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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111703, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181966

RESUMO

Effects of microplastics on marine taxa have become a focal point in marine experimental biology. Almost all studies so far, however, assessed the influence of microplastics on animals only in relation to a zero-particle group. Documented microplastic impacts may thus be overestimated, since many marine species also experience natural suspended solids as a stressor. Here, we compared the effects of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and red clay (mean for both particles: ~12-14 µm) on the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis across three particle concentrations (1.5, 15, 150 mg l-1). Exposure to PVC for 35 days lowered mussel body condition index by 14% in relation to clay, but no difference in byssus production, respiration and survival rates emerged between the two particle types. This suggests that the effects of synthetic particles on filter feeders may emulate those of natural suspended solids, and highlights the importance of including natural particles in microplastic exposure studies.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Cloreto de Polivinila/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035224

RESUMO

Ocean warming, ocean acidification and overfishing are major threats to the structure and function of marine ecosystems. Driven by increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO2, ocean warming is leading to global redistribution of marine biota and altered ecosystem dynamics, while ocean acidification threatens the ability of calcifying marine organisms to form skeletons due to decline in saturation state of carbonate Ω and pH. In Tasmania, the interaction between overfishing of sea urchin predators and rapid ocean warming has caused a phase-shift from productive kelp beds to overgrazed sea urchin barren grounds, however potential impacts of ocean acidification on this system have not been considered despite this threat for marine ecosystems globally. Here we use automated loggers and point measures of pH, spanning kelp beds and barren grounds, to reveal that kelp beds have the capacity to locally ameliorate effects of ocean acidification, via photosynthetic drawdown of CO2, compared to unvegetated barren grounds. Based on meta-analysis of anticipated declines in physiological performance of grazing urchins to decreasing pH and assumptions of nil adaptation, future projection of OA across kelp-barrens transition zones reveals that kelp beds could act as important pH refugia, with urchins potentially becoming increasingly challenged at distances >40 m from kelp beds. Using spatially explicit simulation of physicochemical feedbacks between grazing urchins and their kelp prey, we show a stable mosaicked expression of kelp patches to emerge on barren grounds. Depending on the adaptative capacity of sea urchins, future declines in pH appear poised to further alter phase-shift dynamics for reef communities; thus, assessing change in spatial-patterning of reef-scapes may indicate cascading ecological impacts of ocean acidification.


Assuntos
Kelp , Oceanos e Mares , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Simulação por Computador , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Cadeia Alimentar , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Kelp/metabolismo , Ouriços-do-Mar/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Tasmânia
3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(10): 5630-5645, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597547

RESUMO

Ongoing ocean global change due to anthropogenic activities is causing multiple chemical and physical seawater properties to change simultaneously, which may affect the physiology of marine phytoplankton. The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is a model species often employed in the study of the marine carbon cycle. The effect of ocean acidification (OA) on coccolithophore calcification has been extensively studied; however, physiological responses to multiple environmental drivers are still largely unknown. Here we examined two-way and multiple driver effects of OA and other key environmental drivers-nitrate, phosphate, irradiance, and temperature-on the growth, photosynthetic, and calcification rates, and the elemental composition of E. huxleyi. In addition, changes in functional gene expression were examined to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning the physiological responses. The single driver manipulation experiments suggest decreased nitrate supply being the most important driver regulating E. huxleyi physiology, by significantly reducing the growth, photosynthetic, and calcification rates. In addition, the interaction of OA and decreased nitrate supply (projected for year 2100) had more negative synergistic effects on E. huxleyi physiology than all other two-way factorial manipulations, suggesting a linkage between the single dominant driver (nitrate) effects and interactive effects with other drivers. Simultaneous manipulation of all five environmental drivers to the conditions of the projected year 2100 had the largest negative effects on most of the physiological metrics. Furthermore, functional genes associated with inorganic carbon acquisition (RubisCO, AEL1, and δCA) and calcification (CAX3, AEL1, PATP, and NhaA2) were most downregulated by the multiple driver manipulation, revealing linkages between responses of functional gene expression and associated physiological metrics. These findings together indicate that for more holistic projections of coccolithophore responses to future ocean global change, it is necessary to understand the relative importance of environmental drivers both individually (i.e., mechanistic understanding) and interactively (i.e., cumulative effect) on coccolithophore physiology.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3186, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081970

