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1.
Diabetes Metab ; 49(2): 101420, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640827

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to examine risks of major cardiovascular events (MACEs), renal outcomes, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with different diabetic kidney disease (DKD) subtypes. METHODS: A total of 36,509 participants with T2DM recruited from 20 community sites across mainland China were followed up during 2011-2016. DKD subtypes were categorized based on albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, UACR ≥ 30 mg/g) and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) as Alb-/eGFR-, Alb+/eGFR-, Alb-/eGFR+, and Alb+/eGFR+. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of developing clinical outcomes in DKD subtypes. RESULTS: More than half (53.5%) of participants with diabetes and reduced eGFR had normal UACR levels (Alb-/eGFR+), termed as non-albuminuria DKD. These patients had a modest increase in the risks of MACEs (hazard ratio, HR 1.42 [95% CI 1.08;1.88]) and mortality (HR 1.42 [1.04;1.92]) compared with patients without DKD, whereas CKD progression was not significantly increased (HR 0.97 [0.60;1.57]). Participants with albuminuria (Alb+/eGFR- or Alb+/eGFR+) had higher risks of clinical outcomes. Subgroup analysis revealed that the associations between non-albuminuria DKD and risks of MACEs and mortality were more evident in those aged <65 years. CONCLUSION: Non-albuminuria DKD accounts for more than half of DKD cases with low eGFR in Chinese diabetes patients. Diabetes patients with albuminuria are at higher risks of developing clinical outcomes and warrant early intervention, as well as patients with non-albuminuria DKD with age < 65 years.

2.
Hypertension ; 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the thresholds to initiate BP-lowering treatment in this population are unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between BP levels and clinical outcomes and provide evidence on potential thresholds to initiate BP-lowering therapy in people with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: This nationwide, multicenter, prospective cohort study included 12 523 chronic kidney disease participants without antihypertensive therapy in mainland China. Participants were followed up during 2011 to 2016 for cardiovascular events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalized or treated heart failure, and cardiovascular death) and renal events (≥20% decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, end-stage kidney disease, and renal death). RESULTS: Overall, 652 cardiovascular events and 1268 renal events occurred during 43 970 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive and linear relationship between systolic BP and risks of cardiovascular and renal events down to 90 mm Hg, as well as between diastolic BP and risks of renal events down to 50 mm Hg. A J-shaped trend was noted between diastolic BP and risks of cardiovascular events, but a linear relationship was revealed in participants <60 years (P for interaction <0.001). A significant increase in the risk of cardiovascular and renal outcomes was observed at systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg (versus 90-119 mm Hg) and at diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg (versus 50-69 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: In people with chronic kidney disease, a higher systolic BP/diastolic BP level (≥130/90 mm Hg) is significantly associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular and renal events, indicating potential thresholds to initiate BP-lowering treatment.

3.
Mol Ther ; 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457249

RESUMO

The editing efficiency is pivotal for the efficacies of CRISPR-based gene therapies. We found that fusing an HMG-D domain to the N-terminus of SpCas9 (named efficiency enhanced Cas9, eeCas9) significantly increased editing efficiency by 1.4-fold on average. HMG-D domain also enhanced the activities of non-NGG PAM Cas9 variants, high-fidelity Cas9 variants, smaller Cas9 orthologs, Cas9-based epigenetic regulators, and base editors in cell lines. Furthermore, we discovered that eeCas9 exhibits comparable off-targeting effects with Cas9, and its specificity could be increased through ribonucleoprotein delivery or using the hairpin-sgRNAs and high-fidelity Cas9s. The entire eeCas9 could be packaged into an AAV vector and exhibited a 1.7∼2.6-fold increase in editing efficiency targeting the Pcsk9 gene in mice, leading to a greater reduction of serum cholesterol levels. Moreover, the efficiency of eeA3A-BE3 also surpasses that of A3A-BE3 in targeting the promoter region of γ-globin genes or BCL11A enhancer in human hematopoietic stem cells to reactivate γ-globin expression for the treatment of ß-hemoglobinopathy. Together, eeCas9 and its derivates are promising editing tools that exhibit higher activity and therapeutic efficacy for both in vivo and ex vivo therapeutics.

