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1.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103785, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605816

RESUMO

Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare, heritable disorder caused by variants in the SRCAP gene. Most individuals with FHS have characteristic facial features, short stature, and speech and language impairment. Although FHS has been likely under-diagnosed due to a combination of lack of recognition of the clinical phenotype and limited access to genomic testing, it is a rare condition with around 100 individuals reported in the medical literature. Case series have been biased towards younger individuals (vast majority <20 years of age) meaning that it has been challenging to provide accurate medical advice for affected individuals in adulthood. We report two young adults with FHS who presented with intracranial haemorrhage likely secondary to cerebrovascular aneurysms, with devastating consequences, making a total of four FHS patients reported with significant cerebrovascular abnormalities. Three of four patients had hypertension, at least one in conjunction with normal renal structure. We consider possible relationships between hypertension, renal pathology and aneurysms in the context of FHS, and consider mechanisms through which disruption of the SRCAP protein may lead to vascular pathology. We recommend that clinicians should have a low threshold to investigate symptoms suggestive of cerebrovascular disease in FHS. We advise that patients with FHS should have annual blood pressure monitoring from adolescence, renal ultrasound at diagnosis repeated in adulthood, and timely investigation of any neurological symptoms. For patients with FHS, particularly with hypertension, we advise that clinicians should consider at least one MRA (Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Angiography) to check for cerebral aneurysms.

2.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2216-2223, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide a detailed electroclinical description and expand the phenotype of PIGT-CDG, to perform genotype-phenotype correlation, and to investigate the onset and severity of the epilepsy associated with the different genetic subtypes of this rare disorder. Furthermore, to use computer-assisted facial gestalt analysis in PIGT-CDG and to the compare findings with other glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor deficiencies. METHODS: We evaluated 13 children from eight unrelated families with homozygous or compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in PIGT. RESULTS: All patients had hypotonia, severe developmental delay, and epilepsy. Epilepsy onset ranged from first day of life to two years of age. Severity of the seizure disorder varied from treatable seizures to severe neonatal onset epileptic encephalopathies. The facial gestalt of patients resembled that of previously published PIGT patients as they were closest to the center of the PIGT cluster in the clinical face phenotype space and were distinguishable from other gene-specific phenotypes. CONCLUSION: We expand our knowledge of PIGT. Our cases reaffirm that the use of genetic testing is essential for diagnosis in this group of disorders. Finally, we show that computer-assisted facial gestalt analysis accurately assigned PIGT cases to the multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome phenotypic series advocating the additional use of next-generation phenotyping technology.

3.
J Med Genet ; 55(11): 721-728, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare genetic conditions are frequent risk factors for, or direct causes of, paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. Such conditions are frequently suspected but unidentified at PICU admission. Compassionate and effective care is greatly assisted by definitive diagnostic information. There is therefore a need to provide a rapid genetic diagnosis to inform clinical management.To date, whole genome sequencing (WGS) approaches have proved successful in diagnosing a proportion of children with rare diseases, but results may take months to report. Our aim was to develop an end-to-end workflow for the use of rapid WGS for diagnosis in critically ill children in a UK National Health Service (NHS) diagnostic setting. METHODS: We sought to establish a multidisciplinary Rapid Paediatric Sequencing team for case selection, trio WGS, rapid bioinformatics sequence analysis and a phased analysis and reporting system to prioritise genes with a high likelihood of being causal. RESULTS: Trio WGS in 24 critically ill children led to a molecular diagnosis in 10 (42%) through the identification of causative genetic variants. In 3 of these 10 individuals (30%), the diagnostic result had an immediate impact on the individual's clinical management. For the last 14 trios, the shortest time taken to reach a provisional diagnosis was 4 days (median 8.5 days). CONCLUSION: Rapid WGS can be used to diagnose and inform management of critically ill children within the constraints of an NHS clinical diagnostic setting. We provide a robust workflow that will inform and facilitate the rollout of rapid genome sequencing in the NHS and other healthcare systems globally.

