there is an urgency to understand the response mechanisms of marine organisms to adverse environment. Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in many biological processes, their roles in stress responses still remain unclear. Here, differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and mRNAs were identified as responses to environmental stresses in the economically important sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, and their potential roles were explored. Based on a total of 159, 355 and 495 significantly upregulated genes and 230, 518 and 647 significantly downregulated genes identified in the thermal, hypoxic and combination thermal + hypoxic stress treatments, respectively, we constructed DE-lncRNA-mRNA coexpression networks. Among the networks, eight shared pairs were identified from the three treatments, and based on the connectivity degree, MSTRG.27265, MSTRG.19729 and MSTRG.95524 were shown to be crucial lncRNAs. Among all the significantly changed lncRNAs identified by RT-qPCR and sequencing data, binding sites were found in four other lncRNAs (MSTRG.34610, MSTRG.10941, MSTRG.81281 and MSTRG.93731) with Aja-miR-2013-3p, a key miRNA that responds to hypoxia in sea cucumbers. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) was also shown as the possible targeted mRNA of Aja-miR-2013-3p. As indicated by a dual-luciferase reporter assay system, "HIF-1α gene/Aja-miR-2013-3p/MSTRG.34610" network and the "HIF-1α gene/Aja-miR-2013-3p/MSTRG.10941" network may play important roles in sea cucumbers under environmental stresses. Moreover, environmental stress altered the expression of multiple lncRNAs and mRNAs, thus affecting various biological processes in A. japonicus, including immunity, energy metabolism and the cell cycle. At the molecular level, more comprehensive responses were elicited by the combined thermal/hypoxic stress treatment than by individual stresses alone in sea cucumbers. This study lays the groundwork for future research on molecular mechanisms of echinoderm responses to thermal and hypoxic stress in the context of global climate changes.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar/genética , Animais , Mudança Climática , Hipóxia , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , RNA Mensageiro
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