4.
Eur J Nutr ; 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261730

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fruit intake is beneficial to several chronic diseases, but controversial in diabetes. We aimed to investigate prospectively the associations of whole fresh fruit intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in subjects with different glucose regulation capacities. METHODS: The present study included 79,922 non-diabetic participants aged ≥ 40 years from an ongoing nationwide prospective cohort in China. Baseline fruit intake information was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Plasma HbA1c, fasting and 2 h post-loading glucose levels were measured at both baseline and follow-up examinations. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident diabetes among participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and prediabetes, after adjusted for multiple confounders. Restricted cubic spline analysis was applied for dose-response relation. RESULTS: During a median 3.8-year follow-up, 5886 (7.36%) participants developed diabetes. Overall, we identified a linear and dose-dependent inverse association between dietary whole fresh fruit intake and risk of incident T2D. Each 100 g/d higher fruit intake was associated with 2.8% lower risk of diabetes (HR 0.972, 95%CI [0.949-0.996], P = 0.0217), majorly benefiting NGT subjects with 15.2% lower risk (HR 0.848, 95%CI [0.766-0.940], P = 0.0017), while not significant in prediabetes (HR 0.981, 95%CI 0.957-4.005, P = 0.1268). Similarly, the inverse association was present in normoglycemia individuals with a 48.6% lower risk of diabetes when consuming fruits > 7 times/week comparing to those < 1 time/week (HR 0.514, 95% CI [0.368-0.948]), but not in prediabetes (HR 0.883, 95% CI [0.762-1.023]). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that higher frequency and amount of fresh fruit intake may protect against incident T2D, especially in NGT, but not in prediabetes, highlighting the dietary recommendation of higher fresh fruit consumption to prevent T2D in normoglycemia population.

5.
J Diabetes ; 14(11): 739-748, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the impact of education on diabetes risk is scarce in developing countries. We aimed to explore the association between education and diabetes within a large population in China and to identify the possible mediators between them. METHODS: Information on educational level and lifestyle factors was collected through questionnaires. Diabetes was diagnosed from self-report and biochemical measurements. A structural equation model was constructed to quantify the mediation effect of each mediator. RESULTS: Compared with their least educated counterparts, men with college education had a higher risk of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.27), while college-educated women were less likely to have diabetes (OR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.82). Obesity was the strongest mediator in both genders (proportion of mediation: 11.6% in men and 23.9% in women), and its association with education was positive in men (ß[SE] 0.0387 [0.0037]) and negative in women (ß[SE] -0.0824 [0.0030]). Taken together, all behavioral factors explained 12.4% of the excess risk of diabetes in men and 33.3% in women. CONCLUSIONS: In a general Chinese population, the association between education level and diabetes was positive in men but negative in women. Obesity was the major mediator underlying the education disparities of diabetes risk, with a stronger mediation effect among women.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Obesidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Escolaridade , Obesidade/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia
6.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(9): e008774, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies demonstrate a J-shaped association between blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the findings are plagued by confounding from other traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). Our aims were to examine the associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels with CVD in individuals without major CVRFs and whether there were thresholds for the association. METHODS: In the 4C study (China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort), 36 042 CVRF-free participants without CVD, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, or smoking were identified during 2011 to 2012. Among CVRF-free participants, 17 476 CVRF-preferable individuals with better glycemic (fasting glucose, <110 mg/dL; 2-hour post-load glucose, <140 mg/dL) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, <200 mg/dL; LDL [low-density lipoprotein] cholesterol, <130 mg/dL) were selected. The total person-years of follow-up for CVRF-free subjects and CVRF-preferable subjects were 130 147 and 63 573 person-years, respectively. Information on the development of major CVDs was collected during 2014 to 2016. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to estimate the risks for incident CVD by SBP and DBP groups, respectively. RESULTS: We found that both baseline SBP and DBP presented significantly linear associations with CVD risks in CVRF-free and CVRF-preferable participants. There is significant increase in the CVD risk among CVRF-free participants with baseline SBP level of 110 to 119 mm Hg (hazard ratio, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.19-2.71]), 120 to 129 mm Hg (hazard ratio, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.36-3.03]), and 130 to 139 mm Hg (hazard ratio, 2.15 [95% CI, 1.40-3.28]) compared with SBP <110 mm Hg. Significant increases were also observed for DBP level of 80 to 89 mm Hg (hazard ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.03-1.97]) compared with DBP <70 mm Hg. Similar results were observed in CVRF-preferable participants. CONCLUSIONS: SBP and DBP with levels currently considered normal were significantly and linearly associated with incident CVD without thresholds above 110/70 mm Hg among Chinese adults without major CVRFs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol , Glucose , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Liver Int ; 42(12): 2683-2695, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity and excessive sitting time contributed to ectopic fat accumulation, especially in the liver. Previous studies have illustrated the harm of sedentary behaviour and the benefits of physical activity on fatty liver disease. We aimed to explore the association between the behaviour patterns and the risk of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) using isotemporal substitution model to examine the effect of replacing one behaviour to another while keeping the total time and other behaviours fixed among Chinese middle-aged and elderly population. METHODS: This study included 161 147 participants aged ≥40 years old from the nationwide, population-based cohort of the REACTION study. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure self-reported time for sleeping, sitting, walking and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). MAFLD was defined by evidence of fatty liver index (FLI) ≥ 60 in addition to one of the following three patterns, namely overweight/obesity, presence of diabetes, or evidence of metabolic dysregulation. Isotemporal substitution models using logistic regression models to evaluate the association of replacement of different behaviour patterns with each other and the risk of MAFLD. RESULTS: Substitution of 60 minutes per day of sleeping, walking or total MVPA for sitting was associated with a 2%-8% reduction of MAFLD risk in overall participants. In employed individuals, replacing sitting time with occupational MVPA or nonoccupational MVPA both could bring benefits to liver steatosis. Stratified analysis found that replacing 60 minutes of sitting time with an equivalent time of other behaviour pattern could reduce approximately 8% of the risk among MAFLD participants with metabolic abnormalities. Such a relationship might be explained by the important mediated role of metabolic elements, such as waist circumference, body mass index, triglycerides and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Furthermore, replacing sitting with MVPA showed a stronger association among participants who got enough sleep (sleep duration ≥7 hours per day). CONCLUSION: Replacing sitting with other behaviour patterns could reduce the prevalence of MAFLD, and such substitution effect was much remarkably in individuals with abnormal metabolic status. Observably, obese individuals were more likely to benefit from appropriate changes in behaviour patterns. Moreover, the analysis of sleep duration stratification appealed that the adequacy of individual sleep duration also had a significant impact on the substitution effect. It is worth noting that adjusting the time allocation of behaviour patterns might have a beneficial impact on liver-metabolic health, and these findings might help us better recognize the importance of reasonable arrangement of behaviour patterns according to the individual's situation.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Comportamento Sedentário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
8.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(9): 100727, 2022 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998626

