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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840028

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal with widespread industrial use, but it is also a widespread environmental contaminant with serious toxicological consequences to many species. Pb exposure adversely impacts the cardiovascular system in humans, leading to cardiac dysfunction, but its effects on heart failure risk remain poorly elucidated. To better understand the pathophysiological effects of Pb, we review potential mechanisms by which Pb exposure leads to cardiac dysfunction. Adverse effects of Pb exposure on cardiac function include heart failure risk, pressure overload, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, and cardiotoxicity. The data reviewed clearly establish that Pb exposure can play an important role in the occurrence and development of heart failure. Future epidemiological and mechanistic studies should be developed to better understand the involvement of Pb exposure in heart failure.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 142806, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757236

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the predominant component of the humoral immune system. Epidemiological studies have shown that lead (Pb) or cadmium (Cd) exposure is associated with changes in human IgG levels, and alteration of IgG subclass production can be induced by differential modulation of Th1 and Th2 cytokines caused by Pb or Cd exposure. However, no study has focused on the adverse effects of Pb and Cd co-exposure on IgG subclass production by regulating Th1/Th2 cytokines in children living in electronic waste (e-waste) areas. This study aims to analyze the associations among Pb and Cd in blood, Th1/Th2 cytokines, and IgG subclasses in serum from children. A total of 181 healthy, 2- to 7-year-old children were examined. Of them, 104 were from Guiyu (e-waste exposed group), and the rest were from Haojiang (reference group) in China. Pb and Cd levels in whole blood, cytokines, and IgG subclasses in serum were determined. Exposed children had higher levels of blood Pb and Cd, serum IgG1, IgG1 + IgG2, serum Th1 cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and lower levels of the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-13. Increased blood Pb levels were positively associated with serum levels of IFN-γ, and negatively associated with serum levels of IL-13. Adjusted linear regression analysis showed that serum levels of IL-13 were negatively associated with serum levels of IgG1 and IgG1 + IgG2. Mediation models indicated that IL-13 had significant mediating effects on the relationships between blood Pb levels and serum IgG1, as well as between blood Pb levels and serum IgG1 + IgG2. Increased blood Cd levels were positively associated with serum levels of IgG1. Our results show heavy metal (particularly Pb) exposure may affect IgG subclass production by regulating Th1/Th2 cytokines in exposed children, thus providing new evidence for a relationship between humoral immune function and environmental exposure.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Cádmio , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Chumbo
3.
Chemosphere ; 269: 129380, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383249

RESUMO

As a neurotoxicant, lead (Pb) primarily affects central nervous system, and particularly impacts developing brain. This study explores the associations of blood Pb level and children's behavioral health. A total of 213 preschool children aged 3-7 years old were recruited from Guiyu (the e-waste-exposed area) and Haojiang (the reference area). The behavioral health of children was assessed using the 'behavioral symptoms' subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results showed that there was a significant difference in percent of children categorized as "at risk" between Guiyu (48.2%) and Haojiang (13.9%) (p < 0.001). The blood Pb level of children in Guiyu was significantly higher than those in Haojiang (median: 5.19 µg/dL vs. 3.42 µg/dL, p < 0.001). The serum Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was significantly lower in Guiyu children than those in Haojiang. Spearman correlation analyses demonstrated that blood Pb levels was negatively correlated with NPY (rs = -0.25, p < 0.001), but positively correlated with behavioral symptom scores; while serum NPY levels were negatively associated with behavioral symptom scores. Behavioral symptom scores were higher in children with blood Pb level ≥5.00 µg/dL (high) than those with blood Pb level < 5.00 µg/dL (low). After adjusting for confounding factors, children with lower NPY levels were at higher risk of having behavioral difficulties. In conclusion, Pb exposure in e-waste-exposed areas may lead to decrease in serum NPY and increase in the risk of children's behavioral problems. In addition, NPY may mediate the association between Pb exposure and behavioral difficulties.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Resíduo Eletrônico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Neuropeptídeo Y
4.
Chemosphere ; : 128793, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143894