RESUMO

Local and global changes associated with anthropogenic activities are impacting marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Macroalgae, especially habitat-forming species like kelp, play critical roles in temperate coastal ecosystems. However, their abundance and distribution patterns have been negatively affected by warming in many regions around the globe. Along with global change, coastal ecosystems are also impacted by local drivers such as eutrophication. The interaction between global and local drivers might modulate kelp responses to environmental change. This study examines the regulatory effect of NO3- on the thermal plasticity of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. To do this, thermal performance curves (TPCs) of key temperature-dependant traits-growth, photosynthesis, NO3- assimilation and chlorophyll a fluorescence-were examined under nitrate replete and deplete conditions in a short-term incubation. We found that thermal plasticity was modulated by NO3- but different thermal responses were observed among traits. Our study reveals that nitrogen, a local driver, modulates kelp responses to high seawater temperatures, ameliorating the negative impacts on physiological performance (i.e. growth and photosynthesis). However, this effect might be species-specific and vary among biogeographic regions - thus, further work is needed to determine the generality of our findings to other key temperate macroalgae that are experiencing temperatures close to their thermal tolerance due to climate change.

5.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(6): 3512-3524, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105368

RESUMO

Marine heatwaves are extreme events that can have profound and lasting impacts on marine species. Field observations have shown seaweeds to be highly susceptible to marine heatwaves, but the physiological drivers of this susceptibility are poorly understood. Furthermore, the effects of marine heatwaves in conjunction with ocean warming and acidification are yet to be investigated. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a laboratory culture experiment in which we tested the growth and physiological responses of Phyllospora comosa juveniles from the southern extent of its range (43-31°S) to marine heatwaves, ocean warming and acidification. We used a 'collapsed factorial design' in which marine heatwaves were superimposed on current (today's pH and temperature) and future (pH and temperature projected by 2100) ocean conditions. Responses were tested both during the heatwaves, and after a 7-day recovery period. Heatwaves reduced net photosynthetic rates in both current and future conditions, while respiration rates were elevated under heatwaves in the current conditions only. Following the recovery period, there was little evidence of heatwaves having lasting negative effects on growth, photosynthesis or respiration. Exposure to heatwaves, future ocean conditions or both caused an increase in the degree of saturation of fatty acids. This adjustment may have counteracted negative effects of elevated temperatures by decreasing membrane fluidity, which increases at higher temperatures. Furthermore, P. comosa appeared to down-regulate the energetically expensive carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism in the future conditions with a reduction in δ13 C values detected in these treatments. Any saved energy arising from this down-regulation was not invested in growth and was likely invested in the adjustment of fatty acid composition. This adjustment is a mechanism by which P. comosa and other seaweeds may tolerate the negative effects of ocean warming and marine heatwaves through benefits arising from ocean acidification.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar , Temperatura
6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(2): 343-354, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873988

RESUMO

Extreme heat wave events are now causing ecosystem degradation across marine ecosystems. The consequences of this heat-induced damage range from the rapid loss of habitat-forming organisms, through to a reduction in the services that ecosystems support, and ultimately to impacts on human health and society. How we tackle the sudden emergence of ecosystem-wide degradation has not yet been addressed in the context of marine heat waves. An examination of recent marine heat waves from around Australia points to the potential important role that respite or refuge from environmental extremes can play in enabling organismal survival. However, most ecological interventions are being devised with a target of mid to late-century implementation, at which time many of the ecosystems, that the interventions are targeted towards, will have already undergone repeated and widespread heat wave induced degradation. Here, our assessment of the merits of proposed ecological interventions, across a spectrum of approaches, to counter marine environmental extremes, reveals a lack preparedness to counter the effects of extreme conditions on marine ecosystems. The ecological influence of these extremes are projected to continue to impact marine ecosystems in the coming years, long before these interventions can be developed. Our assessment reveals that approaches which are technologically ready and likely to be socially acceptable are locally deployable only, whereas those which are scalable-for example to features as large as major reef systems-are not close to being testable, and are unlikely to obtain social licence for deployment. Knowledge of the environmental timescales for survival of extremes, via respite or refuge, inferred from field observations will help test such intervention tools. The growing frequency of extreme events such as marine heat waves increases the urgency to consider mitigation and intervention tools that support organismal and ecosystem survival in the immediate future, while global climate mitigation and/or intervention are formulated.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Austrália , Clima , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
7.
Ecol Evol ; 9(1): 125-140, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680101