RESUMO

Although previous studies suggest that amino acids (AAs) and microbiota-related metabolites (MRMs) are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the results remain unclear among normoglycemic populations. We test 28 serum AAs and 22 MRMs in 3,414 subjects with incident diabetes and matched normoglycemic controls from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) Study. In fully adjusted logistic regression models, per SD increment of branched-chain AAs, aromatic AAs, asparagine, alanine, glutamic acid, homoserine, 2-aminoadipic acid, histidine, methionine, and proline are positively associated with incident T2DM. In the MRM panel, serum carnitines, N-acetyltryptophan, and uric acid are positively associated with incident T2DM. Causal mediation analyses indicate 34 significant causal mediation linkages, with 88.2% through obesity and lipids. Variances explained in the serum metabolites are modestly limited in the comprehensive catalog of risk factor-metabolite-diabetes associations. These findings reveal that systematic AAs and MRMs change profile before T2DM onset and support a potential role of metabolic alterations in the pathogenesis of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbiota , Ácido 2-Aminoadípico , Adulto , Alanina , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Asparagina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Ácido Glutâmico , Histidina , Homosserina , Humanos , Lipídeos , Metionina , Prolina , Ácido Úrico
9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 923981, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35958421

RESUMO

Backgrounds: Whether longitudinal changes in metabolic status influence the effect of kidney stones on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclarified. We investigated the modification effect of status changes in metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the association of kidney stones with risk of incident CVD events. Methods: We performed a prospective association and interaction study in a nationwide cohort including 129,172 participants aged ≥ 40 years without CVDs at baseline and followed up for an average of 3.8 years. Kidney stones information was collected by using a questionnaire and validated by medical records. The repeated biochemical measurements were performed to ascertain the metabolic status at both baseline and follow-up. Results: 4,017 incident total CVDs, 1,413 coronary heart diseases (CHDs) and 2,682 strokes were documented and ascertained during follow-up. Kidney stones presence was significantly associated with 44%, 70% and 31% higher risk of CVDs, CHDs and stroke, respectively. The stratified analysis showed significant associations were found in the incident and sustained MetS patients, while no significant associations were found in the non-MetS at both baseline and follow-up subjects or the MetS remission ones, especially in women. For the change status of each single component of the MetS, though the trends were not always the same, the associations with CVD were consistently significant in those with sustained metabolic disorders, except for the sustained high blood glucose group, while the associations were consistently significant in those with incident metabolic disorders except for the incident blood pressure group. We also found a significant association of kidney stone and CVD or CHD risk in the remain normal glucose or triglycerides groups; while the associations were consistently significant in those with incident metabolic disorders except for the incident blood pressure group. We also found a significant association of kidney stone and CVD or CHD risk in the remain normal glucose or triglycerides groups. Conclusions: A history of kidney stones in women with newly developed MetS or long-standing MetS associated with increased risk of CVD. The mechanisms link kidney stones and CVD risk in the metabolic and non-metabolic pathways were warranted for further studies.

10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 927067, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928888

RESUMO

Aim: To determine the effect of decade-based body weight gain from 20 to 50 years of age on later life diabetes risk. Methods: 35,611 non-diabetic participants aged ≥ 50 years from a well-defined nationwide cohort were followed up for average of 3.6 years, with cardiovascular diseases and cancers at baseline were excluded. Body weight at 20, 30, 40, and 50 years was reported. The overall 30 years and each 10-year weight gain were calculated from the early and middle life. Cox regression models were used to estimate risks of incident diabetes. Results: After 127,745.26 person-years of follow-up, 2,789 incident diabetes were identified (incidence rate, 2.18%) in 25,289 women (mean weight gain 20-50 years, 7.60 kg) and 10,322 men (7.93 kg). Each 10-kg weight gain over the 30 years was significantly associated with a 39.7% increased risk of incident diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-1.47); weight gain from 20-30 years showed a more prominent effect on the risk of developing diabetes before 60 years than that of after 60 years (Hazard ratio, HR = 1.084, 95% CI [1.049-1.121], P <0.0001 vs. 1.015 [0.975-1.056], P = 0.4643; PInteraction=0.0293). It showed a stable effect of the three 10-year intervals weight gain on risk of diabetes after 60 years (HR=1.055, 1.038, 1.043, respectively, all P < 0.0036). Conclusions: The early life weight gain showed a more prominent effect on developing diabetes before 60 years than after 60 years; however, each-decade weight gain from 20 to 50 years showed a similar effect on risk developing diabetes after 60 years.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Obesidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Aumento de Peso , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35814865

RESUMO

Background: In previous studies, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) use was associated with increased bone loss, while an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker had no effect on bone loss in elder subjects, which suggested that the effect of ACEI on bone loss was not mediated through the classical renin-angiotensin system. In this study, we set to investigate whether the effect of ACEI on bone deterioration was mediated via the kinin-kallikrein system. Methods: Six-month-old male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats were used. The effect of captopril on blood pressure, serum Ang II, and bradykinin concentration was measured in intact rats. Ovariectomy and orchidectomy were performed to establish an osteoporosis model in female and male rats, respectively. Captopril and the bradykinin receptor blocker icatibant (HOE140) were administered after operation for 12 weeks. Serum Ang II and bradykinin concentration, bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone microarchitecture were evaluated. Femur samples were subjected to a mechanical test. Results: Captopril decreased blood pressure and serum Ang II concentration and increased serum bradykinin concentration in intact rats (P < 0.05). After castration, captopril decreased serum Ang II concentration (P < 0.05); in female rats, icatibant increased serum Ang II concentration (P < 0.05). Captopril increased serum bradykinin concentration (P < 0.05); in male rats, icatibant decreased serum bradykinin concentration (P < 0.05). Captopril increased the rat urine deoxypyridinoline-creatinine ratio (DPD/Cr) and serum osteocalcin concentration (P < 0.05). Icatibant decreased urine DPD/Cr in male rats (P < 0.05) and increased osteocalcin concentration in female rats (P < 0.05). Captopril increased cancellous BMD in castrated hypertensive rats (P < 0.05), and icatibant further increased cancellous BMD (P < 0.05), which was due to the increased trabecular bone number. In mechanical testing, ACEI increased bone strength (P < 0.05), and icatibant further improved it (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ACEI decreased bone deterioration in both male and female hypertensive rats, and the bradykinin receptor blocker further decreased bone deterioration.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Hipertensão , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Densidade Óssea , Bradicinina/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores da Bradicinina/farmacologia , Captopril/farmacologia , Captopril/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Calicreínas/farmacologia , Masculino , Osteocalcina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
12.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896694