4.
Hum Genet ; 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740699

RESUMO

Many genetic causes of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD/ID) are extremely rare, and robust discovery of these requires both large-scale DNA sequencing and data sharing. Here we describe a GeneMatcher collaboration which led to a cohort of 13 affected individuals harboring protein-altering variants, 11 of which are de novo, in MED13; the only inherited variant was transmitted to an affected child from an affected mother. All patients had intellectual disability and/or developmental delays, including speech delays or disorders. Other features that were reported in two or more patients include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, optic nerve abnormalities, Duane anomaly, hypotonia, mild congenital heart abnormalities, and dysmorphisms. Six affected individuals had mutations that are predicted to truncate the MED13 protein, six had missense mutations, and one had an in-frame-deletion of one amino acid. Out of the seven non-truncating mutations, six clustered in two specific locations of the MED13 protein: an N-terminal and C-terminal region. The four N-terminal clustering mutations affect two adjacent amino acids that are known to be involved in MED13 ubiquitination and degradation, p.Thr326 and p.Pro327. MED13 is a component of the CDK8-kinase module that can reversibly bind Mediator, a multi-protein complex that is required for Polymerase II transcription initiation. Mutations in several other genes encoding subunits of Mediator have been previously shown to associate with DD/ID, including MED13L, a paralog of MED13. Thus, our findings add MED13 to the group of CDK8-kinase module-associated disease genes.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 664-685, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100083

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) is a group of conditions characterized by the co-occurrence of epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID), typically with developmental plateauing or regression associated with frequent epileptiform activity. The cause of DEE remains unknown in the majority of cases. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in 197 individuals with unexplained DEE and pharmaco-resistant seizures and in their unaffected parents. We focused our attention on de novo mutations (DNMs) and identified candidate genes containing such variants. We sought to identify additional subjects with DNMs in these genes by performing targeted sequencing in another series of individuals with DEE and by mining various sequencing datasets. We also performed meta-analyses to document enrichment of DNMs in candidate genes by leveraging our WGS dataset with those of several DEE and ID series. By combining these strategies, we were able to provide a causal link between DEE and the following genes: NTRK2, GABRB2, CLTC, DHDDS, NUS1, RAB11A, GABBR2, and SNAP25. Overall, we established a molecular diagnosis in 63/197 (32%) individuals in our WGS series. The main cause of DEE in these individuals was de novo point mutations (53/63 solved cases), followed by inherited mutations (6/63 solved cases) and de novo CNVs (4/63 solved cases). De novo missense variants explained a larger proportion of individuals in our series than in other series that were primarily ascertained because of ID. Moreover, these DNMs were more frequently recurrent than those identified in ID series. These observations indicate that the genetic landscape of DEE might be different from that of ID without epilepsy.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Recidiva , Convulsões/genética
6.
Nat Genet ; 49(11): 1642-1646, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28920961

RESUMO

Covalent modifications of histones have an established role as chromatin effectors, as they control processes such as DNA replication and transcription, and repair or regulate nucleosomal structure. Loss of modifications on histone N tails, whether due to mutations in genes belonging to histone-modifying complexes or mutations directly affecting the histone tails, causes developmental disorders or has a role in tumorigenesis. More recently, modifications affecting the globular histone core have been uncovered as being crucial for DNA repair, pluripotency and oncogenesis. Here we report monoallelic missense mutations affecting lysine 91 in the histone H4 core (H4K91) in three individuals with a syndrome of growth delay, microcephaly and intellectual disability. Expression of the histone H4 mutants in zebrafish embryos recapitulates the developmental anomalies seen in the patients. We show that the histone H4 alterations cause genomic instability, resulting in increased apoptosis and cell cycle progression anomalies during early development. Mechanistically, our findings indicate an important role for the ubiquitination of H4K91 in genomic stability during embryonic development.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Histonas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Animais , Apoptose , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Criança , Dano ao DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Instabilidade Genômica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/metabolismo , Microcefalia/patologia , Nucleossomos/química , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Síndrome , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(10): 1126-1133, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905882

RESUMO

Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS) is a rare syndrome characterized by choanal atresia, prominent ears, abnormalities of the outer third of the lower eyelid, structural cardiac abnormalities, conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, and cleft lip. Recently, causative compound heterozygous variants were identified in TXNL4A. We analyzed an individual with clinical features of BMKS and her parents by whole-genome sequencing and identified compound heterozygous variants in TXNL4A (a novel splice site variant (c.258-2A>G, (p.?)) and a 34 bp promoter deletion (hg19 chr18:g.77748581_77748614del (type 1Δ) in the proband). Subsequently, we tested a cohort of 19 individuals with (mild) features of BMKS and 17 individuals with isolated choanal atresia for causative variants in TXNL4A by dideoxy-sequence analysis. In one individual with BMKS unrelated to the first family, we identified the identical compound heterozygous variants. In an individual with isolated choanal atresia, we found homozygosity for the same type 1Δ promoter deletion, whilst in two cousins from a family with choanal atresia and other minor anomalies we found homozygosity for a different deletion within the promoter (hg19 chr18: g.77748604_77748637del (type 2Δ)). Hence, we identified causative recessive variants in TXNL4A in two individuals with BMKS as well as in three individuals (from two families) with isolated choanal atresia.


