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2.
Arch Pharmacol Ther ; 3(2): 52-65, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766166

RESUMO

Background: Inhaled budesonide benefits patients with COVID-19. ProLung™-budesonide enables the sustained, low dose administration of budesonide within a delivery vehicle similar to lung surfactant. ProLung™-budesonide may offer anti-inflammatory and protective effects to the lung in COVID-19, yet it's effect on SARS-CoV-2 replication is unknown. Objective: To determine the efficacy of ProLung™-budesonide against SARS-CoV-2-infection in vitro, evaluate its ability to decrease inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness in an animal model of lung inflammation. Methods: SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero 76 cells were treated with ProLung™-budesonide ([0.03-100 µg/ml]) for 3 days, and virus yield in the supernatant was measured. Ovalbumin-sensitized C57BL/6 mice received aerosolized (a) ProLung™-budesonide weekly, (b) only budesonide, either daily or weekly, or (c) weekly empty ProLung™ carrier (without budesonide). All treatment groups were compared to sensitized untreated, or normal mice using histopathologic examination, electron microscopy (EM), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to Methacholine (Mch) challenge, and eosinophil peroxidase activity (EPO) measurements in bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL). Results: ProLung™-budesonide showed significant inhibition of viral replication of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells with the selectivity index (SI) value >24. Weekly ProLung™-budesonide and daily budesonide therapy significantly decreased lung inflammation and EPO in BAL. ProLung™-budesonide localized in type II pneumocytes, and was the only group to significantly decrease AHR, and EPO in BAL with Mch challenge. Conclusions: ProLung™-budesonide significantly inhibited viral replication in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. It localized into type II pneumocytes, decreased lung inflammation, AHR and EPO activity with Mch challenge. This novel drug formulation may offer a potential inhalational treatment for COVID-19.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20595, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663881

RESUMO

The delivery of safe, visible wavelengths of light can be an effective, pathogen-agnostic, countermeasure that would expand the current portfolio of SARS-CoV-2 intervention strategies beyond the conventional approaches of vaccine, antibody, and antiviral therapeutics. Employing custom biological light units, that incorporate optically engineered light-emitting diode (LED) arrays, we harnessed monochromatic wavelengths of light for uniform delivery across biological surfaces. We demonstrated that primary 3D human tracheal/bronchial-derived epithelial tissues tolerated high doses of a narrow spectral band of visible light centered at a peak wavelength of 425 nm. We extended these studies to Vero E6 cells to understand how light may influence the viability of a mammalian cell line conventionally used for assaying SARS-CoV-2. The exposure of single-cell monolayers of Vero E6 cells to similar doses of 425 nm blue light resulted in viabilities that were dependent on dose and cell density. Doses of 425 nm blue light that are well-tolerated by Vero E6 cells also inhibited infection and replication of cell-associated SARS-CoV-2 by > 99% 24 h post-infection after a single five-minute light exposure. Moreover, the 425 nm blue light inactivated cell-free betacoronaviruses including SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 up to 99.99% in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, clinically applicable doses of 425 nm blue light dramatically inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in primary human 3D tracheal/bronchial tissue. Safe doses of visible light should be considered part of the strategic portfolio for the development of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic countermeasures to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Luz , SARS-CoV-2 , Traqueia/efeitos da radiação , Replicação Viral/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Brônquios , Calibragem , Sistema Livre de Células , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epitélio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos da radiação , Traqueia/virologia , Células Vero
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(36): 14748-14765, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490778