RESUMO

Increased plant biomass is observed in terrestrial systems due to rising levels of atmospheric CO2, but responses of marine macroalgae to CO2 enrichment are unclear. The 200% increase in CO2 by 2100 is predicted to enhance the productivity of fleshy macroalgae that acquire inorganic carbon solely as CO2 (non-carbon dioxide-concentrating mechanism [CCM] species-i.e., species without a carbon dioxide-concentrating mechanism), whereas those that additionally uptake bicarbonate (CCM species) are predicted to respond neutrally or positively depending on their affinity for bicarbonate. Previous studies, however, show that fleshy macroalgae exhibit a broad variety of responses to CO2 enrichment and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This physiological study compared the responses of a CCM species (Lomentaria australis) with a non-CCM species (Craspedocarpus ramentaceus) to CO2 enrichment with regards to growth, net photosynthesis, and biochemistry. Contrary to expectations, there was no enrichment effect for the non-CCM species, whereas the CCM species had a twofold greater growth rate, likely driven by a downregulation of the energetically costly CCM(s). This saved energy was invested into new growth rather than storage lipids and fatty acids. In addition, we conducted a comprehensive literature synthesis to examine the extent to which the growth and photosynthetic responses of fleshy macroalgae to elevated CO2 are related to their carbon acquisition strategies. Findings highlight that the responses of macroalgae to CO2 enrichment cannot be inferred solely from their carbon uptake strategy, and targeted physiological experiments on a wider range of species are needed to better predict responses of macroalgae to future oceanic change.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14763, 2018 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283041

RESUMO

Ocean warming (OW), ocean acidification (OA) and their interaction with local drivers, e.g., copper pollution, may negatively affect macroalgae and their microscopic life stages. We evaluated meiospore development of the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida exposed to a factorial combination of current and 2100-predicted temperature (12 and 16 °C, respectively), pH (8.16 and 7.65, respectively), and two copper levels (no-added-copper and species-specific germination Cu-EC50). Meiospore germination for both species declined by 5-18% under OA and ambient temperature/OA conditions, irrespective of copper exposure. Germling growth rate declined by >40%·day-1, and gametophyte development was inhibited under Cu-EC50 exposure, compared to the no-added-copper treatment, irrespective of pH and temperature. Following the removal of copper and 9-day recovery under respective pH and temperature treatments, germling growth rates increased by 8-18%·day-1. The exception was U. pinnatifida under OW/OA, where growth rate remained at 10%·day-1 before and after copper exposure. Copper-binding ligand concentrations were higher in copper-exposed cultures of both species, suggesting that ligands may act as a defence mechanism of kelp early life stages against copper toxicity. Our study demonstrated that copper pollution is more important than global climate drivers in controlling meiospore development in kelps as it disrupts the completion of their life cycle.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Células Germinativas Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrocystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Undaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Mudança Climática , Células Germinativas Vegetais/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Macrocystis/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/química , Undaria/fisiologia
9.
Food Chem ; 265: 70-77, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884396

RESUMO

To assess the suitability of southern-Australian macroalgae as potential marine resources for fatty acids (FA), and in particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), analysis of 61 species, comprising of 11 Chlorophyta, 17 Phaeophyceae (Ochrophyta) and 33 Rhodophyta, was conducted. Total fatty acid (TFA) concentrations varied considerably (between 0.6 and 7.8 in % of dry weight (DW)) between species, with on average the highest concentrations being in the Phaeophyceae, then the Chlorophyta, and with the Rhodophyta recording the lowest average concentrations. Results revealed significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the three algal groups. Most species exhibit high proportions of PUFA in their fatty acid profile and a low ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA. These properties highlight the potential for southern-Australian macroalgae to be used for these FA in food, animal feed and nutraceutical applications.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Alga Marinha/química , Animais , Austrália , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(6): 2239-2261, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476630

RESUMO

Marine life is controlled by multiple physical and chemical drivers and by diverse ecological processes. Many of these oceanic properties are being altered by climate change and other anthropogenic pressures. Hence, identifying the influences of multifaceted ocean change, from local to global scales, is a complex task. To guide policy-making and make projections of the future of the marine biosphere, it is essential to understand biological responses at physiological, evolutionary and ecological levels. Here, we contrast and compare different approaches to multiple driver experiments that aim to elucidate biological responses to a complex matrix of ocean global change. We present the benefits and the challenges of each approach with a focus on marine research, and guidelines to navigate through these different categories to help identify strategies that might best address research questions in fundamental physiology, experimental evolutionary biology and community ecology. Our review reveals that the field of multiple driver research is being pulled in complementary directions: the need for reductionist approaches to obtain process-oriented, mechanistic understanding and a requirement to quantify responses to projected future scenarios of ocean change. We conclude the review with recommendations on how best to align different experimental approaches to contribute fundamental information needed for science-based policy formulation.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oceanos e Mares , Animais
11.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188389, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176815