Assuntos
Atresia das Cóanas/genética , Surdez/congênito , Deleção de Genes , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Atresia das Cóanas/diagnóstico , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Facies , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
9.
J Clin Invest ; 127(5): 1991-2006, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414293

RESUMO

Inborn errors of DNA repair or replication underlie a variety of clinical phenotypes. We studied 5 patients from 4 kindreds, all of whom displayed intrauterine growth retardation, chronic neutropenia, and NK cell deficiency. Four of the 5 patients also had postnatal growth retardation. The association of neutropenia and NK cell deficiency, which is unusual among primary immunodeficiencies and bone marrow failures, was due to a blockade in the bone marrow and was mildly symptomatic. We discovered compound heterozygous rare mutations in Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex subunit 1 (GINS1, also known as PSF1) in the 5 patients. The GINS complex is essential for eukaryotic DNA replication, and homozygous null mutations of GINS component-encoding genes are embryonic lethal in mice. The patients' fibroblasts displayed impaired GINS complex assembly, basal replication stress, impaired checkpoint signaling, defective cell cycle control, and genomic instability, which was rescued by WT GINS1. The residual levels of GINS1 activity reached 3% to 16% in patients' cells, depending on their GINS1 genotype, and correlated with the severity of growth retardation and the in vitro cellular phenotype. The levels of GINS1 activity did not influence the immunological phenotype, which was uniform. Autosomal recessive, partial GINS1 deficiency impairs DNA replication and underlies intra-uterine (and postnatal) growth retardation, chronic neutropenia, and NK cell deficiency.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Transtornos do Crescimento , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Células Matadoras Naturais , Neutropenia , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/imunologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/imunologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/imunologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/imunologia
11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(3): 519-526, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053047

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency in DYRK1A is associated with a recognizable developmental syndrome, though the mechanism of action of pathogenic missense mutations is currently unclear. Here we present 19 de novo mutations in this gene, including five missense mutations, identified by the Deciphering Developmental Disorder study. Protein structural analysis reveals that the missense mutations are either close to the ATP or peptide binding-sites within the kinase domain, or are important for protein stability, suggesting they lead to a loss of the protein's function mechanism. Furthermore, there is some correlation between the magnitude of the change and the severity of the resultant phenotype. A comparison of the distribution of the pathogenic mutations along the length of DYRK1A with that of natural variants, as found in the ExAC database, confirms that mutations in the N-terminal end of the kinase domain are more disruptive of protein function. In particular, pathogenic mutations occur in significantly closer proximity to the ATP and the substrate peptide than the natural variants. Overall, we suggest that de novo dominant mutations in DYRK1A account for nearly 0.5% of severe developmental disorders due to substantially reduced kinase function.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 26(1): 13-17, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576021

RESUMO

We report on two siblings of Iraqi descent with clinical and radiographic features of metaphyseal dysplasia, Spahr type (MDST), born to consanguineous unaffected parents. Molecular testing confirmed pathogenic mutations in MMP13. We review the considerable overlap between MDST and other related disorders. These cases confirm the phenotypic variability and regressive nature of MDST in addition to suggesting bone fragility as a feature.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Irmãos , Alelos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Criança , Consanguinidade , Facies , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Homozigoto , Humanos , Iraque , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Radiografia
13.
J Med Genet ; 54(4): 260-268, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27884935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures, occurs in ∼1 in 2250 births, either in isolation or as part of a syndrome. Mutations in at least 57 genes have been associated with craniosynostosis, but only a minority of these are included in routine laboratory genetic testing. METHODS: We used exome or whole genome sequencing to seek a genetic cause in a cohort of 40 subjects with craniosynostosis, selected by clinical or molecular geneticists as being high-priority cases, and in whom prior clinically driven genetic testing had been negative. RESULTS: We identified likely associated mutations in 15 patients (37.5%), involving 14 different genes. All genes were mutated in single families, except for IL11RA (two families). We classified the other positive diagnoses as follows: commonly mutated craniosynostosis genes with atypical presentation (EFNB1, TWIST1); other core craniosynostosis genes (CDC45, MSX2, ZIC1); genes for which mutations are only rarely associated with craniosynostosis (FBN1, HUWE1, KRAS, STAT3); and known disease genes for which a causal relationship with craniosynostosis is currently unknown (AHDC1, NTRK2). In two further families, likely novel disease genes are currently undergoing functional validation. In 5 of the 15 positive cases, the (previously unanticipated) molecular diagnosis had immediate, actionable consequences for either genetic or medical management (mutations in EFNB1, FBN1, KRAS, NTRK2, STAT3). CONCLUSIONS: This substantial genetic heterogeneity, and the multiple actionable mutations identified, emphasises the benefits of exome/whole genome sequencing to identify causal mutations in craniosynostosis cases for which routine clinical testing has yielded negative results.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/genética , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Craniossinostoses/patologia , Exoma/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Mutação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
14.
Nat Genet ; 49(2): 223-237, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27992417