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) has been proved to exert adverse effect on human cardiovascular system. However, the cardiotoxicity of Pb on children is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate left ventricular (LV) structure and function, by using echocardiographic indices, in order to elucidate the effect of Pb on low-grade inflammation related to left ventricle in healthy preschool children. We recruited a total of 486 preschool children, 310 from Guiyu (e-waste-exposed area) and 176 from Haojiang (reference area). Blood Pb levels, complete blood counts, and LV parameters were evaluated. Associations between blood Pb levels and LV parameters and peripheral leukocyte counts were analyzed using linear regression models. The median blood level of Pb and the counts of white blood cells (WBCs), monocytes, and neutrophils were higher in exposed group. In addition, the exposed group showed smaller left ventricle (including interventricular septum, LV posterior wall, and LV mass index) and impaired LV systolic function (including LV fractional shortening and LV ejection fraction) regardless gender. After adjustment for confounding factors, elevated blood Pb levels were significantly associated with higher counts of WBCs and neutrophils, and lower levels of LV parameters. Furthermore, counts of WBCs, monocytes, and neutrophils were negatively correlated with LV parameters. Taken together, smaller left ventricle and impaired systolic function were found in e-waste-exposed children and associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and elevated blood Pb levels. It indicates that the heart health of e-waste-exposed children is at risk due to the long-term environmental chemical insults.

5.
Environ Int ; 144: 106016, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may play an important role in the epidemic of metabolic diseases. Epigenetic alterations may functionally link EDCs with gene expression and metabolic traits. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate metabolic-related effects of the exposure to endocrine disruptors including five parabens, three bisphenols, and 13 metabolites of nine phthalates as measured in 24-hour urine on epigenome-wide DNA methylation. METHODS: A blood-based epigenome-wide association study was performed in 622 participants from the Lifelines DEEP cohort using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 methylation data and EDC excretions in 24-hour urine. Out of the 21 EDCs, 13 compounds were detected in >75% of the samples and, together with bisphenol F, were included in these analyses. Furthermore, we explored the putative function of identified methylation markers and their correlations with metabolic traits. RESULTS: We found 20 differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanines (CpGs) associated with 10 EDCs at suggestive p-value < 1 × 10-6, of which four, associated with MEHP and MEHHP, were genome-wide significant (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 1.19 × 10-7). Nine out of 20 CpGs were significantly associated with at least one of the tested metabolic traits, such as fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, blood lipids, and/or blood pressure. 18 out of 20 EDC-associated CpGs were annotated to genes functionally related to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and glycemic traits. CONCLUSIONS: The identified DNA methylation markers for exposure to the most common EDCs provide suggestive mechanism underlying the contributions of EDCs to metabolic health. Follow-up studies are needed to unravel the causality of EDC-induced methylation changes in metabolic alterations.

6.
Environ Int ; 145: 106132, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is linked to abnormal lipid metabolism, but evidence regarding PAHs as risk factors for dyslipidemia is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the respective role and interaction of PAH exposure and antioxidant consumption in the risk for pediatric dyslipidemia. METHODS: We measured the concentrations of serum lipids, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and urinary hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) in 403 children, of which 203 were from an e-waste-exposed area (Guiyu) and 200 were from a reference area (Haojiang). Biological interactions were calculated by additive models. RESULTS: Guiyu children had higher serum triglyceride concentration and dyslipidemia incidence, and lower serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) than Haojiang children. Elevated OH-PAH concentration, and concomitant SOD reduction, were both associated with lower HDL concentration and higher hypo-HDL risk (∑3OH-Phes: B for lgHDL = -0.048, P < 0.01; OR for hypo-HDL = 3.708, 95% CI: 1.200, 11.453; SOD: BT3 for lgHDL = 0.061, P < 0.01; ORT3 for hypo-HDL = 0.168, 95% CI: 0.030, 0.941; all were adjusted for confounders). Biological interaction between phenanthrol exposure and SOD reduction was linked to dyslipidemia risk (RERI = 2.783, AP = 0.498, S = 2.537). Children with both risk factors (higher ∑3OH-Phes and lower SOD) had 5.594-times (95% CI: 1.119, 27.958) the dyslipidemia risk than children with neither risk factors (lower ∑3OH-Phes and higher SOD). CONCLUSION: High PAH exposure combined with SOD reduction is recommended for predicting elevated risk for pediatric dyslipidemia. Risk assessment of PAH-related dyslipidemia should take antioxidant concentration into consideration.