RESUMO

The responses of macroalgae to ocean acidification could be altered by availability of macronutrients, such as ammonium (NH4+). This study determined how the opportunistic macroalga, Ulva australis responded to simultaneous changes in decreasing pH and NH4+ enrichment. This was investigated in a week-long growth experiment across a range of predicted future pHs with ambient and enriched NH4+ treatments followed by measurements of relative growth rates (RGR), NH4+ uptake rates and pools, total chlorophyll, and tissue carbon and nitrogen content. Rapid light curves (RLCs) were used to measure the maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm). Photosynthetic capacity was derived from the RLCs and included the efficiency of light harvesting (α), slope of photoinhibition (ß), and the light saturation point (Ek). The results showed that NH4+ enrichment did not modify the effects of pH on RGRs, NH4+ uptake rates and pools, total chlorophyll, rETRmax, α, ß, Fv/Fm, tissue C and N, and the C:N ratio. However, Ek was differentially affected by pH under different NH4+ treatments. Ek increased with decreasing pH in the ambient NH4+ treatment, but not in the enriched NH4+ treatment. NH4+ enrichment increased RGRs, NH4+ pools, total chlorophyll, rETRmax, α, ß, Fv/Fm, and tissue N, and decreased NH4+ uptake rates and the C:N ratio. Decreased pH increased total chlorophyll content, rETRmax, Fv/Fm, and tissue N content, and decreased the C:N ratio. Therefore, the results indicate that U. australis growth is increased with NH4+ enrichment and not with decreasing pH. While decreasing pH influenced the carbon and nitrogen metabolisms of U. australis, it did not result in changes in growth.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Ulva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ulva/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Carbonatos/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Luz , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Água do Mar , Ulva/efeitos da radiação
12.
Sci Rep ; 7: 46297, 2017 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28417970

RESUMO

Beneficial effects of CO2 on photosynthetic organisms will be a key driver of ecosystem change under ocean acidification. Predicting the responses of macroalgal species to ocean acidification is complex, but we demonstrate that the response of assemblages to elevated CO2 are correlated with inorganic carbon physiology. We assessed abundance patterns and a proxy for CO2:HCO3- use (δ13C values) of macroalgae along a gradient of CO2 at a volcanic seep, and examined how shifts in species abundance at other Mediterranean seeps are related to macroalgal inorganic carbon physiology. Five macroalgal species capable of using both HCO3- and CO2 had greater CO2 use as concentrations increased. These species (and one unable to use HCO3-) increased in abundance with elevated CO2 whereas obligate calcifying species, and non-calcareous macroalgae whose CO2 use did not increase consistently with concentration, declined in abundance. Physiological groupings provide a mechanistic understanding that will aid us in determining which species will benefit from ocean acidification and why.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Itália , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar
13.
J Phycol ; 53(3): 557-566, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28164308

RESUMO

The absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans is causing a reduction in the pH of the surface waters termed ocean acidification (OA). This could have substantial effects on marine coastal environments where fleshy (non-calcareous) macroalgae are dominant primary producers and ecosystem engineers. Few OA studies have focused on the early life stages of large macroalgae such as kelps. This study evaluated the effects of seawater pH on the ontogenic development of meiospores of the native kelp Macrocystis pyrifera and the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida, in south-eastern New Zealand. Meiospores of both kelps were released into four seawater pH treatments (pHT 7.20, extreme OA predicted for 2300; pHT 7.65, OA predicted for 2100; pHT 8.01, ambient pH; and pHT 8.40, pre-industrial pH) and cultured for 15 d. Meiospore germination, germling growth rate, and gametophyte size and sex ratio were monitored and measured. Exposure to reduced pHT (7.20 and 7.65) had positive effects on germling growth rate and gametophyte size in both M. pyrifera and U. pinnatifida, whereas, higher pHT (8.01 and 8.40) reduced the gametophyte size in both kelps. Sex ratio of gametophytes of both kelps was biased toward females under all pHT treatments, except for U. pinnatifida at pHT 7.65. Germling growth rate under OA was significantly higher in M. pyrifera compared to U. pinnatifida but gametophyte development was equal for both kelps under all seawater pHT treatments, indicating that the microscopic stages of the native M. pyrifera and the invasive U. pinnatifida will respond similarly to OA.