RESUMO

Histone lysine methylation, mediated by mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) proteins, is now known to be critical in the regulation of gene expression, genomic stability, cell cycle and nuclear architecture. Despite MLL proteins being postulated as essential for normal development, little is known about the specific functions of the different MLL lysine methyltransferases. Here we report heterozygous variants in the gene KMT2B (also known as MLL4) in 27 unrelated individuals with a complex progressive childhood-onset dystonia, often associated with a typical facial appearance and characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging findings. Over time, the majority of affected individuals developed prominent cervical, cranial and laryngeal dystonia. Marked clinical benefit, including the restoration of independent ambulation in some cases, was observed following deep brain stimulation (DBS). These findings highlight a clinically recognizable and potentially treatable form of genetic dystonia, demonstrating the crucial role of KMT2B in the physiological control of voluntary movement.


Assuntos
Distonia/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Histona Metiltransferases , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Lisina/genética , Masculino , Metilação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(2): 253-74, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27453576

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a common condition with considerable genetic heterogeneity. Next-generation sequencing of large cohorts has identified an increasing number of genes implicated in ID, but their roles in neurodevelopment remain largely unexplored. Here we report an ID syndrome caused by de novo heterozygous missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations in BCL11A, encoding a transcription factor that is a putative member of the BAF swi/snf chromatin-remodeling complex. Using a comprehensive integrated approach to ID disease modeling, involving human cellular analyses coupled to mouse behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular phenotyping, we provide multiple lines of functional evidence for phenotypic effects. The etiological missense variants cluster in the amino-terminal region of human BCL11A, and we demonstrate that they all disrupt its localization, dimerization, and transcriptional regulatory activity, consistent with a loss of function. We show that Bcl11a haploinsufficiency in mice causes impaired cognition, abnormal social behavior, and microcephaly in accordance with the human phenotype. Furthermore, we identify shared aberrant transcriptional profiles in the cortex and hippocampus of these mouse models. Thus, our work implicates BCL11A haploinsufficiency in neurodevelopmental disorders and defines additional targets regulated by this gene, with broad relevance for our understanding of ID and related syndromes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Comportamento Social , Síndrome , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
16.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 25(4): 135-45, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465822