7.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127257, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534297

RESUMO

Heavy metals generate adverse health effects by interfering with immune homeostasis and promoting inflammation in individuals. Our objective was to explore the induction of immune and inflammatory responses by multiple heavy metals in children living in the e-waste contaminated area. A total of 147 preschool children were recruited, including 73 children from Guiyu, a typical e-waste recycling area, and 74 from a reference group. Blood levels of heavy metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), were detected using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Immune cell counts (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes) were determined by an automatic blood cell analyzer, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RA, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13) were analyzed by a Luminex 200 multiplex immunoassay instrument. Multiple correspondences and linear regression analyses were applied to investigate the relationships between heavy metal exposure and relevant parameters. Results shows Guiyu children had higher levels of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, IL-1ß and IL-6, but decreased lymphocyte, IL-1RA and IL-13. Neutrophil count was positively correlated with Pb, Cd and Hg exposure. Anti-inflammatory IL-1RA concentration was negatively related with Pb, Cd, Hg and As, while pro-inflammatory IL-1ß and IL-6 were positively correlated with Pb. Guiyu children may have dysregulated immune response and high inflammation risk. Exposure to Pb, Cd, Hg and As could be harmful for immune response and inflammatory regulation. Our finding of decreased IL-RA production in children exposed to Pb, Cd, Hg, and As is novel and could be an opportunity for future research.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação , Mercúrio/análise , Reciclagem
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139626, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535459

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to widespread environmental toxicants is detrimental to maternal health and fetal development. The effects of environmental toxicants on maternal and fetal metabolic profile changes have not yet been summarized. This systematic review aims to summarize the current studies exploring the association between prenatal exposure to environmental toxicants and metabolic profile alterations in mother and fetus. We searched the MEDLINE (PubMed) electronic database for relevant literature conducted up to September 18, 2019 with some key terms. From the initial 155 articles, 15 articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and consist of highly heterogeneous research methods. Seven studies assessed the effects of multiple environmental pollutants (metals, organic pollutants, nicotine, air pollutants) on the maternal urine and blood metabolomic profile; five studies evaluated the effects of arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), nicotine, and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the cord blood metabolomic profile; and one study assessed the effects of smoking exposure on the amniotic fluid metabolomic profile. The alteration of metabolic pathways in these studies mainly involve energy metabolism, hormone metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation. No population study investigated the association between environmental toxicants and placental metabolomics. This systematic review provides evidence that prenatal exposure to a variety of environmental pollutants can affect maternal and fetal metabolomic characteristics. Integration of environmental toxicant exposure and metabolomics data in maternal-fetal samples is helpful to understand the interaction between toxicants and metabolites, so as to reveal the pathogenesis of fetal disease or diseases of fetal origin.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas , Saúde Materna , Biomarcadores , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Metabolômica , Gravidez
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 732: 138944, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434106

RESUMO

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with changes in blood pressure. However, the association is controversial in different studies, and antioxidants' roles involved in it remain unclear. To investigate the associations among PAH exposure, blood pressure, and antioxidant concentrations, we recruited 403 children (2-7 years old), of which 203 were from Guiyu, an e-waste-recycling area (exposed group), and 200 were from Haojiang, a nearby non-e-waste area (reference group). Levels of blood pressure, plasma vitamin E, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and eight urinary hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) were measured. Compared with Haojiang children, Guiyu children had higher urinary OH-PAH concentrations but lower systolic pressure, pulse pressure, serum SOD concentration, and serum GPx concentration (all P < 0.05). PAH exposure was associated with lower systolic pressure, pulse pressure, SOD (adjusted ß = -0.091, -0.104 and -0.154, respectively, all P < 0.05, in all children), GPx (adjusted ß∑7LMW-OH-PAHs-T3 = -0.332, only in Haojiang children) and vitamin E (adjusted OR∑7LMW-OH-PAHs = 0.838, 95% CI: 0.706, 0.995, only in Guiyu children). Serum SOD and GPx were associated with higher blood pressure (ßSOD-T2 for diastolic pressure = 0.215 in all children, ßSOD-T3 for systolic pressure = 0.193 in all children, ßSOD-T3 for pulse pressure = 0.281 in high-∑8OH-PAHs children, ßGPx-T2 = 0.283 and ßGPx-T3 = 0.289 for diastolic pressure in Haojiang children, all P < 0.05). Interactions between PAHs and vitamin E were associated with lower systolic pressure and pulse pressure; simple effects of vitamin E to raise systolic pressure and pulse pressure were only significant in low-∑8OH-PAHs children. Our results indicate that PAH exposure, especially at high levels, and further antioxidant-decrease are potential risk factors for blood-pressure decrease in children; vascular function of PAH-exposed children may be impaired, manifesting as disordered blood pressure.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Antioxidantes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Glutationa Peroxidase , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Reciclagem
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 734: 139286, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460072