Assuntos
Kelp/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Macrocystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/química , Undaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Germinativas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares
14.
Physiol Plant ; 159(1): 107-119, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27293117

RESUMO

Ocean acidification (OA), the ongoing decline in seawater pH, is predicted to have wide-ranging effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. For seaweeds, the pH at the thallus surface, within the diffusion boundary layer (DBL), is one of the factors controlling their response to OA. Surface pH is controlled by both the pH of the bulk seawater and by the seaweeds' metabolism: photosynthesis and respiration increase and decrease pH within the DBL (pHDBL ), respectively. However, other metabolic processes, especially the uptake of inorganic nitrogen (Ni ; NO3- and NH4+ ) may also affect the pHDBL . Using Macrocystis pyrifera, we hypothesized that (1) NO3- uptake will increase the pHDBL , whereas NH4+ uptake will decrease it, (2) if NO3- is cotransported with H+ , increases in pHDBL would be greater under an OA treatment (pH = 7.65) than under an ambient treatment (pH = 8.00), and (3) decreases in pHDBL will be smaller at pH 7.65 than at pH 8.00, as higher external [H+ ] might affect the strength of the diffusion gradient. Overall, Ni source did not affect the pHDBL . However, increases in pHDBL were greater at pH 7.65 than at pH 8.00. CO2 uptake was higher at pH 7.65 than at pH 8.00, whereas HCO3- uptake was unaffected by pH. Photosynthesis and respiration control pHDBL rather than Ni uptake. We suggest that under future OA, Macrocystis pyrifera will metabolically modify its surface microenvironment such that the physiological processes of photosynthesis and Ni uptake will not be affected by a reduced pH.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Macrocystis/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Água do Mar/química , Microambiente Celular , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 6: 26036, 2016 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27229624

RESUMO

Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Oceanos e Mares , Feófitas/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Processos de Crescimento Celular , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Biologia Marinha , Fotossíntese , Tasmânia
16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 22(8): 2633-50, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27111095

RESUMO

Organisms are projected to face unprecedented rates of change in future ocean conditions due to anthropogenic climate-change. At present, marine life encounters a wide range of environmental heterogeneity from natural fluctuations to mean climate change. Manipulation studies suggest that biota from more variable marine environments have more phenotypic plasticity to tolerate environmental heterogeneity. Here, we consider current strategies employed by a range of representative organisms across various habitats - from short-lived phytoplankton to long-lived corals - in response to environmental heterogeneity. We then discuss how, if and when organismal responses (acclimate/migrate/adapt) may be altered by shifts in the magnitude of the mean climate-change signal relative to that for natural fluctuations projected for coming decades. The findings from both novel climate-change modelling simulations and prior biological manipulation studies, in which natural fluctuations are superimposed on those of mean change, provide valuable insights into organismal responses to environmental heterogeneity. Manipulations reveal that different experimental outcomes are evident between climate-change treatments which include natural fluctuations vs. those which do not. Modelling simulations project that the magnitude of climate variability, along with mean climate change, will increase in coming decades, and hence environmental heterogeneity will increase, illustrating the need for more realistic biological manipulation experiments that include natural fluctuations. However, simulations also strongly suggest that the timescales over which the mean climate-change signature will become dominant, relative to natural fluctuations, will vary for individual properties, being most rapid for CO2 (~10 years from present day) to 4 decades for nutrients. We conclude that the strategies used by biota to respond to shifts in environmental heterogeneity may be complex, as they will have to physiologically straddle wide-ranging timescales in the alteration of ocean conditions, including the need to adapt to rapidly rising CO2 and also acclimate to environmental heterogeneity in more slowly changing properties such as warming.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares , Clima , Fitoplâncton
17.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0140394, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26469945