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for platform technologies enabling rapid development of vaccines for emerging viral diseases. The current vaccines target the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and thus far have shown tremendous efficacy. However, the need for cold-chain distribution, a prime-boost administration schedule, and the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) call for diligence in novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccine approaches. We studied 13 peptide epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 and identified three neutralizing epitopes that are highly conserved among the VOCs. Monovalent and trivalent COVID-19 vaccine candidates were formulated by chemical conjugation of the peptide epitopes to cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles and virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from bacteriophage Qß. Efficacy of this approach was validated first using soluble vaccine candidates as solo or trivalent mixtures and subcutaneous prime-boost injection. The high thermal stability of our vaccine candidates allowed for formulation into single-dose injectable slow-release polymer implants, manufactured by melt extrusion, as well as microneedle (MN) patches, obtained through casting into micromolds, for prime-boost self-administration. Immunization of mice yielded high titers of antibodies against the target epitope and S protein, and data confirms that antibodies block receptor binding and neutralize SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 against infection of human cells. We present a nanotechnology vaccine platform that is stable outside the cold-chain and can be formulated into delivery devices enabling single administration or self-administration. CPMV or Qß VLPs could be stockpiled, and epitopes exchanged to target new mutants or emergent diseases as the need arises.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Vacinas de Subunidades/metabolismo , Animais , Comovirus , Simulação por Computador , Composição de Medicamentos , Epitopos/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química , Peptídeos/química , Vacinação , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/química
5.
Vaccine ; 39(38): 5410-5421, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391593

RESUMO

Traditional bolus vaccine administration leads to rapid clearance of vaccine from lymphoid tissue. However, there is increasing evidence suggesting that the kinetics of antigen delivery can impact immune responses to vaccines, particularly when tailored to mimic natural infections. Here, we present the specific enhancements sustained release immunization confers to seasonal influenza vaccine, including the magnitude, durability, and breadth of humoral responses. To achieve sustained vaccine delivery kinetics, we have developed a microneedle array patch (MIMIX), with silk fibroin-formulated vaccine tips designed to embed in the dermis after a short application to the skin and release antigen over 1-2 weeks, mimicking the time course of a natural influenza infection. In a preclinical murine model, a single influenza vaccine administration via MIMIX led to faster seroconversion, response-equivalence to prime-boost bolus immunization, higher HAI titers against drifted influenza strains, and improved protective efficacy upon lethal influenza challenge when compared with intramuscular injection. These results highlight infection mimicry, achieved through sustained release silk microneedles, as a powerful approach to improve existing seasonal influenza vaccines, while also suggesting the broader potential of this platform technology to enable more efficacious next-generation vaccines and vaccine combinations.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Animais , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Agulhas , Seda
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439781

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection of host cells is driven by binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike-(S)-protein to lung type II pneumocytes, followed by virus replication. Surfactant protein SP-D, member of the front-line immune defense of the lungs, binds glycosylated structures on invading pathogens such as viruses to induce their clearance from the lungs. The objective of this study is to measure the pulmonary SP-D levels in COVID-19 patients and demonstrate the activity of SP-D against SARS-CoV-2, opening the possibility of using SP-D as potential therapy for COVID-19 patients. Pulmonary SP-D concentrations were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by anti-SP-D ELISA. Binding assays were performed by ELISAs. Protein bridge and aggregation assays were performed by gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining and band densitometry. Viral replication was evaluated in vitro using epithelial Caco-2 cells. Results indicate that COVID-19 patients (n = 12) show decreased pulmonary levels of SP-D (median = 68.9 ng/mL) when compared to levels reported for healthy controls in literature. Binding assays demonstrate that SP-D binds the SARS-CoV-2 glycosylated spike-(S)-protein of different emerging clinical variants. Binding induces the formation of protein bridges, the critical step of viral aggregation to facilitate its clearance. SP-D inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in Caco-2 cells (EC90 = 3.7 µg/mL). Therefore, SP-D recognizes and binds to the spike-(S)-protein of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, initiates the aggregation, and inhibits viral replication in cells. Combined with the low levels of SP-D observed in COVID-19 patients, these results suggest that SP-D is important in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and that rhSP-D supplementation has the potential to be a novel class of anti-viral that will target SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/virologia , Células CACO-2 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ligação Proteica , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/genética , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral
7.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(9): 4224-4235, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387990