RESUMO

The current study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a denosumab biosimilar, QL1206 (60 mg), compared to placebo in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis and high fracture risk. At 31 study centers in China, a total of 455 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and high fracture risk were randomly assigned to receive QL1206 (60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months) or placebo. From baseline to the 12-month follow-up, the participants who received QL1206 showed significantly increased bone mineral density (BMD) values (mean difference and 95% CI) in the lumbar spine: 4.780% (3.880%, 5.681%), total hip :3.930% (3.136%, 4.725%), femoral neck 2.733% (1.877%, 3.589%) and trochanter: 4.058% (2.791%, 5.325%) compared with the participants who received the placebo. In addition, QL1206 injection significantly decreased the serum levels of C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of type 1 collagen (CTX): -77.352% (-87.080%, -66.844%), and N-terminal procollagen of type l collagen (P1NP): -50.867% (-57.184%, -45.217%) compared with the placebo over the period from baseline to 12 months. No new or unexpected adverse events were observed. We concluded that compared with placebo, QL1206 effectively increased the BMD of the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck and trochanter in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis and rapidly decreased bone turnover markers. This study demonstrated that QL1206 has beneficial effects on postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis and high fracture risk.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 45(8): 1863-1872, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) differs by glucose tolerance status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed a nationwide sample of 111,576 adults without CVD at baseline, using data from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study. Insulin resistance was estimated by sex-specific HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) quartiles for participants with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or diabetes, separately, and by 1 SD of HOMA-IR for the overall study participants. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between insulin resistance and incident CVD according to glucose tolerance status and evaluate the CVD risk associated with the combined categories of insulin resistance and obesity in prediabetes and diabetes, as compared with normal glucose tolerance. Models were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, and diet quality. RESULTS: In participants with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and diabetes defined by three glucose parameters, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) for incident CVD associated with the highest versus the lowest quartile of HOMA-IR were 1.03 (0.82-1.30), 1.23 (1.07-1.42), and 1.61 (1.30-2.00), respectively; the corresponding values for CVD per 1-SD increase in HOMA-IR were 1.04 (0.92-1.18), 1.12 (1.06-1.18), and 1.15 (1.09-1.21), respectively (P for interaction = 0.011). Compared with participants with normal glucose tolerance, in participants with prediabetes, the combination of the highest HOMA-IR quartile and obesity showed 17% (95% CI 2-34%) higher risk of CVD, while the combination of the lowest two HOMA-IR quartiles and nonobesity showed 15-17% lower risk of CVD. In participants with diabetes, the upper two HOMA-IR quartiles exhibited 44-77% higher risk of CVD, regardless of obesity status. Consistent findings were observed for glucose tolerance status defined by different combinations of glycemic parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose intolerance status exacerbated the association between insulin resistance and CVD risk. Compared with adults with normal glucose tolerance, adults with prediabetes who were both insulin resistant and obese exhibited higher risks of CVD, while in adults with diabetes, the CVD risk related to insulin resistance remained, regardless of obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 865063, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694670

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to evaluate the association between depression and major cardiovascular events and test whether the relationship between depression and cardiovascular events is influenced by lifestyle or metabolic risk factors. Methods: The China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) Study was a nationwide, multicenter, prospective cohort study. About 92,869 participants without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline were included. Depression status was evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Lifestyle information was collected by the questionnaire, and metabolic risk factors including waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and plasma glucose were measured. Major cardiovascular events including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalized or treated heart failure events were validated based on medical records. Results: During an average of 3.8 years of follow-up, we detected 2,076 cardiovascular events and showed that participants with depressive symptoms had an increased risk for cardiovascular events after adjustments [hazard ratio (HR): 1.29; 95% confidence index (CI): 1.08-1.53]. Stratified on metabolic risk status, the relationship between depression and cardiovascular events tended to be stronger according to the increasing numbers of metabolic risk factors, with HR (95% CI) of 0.98 (0.72-1.35) in the category with 0-2 metabolic risk factors, 1.36 (0.996-1.87) and 1.47 (1.13-1.92) for those with 3, and 4-5 metabolic risk factors, respectively, indicating an interaction effect (P = 0.039). Conclusion: Depression was independently associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events. The effect was particularly prominent among populations at higher metabolic risk.