RESUMO

Coralline algae are susceptible to the changes in the seawater carbonate system associated with ocean acidification (OA). However, the coastal environments in which corallines grow are subject to large daily pH fluctuations which may affect their responses to OA. Here, we followed the growth and development of the juvenile coralline alga Arthrocardia corymbosa, which had recruited into experimental conditions during a prior experiment, using a novel OA laboratory culture system to simulate the pH fluctuations observed within a kelp forest. Microscopic life history stages are considered more susceptible to environmental stress than adult stages; we compared the responses of newly recruited A. corymbosa to static and fluctuating seawater pH with those of their field-collected parents. Recruits were cultivated for 16 weeks under static pH 8.05 and 7.65, representing ambient and 4× preindustrial pCO2 concentrations, respectively, and two fluctuating pH treatments of daily [Formula: see text] (daytime pH = 8.45, night-time pH = 7.65) and daily [Formula: see text] (daytime pH = 8.05, night-time pH = 7.25). Positive growth rates of new recruits were recorded in all treatments, and were highest under static pH 8.05 and lowest under fluctuating pH 7.65. This pattern was similar to the adults' response, except that adults had zero growth under fluctuating pH 7.65. The % dry weight of MgCO3 in calcite of the juveniles was reduced from 10% at pH 8.05 to 8% at pH 7.65, but there was no effect of pH fluctuation. A wide range of fleshy macroalgae and at least 6 species of benthic diatoms recruited across all experimental treatments, from cryptic spores associated with the adult A. corymbosa. There was no effect of experimental treatment on the growth of the benthic diatoms. On the community level, pH-sensitive species may survive lower pH in the presence of diatoms and fleshy macroalgae, whose high metabolic activity may raise the pH of the local microhabitat.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Oceanos e Mares , Feófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Feófitas/metabolismo , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0123945, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25970340

RESUMO

The unabated rise in anthropogenic CO2 emissions is predicted to strongly influence the ocean's environment, increasing the mean sea-surface temperature by 4°C and causing a pH decline of 0.3 units by the year 2100. These changes are likely to affect the nutritional value of marine food sources since temperature and CO2 can influence the fatty (FA) and amino acid (AA) composition of marine primary producers. Here, essential amino (EA) and polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) acids are of particular importance due to their nutritional value to higher trophic levels. In order to determine the interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on the nutritional quality of a primary producer, we analyzed the relative PUFA and EA composition of the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis cultured under a factorial matrix of 2 temperatures (14 and 19°C) and 3 partial pressures of CO2 (180, 380, 750 µatm) for >250 generations. Our results show a decay of ~3% and ~6% in PUFA and EA content in algae kept at a pCO2 of 750 µatm (high) compared to the 380 µatm (intermediate) CO2 treatments at 14°C. Cultures kept at 19°C displayed a ~3% lower PUFA content under high compared to intermediate pCO2, while EA did not show differences between treatments. Algae grown at a pCO2 of 180 µatm (low) had a lower PUFA and AA content in relation to those at intermediate and high CO2 levels at 14°C, but there were no differences in EA at 19°C for any CO2 treatment. This study is the first to report adverse effects of warming and acidification on the EA of a primary producer, and corroborates previous observations of negative effects of these stressors on PUFA. Considering that only ~20% of essential biomolecules such as PUFA (and possibly EA) are incorporated into new biomass at the next trophic level, the potential impacts of adverse effects of ocean warming and acidification at the base of the food web may be amplified towards higher trophic levels, which rely on them as source of essential biomolecules.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/antagonistas & inibidores , Cadeia Alimentar , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Análise de Componente Principal , Água do Mar/química , Temperatura
20.
Photosynth Res ; 124(3): 293-304, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25869634

RESUMO

Under ocean acidification (OA), the 200 % increase in CO2(aq) and the reduction of pH by 0.3-0.4 units are predicted to affect the carbon physiology and growth of macroalgae. Here we examined how the physiology of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera is affected by elevated pCO2/low pH. Growth and photosynthetic rates, external and internal carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, HCO3 (-) versus CO2 use were determined over a 7-day incubation at ambient pCO2 400 µatm/pH 8.00 and a future OA treatment of pCO2 1200 µatm/pH 7.59. Neither the photosynthetic nor growth rates were changed by elevated CO2 supply in the OA treatment. These results were explained by the greater use of HCO3 (-) compared to CO2 as an inorganic carbon (Ci) source to support photosynthesis. Macrocystis is a mixed HCO3 (-) and CO2 user that exhibits two effective mechanisms for HCO3 (-) utilization; as predicted for species that possess carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs), photosynthesis was not substantially affected by elevated pCO2. The internal CA activity was also unaffected by OA, and it remained high and active throughout the experiment; this suggests that HCO3 (-) uptake via an anion exchange protein was not affected by OA. Our results suggest that photosynthetic Ci uptake and growth of Macrocystis will not be affected by elevated pCO2/low pH predicted for the future, but the combined effects with other environmental factors like temperature and nutrient availability could change the physiological response of Macrocystis to OA. Therefore, further studies will be important to elucidate how this species might respond to the global environmental change predicted for the ocean.


Assuntos
Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Macrocystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Mudança Climática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Macrocystis/enzimologia , Oceanos e Mares
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