RESUMO

With the rapidly evolving SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, there is an urgent need for the discovery of further treatments for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Drug repurposing is one of the most rapid strategies for addressing this need, and numerous compounds have already been selected for in vitro testing by several groups. These have led to a growing database of molecules with in vitro activity against the virus. Machine learning models can assist drug discovery through prediction of the best compounds based on previously published data. Herein, we have implemented several machine learning methods to develop predictive models from recent SARS-CoV-2 in vitro inhibition data and used them to prioritize additional FDA-approved compounds for in vitro testing selected from our in-house compound library. From the compounds predicted with a Bayesian machine learning model, lumefantrine, an antimalarial was selected for testing and showed limited antiviral activity in cell-based assays while demonstrating binding (Kd 259 nM) to the spike protein using microscale thermophoresis. Several other compounds which we prioritized have since been tested by others and were also found to be active in vitro. This combined machine learning and in vitro testing approach can be expanded to virtually screen available molecules with predicted activity against SARS-CoV-2 reference WIV04 strain and circulating variants of concern. In the process of this work, we have created multiple iterations of machine learning models that can be used as a prioritization tool for SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drug discovery programs. The very latest model for SARS-CoV-2 with over 500 compounds is now freely available at www.assaycentral.org.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
8.
Algal Res ; 57: 102331, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026476

RESUMO

Viruses are abiotic obligate parasites utilizing complex mechanisms to hijack cellular machinery and reproduce, causing multiple harmful effects in the process. Viruses represent a growing global health concern; at the time of writing, COVID-19 has killed at least two million people around the world and devastated global economies. Lingering concern regarding the virus' prevalence yet hampers return to normalcy. While catastrophic in and of itself, COVID-19 further heralds in a new era of human-disease interaction characterized by the emergence of novel viruses from natural sources with heretofore unseen frequency. Due to deforestation, population growth, and climate change, we are encountering more viruses that can infect larger groups of people with greater ease and increasingly severe outcomes. The devastation of COVID-19 and forecasts of future human/disease interactions call for a creative reconsideration of global response to infectious disease. There is an urgent need for accessible, cost-effective antiviral (AV) drugs that can be mass-produced and widely distributed to large populations. Development of AV drugs should be informed by a thorough understanding of viral structure and function as well as human biology. To maximize efficacy, minimize cost, and reduce development of drug-resistance, these drugs would ideally operate through a varied set of mechanisms at multiple stages throughout the course of infection. Due to their abundance and diversity, natural compounds are ideal for such comprehensive therapeutic interventions. Promising sources of such drugs are found throughout nature; especially remarkable are the algae, a polyphyletic grouping of phototrophs that produce diverse bioactive compounds. While not much literature has been published on the subject, studies have shown that these compounds exert antiviral effects at different stages of viral pathogenesis. In this review, we follow the course of viral infection in the human body and evaluate the AV effects of algae-derived compounds at each stage. Specifically, we examine the AV activities of algae-derived compounds at the entry of viruses into the body, transport through the body via the lymph and blood, infection of target cells, and immune response. We discuss what is known about algae-derived compounds that may interfere with the infection pathways of SARS-CoV-2; and review which algae are promising sources for AV agents or AV precursors that, with further investigation, may yield life-saving drugs due to their diversity of mechanisms and exceptional pharmaceutical potential.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250019, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886614

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic, and has taken over 1.7 million lives as of mid-December, 2020. Although great progress has been made in the development of effective countermeasures, with several pharmaceutical companies approved or poised to deliver vaccines to market, there is still an unmet need of essential antiviral drugs with therapeutic impact for the treatment of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. Towards this goal, a high-throughput assay was used to screen SARS-CoV-2 nsp15 uracil-dependent endonuclease (endoU) function against 13 thousand compounds from drug and lead repurposing compound libraries. While over 80% of initial hit compounds were pan-assay inhibitory compounds, three hits were confirmed as nsp15 endoU inhibitors in the 1-20 µM range in vitro. Furthermore, Exebryl-1, a ß-amyloid anti-aggregation molecule for Alzheimer's therapy, was shown to have antiviral activity between 10 to 66 µM, in Vero 76, Caco-2, and Calu-3 cells. Although the inhibitory concentrations determined for Exebryl-1 exceed those recommended for therapeutic intervention, our findings show great promise for further optimization of Exebryl-1 as an nsp15 endoU inhibitor and as a SARS-CoV-2 antiviral.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Endorribonucleases/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/virologia , Células CACO-2 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
10.
ACS Omega ; 6(11): 7454-7468, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778258