RESUMO

China is one of the countries worldwide confronted with serious e-waste pollution and associated detrimental health effects, which has aroused public, academic and governmental concerns. Most local residents are exposed to hazardous substances such as lead (Pb) and other persistent organic pollutants because of informal e-waste recycling activities. This study reviews recent studies on children exposed to e-waste Pb in China focusing on health-related effects in children (e.g. growth and development, cardiovascular, immune, nervous, respiratory, reproductive, skeletal, and urinary systems) and evaluating the evidence for the association between e-waste Pb exposure and the children health outcomes in China. Children are one of most sensitive and vulnerable groups when facing e-waste Pb exposure. Previous data indicate that exposure to e-waste Pb has adverse effect on human health such as delayed and damaged physical and nervous development. It is the time to take effective measures, such as upgrading e-waste recycling technology, enhancing government policy guidance and support, and strengthening environmental protection and health awareness of the local inhabitants, to prevent the adverse effects of e-waste.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Criança , Saúde da Criança , China , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Chumbo , Reciclagem
11.
Environ Int ; 139: 105731, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315892

RESUMO

Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) burning and recycling activities have become one of the main emission sources of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Workers involved in e-waste recycling operations and residents living near e-waste recycling sites (EWRS) are exposed to high levels of DLCs. Epidemiological and experimental in vivo studies have reported a range of interconnected responses in multiple systems with DLC exposure. However, due to the compositional complexity of DLCs and difficulties in assessing mixture effects of the complex mixture of e-waste-related contaminants, there are few studies concerning human health outcomes related to DLC exposure at informal EWRS. In this paper, we have reviewed the environmental levels and body burdens of DLCs at EWRS and compared them with the levels reported to be associated with observable adverse effects to assess the health risks of DLC exposure at EWRS. In general, DLC concentrations at EWRS of many countries have been decreasing in recent years due to stricter regulations on e-waste recycling activities, but the contamination status is still severe. Comparison with available data from industrial sites and well-known highly DLC contaminated areas shows that high levels of DLCs derived from crude e-waste recycling processes lead to elevated body burdens. The DLC levels in human blood and breast milk at EWRS are higher than those reported in some epidemiological studies that are related to various health impacts. The estimated total daily intakes of DLCs for people in EWRS far exceed the WHO recommended total daily intake limit. It can be inferred that people living in EWRS with high DLC contamination have higher health risks. Therefore, more well-designed epidemiological studies are urgently needed to focus on the health effects of DLC pollution in EWRS. Continuous monitoring of the temporal trends of DLC levels in EWRS after actions is of highest importance.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Resíduo Eletrônico , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Dioxinas/análise , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Leite Humano/química , Reciclagem
12.
Environ Int ; 139: 105720, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as a group of persistent organic pollutants, are linked to impaired immune function and low-grade inflammation in adults and children. However, the potential of PAHs to lead to a cytokine storm associated with AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain containing 3) in humans has been poorly studied. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the associations between PAH exposure, AhR and NLRP3 expression, and cytokines associated with a cytokine storm in healthy preschoolers. METHODS: Basic demographic surveys and physical examinations were conducted on 248 preschoolers from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area (Guiyu, n = 121) and a reference area (Haojiang, n = 127). Ten urinary PAH metabolite (OH-PAH) concentrations were measured. We also measured the expression levels of AhR and NLRP3 and seventeen serum cytokine levels. RESULTS: The concentrations of multiple OH-PAHs were significantly higher in the exposed group than those in the reference group, especially 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OH-Nap) and 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OH-Nap). PAH exposure was closely related to a child's living environment and hygiene habits. Expression levels of AhR and NLRP3 were significantly higher in the exposed group than in the reference group. Similarly, serum IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, and IFN-γ levels were notably higher in the e-waste-exposed children than in the reference children. After adjusting for age, gender, BMI, family income, parental education level, and second-hand smoke exposure, we found that increased PAH exposure was associated with higher AhR and NLRP3 expression and elevated IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels. The associations between PAH exposure and IL-1ß, IL-18, IFN-γ, and TNF-ß were mediated by NLRP3 expression, and the relationships between PAH exposure and IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-22, IL-23, and TNF-α were mediated by AhR expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the association between PAH exposure and a cytokine storm may be mediated by AhR and NLRP3 expression among preschoolers.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Humanos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 138009, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemicals that cause serious concerns because of their carcinogenicity and endocrine disrupting ability. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we studied how urinary PAH metabolites are related with the dose-effects of hormone levels and birth outcomes. METHOD: 163 pregnant women without health problems and 163 newborns were enrolled in hospitals in Guiyu (e-waste-exposed area) and Haojiang (reference area) from May 2016 to May 2017. Urine samples were collected to measure hydroxylated PAH (OH-PAH) metabolite levels. Umbilical cord blood was used for measurement of hormone levels. Anthropometric parameters of newborns, such as anogenital distance (AGD), were also measured. RESULTS: Eight of ten urinary PAH metabolites in the exposed group were significantly higher than in the reference group. Levels of umbilical cord serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in the exposed group were significantly lower than those in the reference group. Birth weight was positively correlated with 2-OHFlu (2-hydroxyfluorene). Head circumference was negatively correlated with 9-OHFlu, 3-OHPhe (3-hydroxyphenanthrene), 9-OHPhe, and Æ©OHFlu (sum of 2-OHFlu and 9-OHFlu). Serum E2 and T levels were negatively correlated with most OH-PAHs. In addition, we found that serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level was positively correlated with AGD, and serum E2 level was negatively correlated with neonatal head circumference. CONCLUSIONS: PAH exposure in pregnant women may adversely affect the birth outcomes of newborns, especially AGD; and AMH may be involved in the process. Establishing a baseline for the relationship between PAH exposure and health is important to protect the health of mothers and children living in electronic waste (e-waste) recycling areas.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Hormônio Antimülleriano , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
14.
Environ Int ; 138: 105660, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to atmospheric fine particle matter (PM2.5) pollution and the absorbed pollutants is known to contribute to numerous adverse health effects in children including to growth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate exposure levels of atmospheric PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an electronic waste (e-waste) polluted town, Guiyu, and to investigate the associations between PM2.5-PAH exposure, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels and child growth. METHODS: This study recruited 238 preschool children (3-6 years of age), from November to December 2017, of which 125 were from Guiyu (an e-waste area) and 113 were from Haojiang (a reference area). Levels of daily PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound ∑16 PAHs were assessed to calculate individual chronic daily intakes (CDIs). IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) concentrations in child plasma were also measured. The associations and further mediation effects between exposure to PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound PAHs, child plasma IGF-1 concentration, and child height were explored by multiple linear regression models and mediation effect analysis. RESULTS: Elevated atmospheric PM2.5-bound ∑16 PAHs and PM2.5 levels were observed in Guiyu, and this led to more individual CDIs of the exposed children than the reference (all P < 0.001). The median level of plasma IGF-1 in the exposed group was lower than in the reference group (91.42 ng/mL vs. 103.59 ng/mL, P < 0.01). IGF-1 levels were negatively correlated with CDIs of PM2.5, but not with CDIs of PM2.5-bound ∑16 PAHs after adjustment. An increase of 1 µg/kg of PM2.5 intake per day was associated with a 0.012 cm reduction of child height (95% CI: -0.014, -0.009), and similarly, an elevation of 1 ng/kg of PM2.5-bound ∑16 PAHs intake per day was associated with a 0.022 cm decrease of child height (95% CI: -0.029, -0.015), both after adjustment of several potential confounders (age, gender, family cooking oil, picky eater, eating sweet food, eating fruits or vegetables, parental education level and monthly household income). The decreased plasma IGF-1 concentration mediated 15.8% of the whole effect associated with PM2.5 exposure and 23.9% of the whole effect associated with PM2.5-bound ∑16 PAHs exposure on child height. CONCLUSION: Exposure to atmospheric PM2.5-bound ∑16 PAHs and PM2.5 is negatively associated with child height, and is linked to reduced IGF-1 levels in plasma. This may suggest a causative negative role of atmospheric PM2.5-bound exposures in child growth.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Resíduo Eletrônico , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade
15.
Environ Int ; 137: 105580, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is a rapidly growing industry. Informal e-waste recycling creates a mixture of chemicals that can be harmful to humans, especially vulnerable populations like pregnant women and young children. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyze the associations between birth outcomes and living in a community with a history of informal e-waste recycling. METHODS: The e-waste Recycling Exposure and Community Health (e-REACH) Study enrolled pregnant women in Guiyu, an informal e-waste recycling site (n = 314), and an unexposed control site (Haojiang) (n = 320) at delivery. We analyzed maternal whole blood samples for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and manganese (Mn). We captured data in newborns on birth weight, birth length, head circumference, body mass index (BMI), and Ponderal Index (PI). We compared the birth outcomes between sites after adjustment for covariates, and examined the associations with individual and the mixture of metals. RESULTS: The neonates from Guiyu had smaller head circumference (adj ß -1.96 cm, 95% CI -2.39, -1.52), BMI (adj ß -0.77 kg/m2, 95% CI -1.03, -0.51), and PI (adj ß -2.01 kg/m3, 95% CI -2.54, -1.47). Birth weights were lower in Guiyu compared to Haojiang, but the difference was not significant (ß -51, 95% CI -132, 29). Cumulative exposure to metals was related to lower head circumference, BMI, and PI, but not related to birth weight. DISCUSSION: We observed slight and statistically significant differences in the head size, BMI, and PI of neonates, but not birth weight, from Guiyu when compared to neonates from Haojiang. Cumulative metal exposure may partially account for the findings.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Exposição Materna , Metais Pesados , Reciclagem , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metais , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(13): 14763-14770, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056098