15.
J Clin Med ; 11(5)2022 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268405

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of intense pulsed light (IPL) combined with deproteinized calf blood extract (DCBE) eye drops for dry eye disease (DED) patients with nociceptive ocular pain. METHODS: In this prospective, one-center, interventional study, 23 subjects with DED and ocular pain were treated with a combination of IPL and DCBE eye drops for four sessions at a four-week interval. Subjective and objective assessments on nociceptive pain and dry eye were examined and analyzed. RESULTS: The visual analog scale (VAS), ocular surface disease index, ocular pain assessment survey (OPAS), patient health questionnaire-9 items, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7), Athens insomnia scale, corneal fluorescein staining score, meibomian gland secretion quality, and expressibility scores were significantly reduced after the treatment. Tear break-up time and Schirmer I test increased significantly. The brand density of corneal nerves and neuropeptide substance P also significantly increased. OPAS, GAD-7, meibomian gland secretion quality, and expressibility scores were essential factors affecting the VAS changes. CONCLUSIONS: IPL combined with DCBE drop therapy was effective for DED patients with ocular pain. With such treatment, both DED symptoms and the sensation of ocular pain may be improved.

16.
J Clin Med ; 11(5)2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268468

RESUMO

This prospective randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of intense pulsed light (IPL) and meibomian gland expression (MGX) as polytherapy for Sjögren's Syndrome-related dry eye (SS-DE). The study enrolled 55 participants with SS-DE, 27 for the treatment group and 28 for the control group. The treatment group underwent three IPL-MGX treatments, three weeks apart. A randomly-selected eye from each patient was assessed at baseline and on weeks 9, 12, and 15 for Snellen best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, conjunctival congestion, tear meniscus height, non-invasive tear breakup time (NBUT), Schirmer's I test (SIT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), meibomian gland (MG) dropout, eyelid margin abnormality, MGX and meibum quality. OSDI, NBUT, CFS, MGX, and meibum quality were significantly improved in both groups, particularly in the treatment group. The eyelid margin abnormality improved significantly in the treatment but not in the control group on weeks 12 and 15. Snellen BCVA, conjunctival congestion, and SIT improved significantly in the treatment group, but the two groups were statistically similar. Our results indicated that three IPL-MGX sessions could significantly improve the subjective and objective characteristics of SS-DE, representing a promising treatment strategy.

17.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 20: 100350, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The updated definition of hypertension by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) is an important paradigm shift and has lead to extensive discussion. We aimed to examine the association between the updated blood pressure (BP) categories and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) with potential modifications from other cardiovascular health metrics (CVHMs). METHODS: This prospective study included 91,204 participants ≥40 years recruited from 20 community sites across mainland China. Participants were followed up during 2010-2016 for CVD events including nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. BP categories were defined according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline and CVHMs included smoking, physical activity, diet, body-mass index, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. FINDINGS: Overall, 1,985 major CVD events occurred during a mean follow-up of 3.7 years. Having more ideal CVHMs significantly reduced the risk of CVD events in both stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension. Compared with participants without hypertension, participants having ≥4 ideal CVHMs were no longer associated with an increased CVD risk in stage 1 hypertension (HR=1·04; 95% CI=0·83-1·31), but less so in stage 2 hypertension (HR=1·90, 95% CI=1·70-2·13). Such pattern of association was more evident in participants aged <60 years (P for interaction <0·05). INTERPRETATION: Stage 1 hypertension defined by the ACC/AHA identifies individuals at increased CVD risk, which can be attenuated by achieving more preferable cardiovascular health, especially in adults aged <60 years.