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified virus that has resulted in over 2.5 million deaths globally and over 116 million cases globally in March, 2021. Small-molecule inhibitors that reverse disease severity have proven difficult to discover. One of the key approaches that has been widely applied in an effort to speed up the translation of drugs is drug repurposing. A few drugs have shown in vitro activity against Ebola viruses and demonstrated activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vivo. Most notably, the RNA polymerase targeting remdesivir demonstrated activity in vitro and efficacy in the early stage of the disease in humans. Testing other small-molecule drugs that are active against Ebola viruses (EBOVs) would appear a reasonable strategy to evaluate their potential for SARS-CoV-2. We have previously repurposed pyronaridine, tilorone, and quinacrine (from malaria, influenza, and antiprotozoal uses, respectively) as inhibitors of Ebola and Marburg viruses in vitro in HeLa cells and mouse-adapted EBOV in mice in vivo. We have now tested these three drugs in various cell lines (VeroE6, Vero76, Caco-2, Calu-3, A549-ACE2, HUH-7, and monocytes) infected with SARS-CoV-2 as well as other viruses (including MHV and HCoV 229E). The compilation of these results indicated considerable variability in antiviral activity observed across cell lines. We found that tilorone and pyronaridine inhibited the virus replication in A549-ACE2 cells with IC50 values of 180 nM and IC50 198 nM, respectively. We used microscale thermophoresis to test the binding of these molecules to the spike protein, and tilorone and pyronaridine bind to the spike receptor binding domain protein with K d values of 339 and 647 nM, respectively. Human Cmax for pyronaridine and quinacrine is greater than the IC50 observed in A549-ACE2 cells. We also provide novel insights into the mechanism of these compounds which is likely lysosomotropic.

11.
ACS Chem Biol ; 16(4): 642-650, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787221

RESUMO

Host-cell cysteine proteases play an essential role in the processing of the viral spike protein of SARS coronaviruses. K777, an irreversible, covalent inactivator of cysteine proteases that has recently completed phase 1 clinical trials, reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral infectivity in several host cells: Vero E6 (EC50< 74 nM), HeLa/ACE2 (4 nM), Caco-2 (EC90 = 4.3 µM), and A549/ACE2 (<80 nM). Infectivity of Calu-3 cells depended on the cell line assayed. If Calu-3/2B4 was used, EC50 was 7 nM, but in the ATCC Calu-3 cell line without ACE2 enrichment, EC50 was >10 µM. There was no toxicity to any of the host cell lines at 10-100 µM K777 concentration. Kinetic analysis confirmed that K777 was a potent inhibitor of human cathepsin L, whereas no inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 cysteine proteases (papain-like and 3CL-like protease) was observed. Treatment of Vero E6 cells with a propargyl derivative of K777 as an activity-based probe identified human cathepsin B and cathepsin L as the intracellular targets of this molecule in both infected and uninfected Vero E6 cells. However, cleavage of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was only carried out by cathepsin L. This cleavage was blocked by K777 and occurred in the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, a different site from that previously observed for the SARS-CoV-1 spike protein. These data support the hypothesis that the antiviral activity of K777 is mediated through inhibition of the activity of host cathepsin L and subsequent loss of cathepsin L-mediated viral spike protein processing.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Tosil/farmacologia , Animais , Catepsina L/antagonistas & inibidores , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Domínios Proteicos , Proteólise , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(3): 586-597, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645977