RESUMO

Environmental lead (Pb) exposure can induce dysbacteriosis, impair oral health, and is associated with the development of dental caries. However, the mechanism is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of Pb toxicity on oral antimicrobial activity in children in an e-waste area. Results showed higher blood Pb levels in e-waste-exposed group children, accompanied by decreased saliva SAG (salivary agglutinin) concentrations, increased peripheral WBC (white blood cell) counts and monocyte counts, and elevated peripheral monocyte percentage. LnPb (natural logarithmic transformation of blood Pb level) was negatively correlated with saliva SAG concentration, while positively correlated with peripheral monocyte percentage. Saliva SAG concentration played a complete mediating role in the correlation of LnPb to peripheral monocyte percentage. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the relationship of environmental Pb exposure and oral antimicrobial activity in children, showing that environmental Pb exposure may weaken oral antimicrobial activity through reducing saliva SAG concentration, which may raise the risk of oral dysbacteriosis and ultimately pathogen infection.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cárie Dentária , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Chumbo , Reciclagem , Saliva
17.
Environ Int ; 137: 105527, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have observed that cadmium (Cd) exposure of pregnant women was associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the potential mechanism still remains unclear. In addition, various animal studies have suggested that Cd exposure could affect fatty acids (FAs) metabolism, but data on humans are scant. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a nested case-control study to investigate the associations of urinary Cd concentrations with levels of circulating FAs and risk of GDM in pregnant women, and further to examine the role of FAs in mediating the relationship between Cd exposure and risk of GDM. METHODS: A total of 305 GDM cases were matched to 305 controls on pregnant women's age (±2 years) and infant's gender from a birth cohort study conducted in Wuhan, China. Urinary Cd concentrations and levels of plasma FAs between 10 and 16 gestational weeks were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Conditional logistic regressions models were used to estimate the associations of Cd concentrations and levels of FAs with the risk of GDM. Multiple linear regression models were applied to estimate the associations between Cd concentrations and levels of FAs. Mediation analysis was used to assess the mediating role of FAs in the association of Cd with the risk of GDM. RESULTS: Urinary concentrations of Cd in cases (median: 0.69 µg/L) were significantly higher than controls (median: 0.59 µg/L, P < 0.05). Cd concentrations were positively associated with the risk of GDM (Ptrend = 0.003). Compared to the first tertile of Cd, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of GDM risk were 2.08 (1.29, 3.36) for the second tertile and 2.09 (1.32, 3.33) for the third tertile. Cd concentrations were positively correlated with levels of eicosadienoic acid and arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid ratio, but negatively correlated with levels of stearic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, total odd-chain saturated fatty acids, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and n-3 PUFAs/n-6 PUFAs ratio. We did not observe evidence that the association of Cd exposure and risk of GDM was mediated through FAs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirmed the association of higher Cd exposure with increased risk of GDM in pregnant women, and provided forceful epidemiological evidence for the relation of Cd concentrations and levels of FAs.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Diabetes Gestacional , Ácidos Graxos , Cádmio/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
18.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(3): L549-L561, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913647