18.
Arch Osteoporos ; 17(1): 14, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020038

RESUMO

Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is a therapy inhibiting bone resorption. In this study, generic ZOL (Yigu®) showed its clinical efficacy consistency with original ZOL (Aclasta®) in Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. This study provides a practical basis for the application of Yigu® in Chinese population. INTRODUCTION: Yigu® has been approved its bioequivalence to Aclasta®. However, the clinical efficacy and safety of Yigu® have not been evaluated yet. Here, we compared the effectiveness and safety between Yigu® and Aclasta® in Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and assessed the efficacy of intravenous infusion of ZOL. METHODS: This was a randomized open-label, active-controlled study in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis of 14 clinical centers in China. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were recruited and randomized to receive a single infusion of 5 mg Yigu® or Aclasta®. The primary endpoint was the percentage change in bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine after 12 months of treatment and was assessed for equivalence. The secondary endpoint was the percentage change in BMD at proximal femur after 12 months. Additional secondary endpoints were percentage changes in BMD at the above sites after 6 months of treatment and changes in bone turnover biomarkers during ZOL treatment. Safety was also evaluated and compared between two groups. RESULTS: A total of 458 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were enrolled (n = 227, Yigu®; n = 231, Aclasta®). The mean percentage change in the BMD had no statistical difference at the lumbar spine (5.32% vs 5.18%), total hip (2.72% vs 2.83%), and femoral neck (2.37% vs 2.81%) between Yigu® and Aclasta® groups after 12 months of treatment. The mean difference of BMD change at the lumbar spine after 12 months between two groups was 0.15% (95% CI: - 0.71 to 1.00, equivalence margin: - 1.5%, 1.5%), demonstrating the treatments were equivalent. Meanwhile, the decreases in the P1NP and ß-CTX showed no difference between two groups after 14 days and 6 and 12 months of treatment. As regards the whole sample, BMD significantly increased after 12 months of treatment. Also, serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (ß-CTX) and procollagen 1 N-terminal peptide (P1NP) significantly decreased at each visit period. The overall adverse events were comparable and quite well between two groups. CONCLUSION: Intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid achieved the potent anti-resorptive effects which led to significant increase in BMD of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Yigu® was equivalent to Aclasta® with respect to efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Osteoporose , Densidade Óssea , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 14, 2022 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether smoking modifies the associations of diabetes and risk factor management with subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and whether the smoking related CVD risk differs among people with and without diabetes are unclear. This study aimed to examine the associations and interactions of smoking, diabetes, and risk factor management in relation to incident CVD. METHODS: This nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study of 20 communities from various geographic regions recruited adults aged 40 years or older during 2011-2012. The follow-up survey was conducted between 2014 and 2016. This study included 126,181 participants who were free from CVD at baseline. RESULTS: Study participants included 19,397 current smokers (15.4%), 6,049 former smokers (4.8%), and 100,735 never smokers (79.8%). Mean (SD) age ranged from 55.8 (8.6) years to 60.7 (9.1) years. Compared with never smokers, heavy smokers exhibited a greater risk of CVD events among participants with diabetes (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% CI, 1.17-1.78) than among participants without diabetes (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.42; P for interaction = 0.006). Compared with participants without diabetes, participants with diabetes who were never smokers and had 5 or more controlled risk factors showed no significantly excess CVD risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.71-1.22), but the cardiovascular benefits from risk factor management were counteracted among participants with diabetes who were current smokers (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.77-2.14) or former smokers (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.66-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking and diabetes interacted with each other in relation to increased risk of CVD events, and the beneficial effect of risk factor management on CVD risk among participants with diabetes was attenuated by current or former smoking.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Dieta Saudável , Ex-Fumantes , Feminino , Controle Glicêmico , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(3): 1609-1620, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to clarify the association of soy intake with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in a Chinese population composed of 97,930 participants aged ≥ 40 years old without CVD at baseline in 2011. Habitual soy intake over a period of 12 months was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. All participants were classified into four groups based on their soy food consumption levels: < 15, 15-29, 30-59, and ≥ 60 g/day, with the lowest category as the reference group. Follow-up was conducted between 2014 and 2016 to assess CVD incidence and all-cause mortality since baseline, which was collected from the local mortality and disease registers of the National Disease Surveillance Point System and National Health Insurance System. The Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the relationship of soy intake with later CVD events and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During 350,604 person-years of follow-up (median [interquartile range]: 3.16 [2.98, 4.77] years), 2523 total CVD events and 1473 all-cause mortalities were documented. After controlling for covariates, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for total CVD events across increasing soy intake levels were 1.03 (0.93-1.14); 0.96 (0.86-1.07); and 0.86 (0.75-0.98; p for trend = 0.0434), while those for all-cause mortality were 0.88 (0.77-1.02); 0.86 (0.74-1.00); and 0.83 (0.69-0.99; p for trend = 0.0084). CONCLUSION: High soy intake was associated with a reduced risk of total CVD events and all-cause mortality among a Chinese population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Alimentos de Soja , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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