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to unfold, the morbidity and mortality are increasing daily. Effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed. We recently discovered four SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors including boceprevir, calpain inhibitors II and XII, and GC-376 with potent antiviral activity against infectious SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of action of these four compounds using the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay. It was found that GC-376 and calpain inhibitors II and XII have a dual mechanism of action by inhibiting both viral Mpro and host cathepsin L in Vero cells. To rule out the cell-type dependent effect, the antiviral activity of these four compounds against SARS-CoV-2 was also confirmed in type 2 transmembrane serine protease-expressing Caco-2 cells using the viral yield reduction assay. In addition, we found that these four compounds have broad-spectrum antiviral activity in inhibiting not only SARS-CoV-2 but also SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, as well as human coronaviruses (CoVs) 229E, OC43, and NL63. The mechanism of action is through targeting the viral Mpro, which was supported by the thermal shift-binding assay and enzymatic fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. We further showed that these four compounds have additive antiviral effect when combined with remdesivir. Altogether, these results suggest that boceprevir, calpain inhibitors II and XII, and GC-376 might be promising starting points for further development against existing human coronaviruses as well as future emerging CoVs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Carbonatos/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas/farmacologia , Leucina/farmacologia , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Prolina/análogos & derivados , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Animais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Células CACO-2 , Catepsina L/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Coronavirus Humano NL63/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Humano OC43/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Prolina/farmacologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Células Vero
13.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299990

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly identified virus that has resulted in over 1.3 M deaths globally and over 59 M cases globally to date. Small molecule inhibitors that reverse disease severity have proven difficult to discover. One of the key approaches that has been widely applied in an effort to speed up the translation of drugs is drug repurposing. A few drugs have shown in vitro activity against Ebola virus and demonstrated activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vivo . Most notably the RNA polymerase targeting remdesivir demonstrated activity in vitro and efficacy in the early stage of the disease in humans. Testing other small molecule drugs that are active against Ebola virus would seem a reasonable strategy to evaluate their potential for SARS-CoV-2. We have previously repurposed pyronaridine, tilorone and quinacrine (from malaria, influenza, and antiprotozoal uses, respectively) as inhibitors of Ebola and Marburg virus in vitro in HeLa cells and of mouse adapted Ebola virus in mouse in vivo . We have now tested these three drugs in various cell lines (VeroE6, Vero76, Caco-2, Calu-3, A549-ACE2, HUH-7 and monocytes) infected with SARS-CoV-2 as well as other viruses (including MHV and HCoV 229E). The compilation of these results indicated considerable variability in antiviral activity observed across cell lines. We found that tilorone and pyronaridine inhibited the virus replication in A549-ACE2 cells with IC 50 values of 180 nM and IC 50 198 nM, respectively. We have also tested them in a pseudovirus assay and used microscale thermophoresis to test the binding of these molecules to the spike protein. They bind to spike RBD protein with K d values of 339 nM and 647 nM, respectively. Human C max for pyronaridine and quinacrine is greater than the IC 50 hence justifying in vivo evaluation. We also provide novel insights into their mechanism which is likely lysosomotropic.

14.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291455

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) demands skillful strategies for novel drug development, drug repurposing and cotreatments, in particular focusing on existing candidates of host-directed antivirals (HDAs). The developmental drug IMU-838, currently being investigated in a phase 2b trial in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases, represents an inhibitor of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) with a recently proven antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo. Here, we established an analysis system for assessing the antiviral potency of IMU-838 and DHODH-directed back-up drugs in cultured cell-based infection models. By the use of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunofluorescence, Western blot, in-cell ELISA, viral yield reduction and RT-qPCR methods, we demonstrated the following: (i) IMU-838 and back-ups show anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity at several levels of viral replication, i.e., protein production, double-strand RNA synthesis, and release of infectious virus; (ii) antiviral efficacy in Vero cells was demonstrated in a micromolar range (IMU-838 half-maximal effective concentration, EC50, of 7.6 ± 5.8 µM); (iii) anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity was distinct from cytotoxic effects (half-cytotoxic concentration, CC50, >100 µM); (iv) the drug in vitro potency was confirmed using several Vero lineages and human cells; (v) combination with remdesivir showed enhanced anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity; (vi) vidofludimus, the active determinant of IMU-838, exerted a broad-spectrum activity against a selection of major human pathogenic viruses. These findings strongly suggest that developmental DHODH inhibitors represent promising candidates for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Descoberta de Drogas , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140046