RESUMO

Prenatal smoke exposure (PSE) is associated with reduced birth weight, impaired fetal development, and increased risk for diseases later in life. Changes in DNA methylation may be involved, as multiple large-scale epigenome-wide association studies showed that PSE is robustly associated with DNA methylation changes in blood among offspring in early life. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is important in growth, differentiation, and repair processes after injury. However, no studies investigated the organ-specific persistence of PSE-induced methylation change of Igf1 into adulthood. Based on our previous studies on the PSE effect on Igf1 promoter methylation in fetal and neonatal mouse offspring, we now have extended our studies to adulthood. Our data show that basal Igf1 promoter methylation generally increased in the lung but decreased in the liver (except for 2 persistent CpG sites in both organs) across three different developmental stages. PSE changed Igf1 promoter methylation in all three developmental stages, which was organ and sex specific. The PSE effect was less pronounced in adult offspring compared with the fetal and neonatal stages. In addition, the PSE effect in the adult stage was more pronounced in the lung compared with the liver. For most CpG sites, an inverse correlation was found for promoter methylation and mRNA expression when the data of all three stages were combined. This was more prominent in the liver. Our findings provide additional evidence for sex- and organ-dependent prenatal programming, which supports the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125829, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927382

RESUMO

Experimental studies have uncovered chemical exposure-induced ototoxicity, but population-based hearing risk assessment especially for early-life exposure to heavy metals and relevant biological mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to measure lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels, blood DNA methylations of Rb1, CASP8 and MeCP2 and hearing in 116 preschool children 3- to 7-years of age from an e-waste and a reference area, and to evaluate the association of exposures with hearing loss potentially affected by epigenetic modifications. A higher median Pb level but not Cd was found in the exposed group than the reference group. Average hearing thresholds in either ear of the exposed children were higher. Higher promoter methylation levels at cg02978827 and position +14, and lower at position +4 of Rb1 were found in the exposed group. Pb was positively correlated with chewing pencil habit while negatively correlated with washing hands before dinner. Slightly negative trends of promoter methylations in Rb1 and CASP8, while a strong positive trend of MeCP2 promoter methylation, were found along with increasing Pb and Cd levels. Logistic analyses showed the adjusted OR of Pb for hearing loss in the left ear and both ears was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.91) and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.84), respectively. Our results show an elevated Pb level, altered promoter DNA methylations and hearing ability in children of e-waste areas, suggesting that epigenetic changes of specific genes involves in the development of the auditory system during early exposure to environmental chemicals.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Chumbo/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Reciclagem
20.
Hypertens Res ; 43(5): 412-421, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919480

RESUMO

Circulating saturated fatty acids (SFAs) have been associated with cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the relationship of SFAs with the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). We conducted a nested case-control study to examine the associations between circulating SFAs and the risk of PIH. A total of 92 PIH cases were matched to 184 controls by age (±2 years) and infant sex from a birth cohort study conducted in Wuhan, China. Levels of circulating fatty acids in plasma were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regressions were conducted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Even-chain SFAs, including myristic acid (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0), were positively associated with the risk of PIH [ORs (95% CIs): 2.92 (1.27, 6.74) for 14:0 and 2.85 (1.18, 6.89) for 16:0, % by wt]. In contrast, higher levels of very-long-chain SFAs, including arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0), and lignoceric acid (24:0), were associated with a lower risk of PIH [ORs (95% CIs): 0.40 (0.17, 0.92) for 20:0, 0.30 (0.12, 0.71) for 22:0 and 0.26 (0.11, 0.64) for 24:0, µg/mL]. For odd-chain SFAs, including pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), no significant difference was observed. Our results provided convincing evidence that different subclasses of SFAs showed diverse effects on the risk of PIH. This suggests that dietary very-long-chain SFAs may be a novel means by which to prevent hypertension. Future studies are required to confirm these associations and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

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