RESUMO

K777 is a di-peptide analog that contains an electrophilic vinyl-sulfone moiety and is a potent, covalent inactivator of cathepsins. Vero E6, HeLa/ACE2, Caco-2, A549/ACE2, and Calu-3, cells were exposed to SARS-CoV-2, and then treated with K777. K777 reduced viral infectivity with EC50 values of inhibition of viral infection of: 74 nM for Vero E6, <80 nM for A549/ACE2, and 4 nM for HeLa/ACE2 cells. In contrast, Calu-3 and Caco-2 cells had EC50 values in the low micromolar range. No toxicity of K777 was observed for any of the host cells at 10-100 µM inhibitor. K777 did not inhibit activity of the papain-like cysteine protease and 3CL cysteine protease, encoded by SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations of ≤ 100 µM. These results suggested that K777 exerts its potent anti-viral activity by inactivation of mammalian cysteine proteases which are essential to viral infectivity. Using a propargyl derivative of K777 as an activity-based probe, K777 selectively targeted cathepsin B and cathepsin L in Vero E6 cells. However only cathepsin L cleaved the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and K777 blocked this proteolysis. The site of spike protein cleavage by cathepsin L was in the S1 domain of SARS-CoV-2 , differing from the cleavage site observed in the SARS CoV-1 spike protein. These data support the hypothesis that the antiviral activity of K777 is mediated through inhibition of the activity of host cathepsin L and subsequent loss of viral spike protein processing.

16.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140049

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to fold out, the morbidity and mortality are increasing daily. Effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed. We recently discovered four SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors including boceprevir, calpain inhibitors II and XII and GC-376 with potent antiviral activity against infectious SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture. Despite the weaker enzymatic inhibition of calpain inhibitors II and XII against Mpro compared to GC-376, calpain inhibitors II and XII had more potent cellular antiviral activity. This observation promoted us to hypothesize that the cellular antiviral activity of calpain inhibitors II and XII might also involve the inhibition of cathepsin L in addition to Mpro. To test this hypothesis, we tested calpain inhibitors II and XII in the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay in Vero E6 cells and found that both compounds significantly decreased pseudoviral particle entry into cells, indicating their role in inhibiting cathepsin L. The involvement of cathepsin L was further confirmed in the drug time-of-addition experiment. In addition, we found that these four compounds not only inhibit SARS-CoV-2, but also SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, as well as human coronaviruses (CoVs) 229E, OC43, and NL63. The mechanism of action is through targeting the viral Mpro, which was supported by the thermal shift binding assay and enzymatic FRET assay. We further showed that these four compounds have additive antiviral effect when combined with remdesivir. Altogether, these results suggest that boceprevir, calpain inhibitors II and XII, and GC-376 are not only promising antiviral drug candidates against existing human coronaviruses, but also might work against future emerging CoVs.

17.
Sci Adv ; 6(50)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158912

RESUMO

The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a key antiviral drug target. While most Mpro inhibitors have a γ-lactam glutamine surrogate at the P1 position, we recently found that several Mpro inhibitors have hydrophobic moieties at the P1 site, including calpain inhibitors II and XII, which are also active against human cathepsin L, a host protease that is important for viral entry. In this study, we solved x-ray crystal structures of Mpro in complex with calpain inhibitors II and XII and three analogs of GC-376 The structure of Mpro with calpain inhibitor II confirmed that the S1 pocket can accommodate a hydrophobic methionine side chain, challenging the idea that a hydrophilic residue is necessary at this position. The structure of calpain inhibitor XII revealed an unexpected, inverted binding pose. Together, the biochemical, computational, structural, and cellular data presented herein provide new directions for the development of dual inhibitors as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals.


Assuntos
Catepsina L/química , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Catepsina L/antagonistas & inibidores , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Humanos , Cinética , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Domínios Proteicos , Células Vero
18.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(23): 127599, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031923

RESUMO

Various (North)-methanocarba adenosine derivatives, containing rigid bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane ribose substitution, were screened for activity against representative viruses, and inhibition was observed after treatment of Enterovirus A71 with a 2-chloro-N6-1-cyclopropyl-2-methylpropan-1-yl derivative (17). µM activity was also seen when testing 17 against other enteroviruses in the Picornaviridae family. Based on this hit, structural congeners of 17, containing other N6-alkyl groups and 5' modifications, were synthesized and tested. The structure activity relationship is relatively narrow, with most modifications of the adenine or the methanocarba ring reducing or abolishing the inhibitory potency. 4'-Truncated 31 (MRS5474), 4'-fluoromethyl 48 (MRS7704) and 4'-chloromethyl 49 nucleosides displayed EC50 ~3-4 µM, and 31 and 48 achieved SI ≥10. However, methanocarba analogues of ribavirin and N6-benzyladenosine, shown previously to have anti-EV-A71 activity, were inactive. Thus, we identified methanocarba nucleosides as a new scaffold for enterovirus inhibition with a narrow structure activity relationship and no similarity to previously published anti-enteroviral nucleosides.


Assuntos
Adenosina/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Enterovirus Humano A/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenosina/síntese química , Animais , Antivirais/síntese química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Vero
19.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766590

RESUMO

The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, is a key antiviral drug target. While most SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors have a γ-lactam glutamine surrogate at the P1 position, we recently discovered several Mpro inhibitors have hydrophobic moieties at the P1 site, including calpain inhibitors II/XII, which are also active against human cathepsin L, a host-protease that is important for viral entry. To determine the binding mode of these calpain inhibitors and establish a structure-activity relationship, we solved X-ray crystal structures of Mpro in complex with calpain inhibitors II and XII, and three analogues of GC-376, one of the most potent Mpro inhibitors in vitro. The structure of Mpro with calpain inhibitor II confirmed the S1 pocket of Mpro can accommodate a hydrophobic methionine side chain, challenging the idea that a hydrophilic residue is necessary at this position. Interestingly, the structure of calpain inhibitor XII revealed an unexpected, inverted binding pose where the P1' pyridine inserts in the S1 pocket and the P1 norvaline is positioned in the S1' pocket. The overall conformation is semi-helical, wrapping around the catalytic core, in contrast to the extended conformation of other peptidomimetic inhibitors. Additionally, the structures of three GC-376 analogues UAWJ246, UAWJ247, and UAWJ248 provide insight to the sidechain preference of the S1', S2, S3 and S4 pockets, and the superior cell-based activity of the aldehyde warhead compared with the α-ketoamide. Taken together, the biochemical, computational, structural, and cellular data presented herein provide new directions for the development of Mpro inhibitors as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals.

20.
Cell Res ; 30(8): 678-692, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541865

RESUMO

A new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, also called novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV), started to circulate among humans around December 2019, and it is now widespread as a global pandemic. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus is called COVID-19, which is highly contagious and has an overall mortality rate of 6.35% as of May 26, 2020. There is no vaccine or antiviral available for SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we report our discovery of inhibitors targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). Using the FRET-based enzymatic assay, several inhibitors including boceprevir, GC-376, and calpain inhibitors II, and XII were identified to have potent activity with single-digit to submicromolar IC50 values in the enzymatic assay. The mechanism of action of the hits was further characterized using enzyme kinetic studies, thermal shift binding assays, and native mass spectrometry. Significantly, four compounds (boceprevir, GC-376, calpain inhibitors II and XII) inhibit SARS-CoV-2 viral replication in cell culture with EC50 values ranging from 0.49 to 3.37 µM. Notably, boceprevir, calpain inhibitors II and XII represent novel chemotypes that are distinct from known substrate-based peptidomimetic Mpro inhibitors. A complex crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with GC-376, determined at 2.15 Å resolution with three protomers per asymmetric unit, revealed two unique binding configurations, shedding light on the molecular interactions and protein conformational flexibility underlying substrate and inhibitor binding by Mpro. Overall, the compounds identified herein provide promising starting points for the further development of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Antivirais/química , COVID-19 , Células CACO-2 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prolina/farmacologia , Conformação Proteica , Pirrolidinas/química , SARS-CoV-2 , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
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