RESUMO

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth deficiency, broad thumbs and great toes, intellectual disability and characteristic craniofacial appearance. Mutations in CREBBP account for around 55% of cases, with a further 8% attributed to the paralogous gene EP300. Comparatively few reports exist describing the phenotype of Rubinstein-Taybi because of EP300 mutations. Clinical and genetic data were obtained from nine patients from the UK and Ireland with pathogenic EP300 mutations, identified either by targeted testing or by exome sequencing. All patients had mild or moderate intellectual impairment. Behavioural or social difficulties were noted in eight patients, including three with autistic spectrum disorders. Typical dysmorphic features of Rubinstein-Taybi were only variably present. Additional observations include maternal pre-eclampsia (2/9), syndactyly (3/9), feeding or swallowing issues (3/9), delayed bone age (2/9) and scoliosis (2/9). Six patients had truncating mutations in EP300, with pathogenic missense mutations identified in the remaining three. The findings support previous observations that microcephaly, maternal pre-eclampsia, mild growth restriction and a mild to moderate intellectual disability are key pointers to the diagnosis of EP300-related RTS. Variability in the presence of typical facial features of Rubinstein-Taybi further highlights clinical heterogeneity, particularly among patients identified by exome sequencing. Features that overlap with Floating-Harbor syndrome, including craniofacial dysmorphism and delayed osseous maturation, were observed in three patients. Previous reports have only described mutations predicted to cause haploinsufficiency of EP300, whereas this cohort includes the first described pathogenic missense mutations in EP300.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neurology ; 86(19): 1794-800, 2016 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27029630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this research was to characterize the movement disorders associated with FOXG1 mutations. METHODS: We identified patients with FOXG1 mutations who were referred to either a tertiary movement disorder clinic or tertiary epilepsy service and retrospectively reviewed medical records, clinical investigations, neuroimaging, and available video footage. We administered a telephone-based questionnaire regarding the functional impact of the movement disorders and perceived efficacy of treatment to the caregivers of one cohort of participants. RESULTS: We identified 28 patients with FOXG1 mutations, of whom 6 had previously unreported mutations. A wide variety of movement disorders were identified, with dystonia, choreoathetosis, and orolingual/facial dyskinesias most commonly present. Ninety-three percent of patients had a mixed movement disorder phenotype. In contrast to the phenotype classically described with FOXG1 mutations, 4 patients with missense mutations had a milder phenotype, with independent ambulation, spoken language, and normocephaly. Hyperkinetic involuntary movements were a major clinical feature in these patients. Of the symptomatic treatments targeted to control abnormal involuntary movements, most did not emerge as clearly beneficial, although 4 patients had a caregiver-reported response to levodopa. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal involuntary movements are a major feature of FOXG1 mutations. Our study delineates the spectrum of movement disorders and confirms an expanding clinical phenotype. Symptomatic treatment may be considered for severe or disabling cases, although further research regarding potential treatment strategies is necessary.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos dos Movimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Med Genet ; 53(5): 310-7, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26993267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate the diagnostic yield and mutation spectrum in previously reported genes for early-onset epilepsy and disorders of severe developmental delay. METHODS: In 400 patients with these disorders with no known underlying aetiology and no major structural brain anomaly, we analysed 46 genes using a combination of targeted sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform and targeted, exon-level microarray copy number analysis. RESULTS: We identified causative mutations in 71/400 patients (18%). The diagnostic rate was highest among those with seizure onset within the first two months of life (39%), although overall it was similar in those with and without seizures. The most frequently mutated gene was SCN2A (11 patients, 3%). Other recurrently mutated genes included CDKL5, KCNQ2, SCN8A (six patients each), FOXG1, MECP2, SCN1A, STXBP1 (five patients each), KCNT1, PCDH19, TCF4 (three patients each) and ATP1A3, PRRT2 and SLC9A6 (two patients each). Mutations in EHMT1, GABRB3, LGI1, MBD5, PIGA, UBE3A and ZEB2 were each found in single patients. We found mutations in a number of genes in patients where either the electroclinical features or dysmorphic phenotypes were atypical for the identified gene. In only 11 cases (15%) had the clinician sufficient certainty to specify the mutated gene as the likely cause before testing. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the considerable utility of a gene panel approach in the diagnosis of patients with early-onset epilepsy and severe developmental delay disorders., They provide further insights into the phenotypic spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations for a number of the causative genes and emphasise the value of exon-level copy number testing in their analysis.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação , Convulsões/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/metabolismo
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(5): 610-5, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25118028

RESUMO

De novo monoallelic variants in NFIX cause two distinct syndromes. Whole gene deletions, nonsense variants and missense variants affecting the DNA-binding domain have been seen in association with a Sotos-like phenotype that we propose is referred to as Malan syndrome. Frameshift and splice-site variants thought to avoid nonsense-mediated RNA decay have been seen in Marshall-Smith syndrome. We report six additional patients with Malan syndrome and de novo NFIX deletions or sequence variants and review the 20 patients now reported. The phenotype is characterised by moderate postnatal overgrowth and macrocephaly. Median height and head circumference in childhood are 2.0 and 2.3 standard deviations (SD) above the mean, respectively. There is overlap of the facial phenotype with NSD1-positive Sotos syndrome in some cases including a prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, downslanting palpebral fissures and prominent chin. Neonatal feeding difficulties and/or hypotonia have been reported in 30% of patients. Developmental delay/learning disability have been reported in all cases and are typically moderate. Ocular phenotypes are common, including strabismus (65%), nystagmus (25% ) and optic disc pallor/hypoplasia (25%). Other recurrent features include pectus excavatum (40%) and scoliosis (25%). Eight reported patients have a deletion also encompassing CACNA1A, haploinsufficiency of which causes episodic ataxia type 2 or familial hemiplegic migraine. One previous case had episodic ataxia and one case we report has had cyclical vomiting responsive to pizotifen. In individuals with this contiguous gene deletion syndrome, awareness of possible later neurological manifestations is important, although their penetrance is not yet clear.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Fenótipo , Deleção de Sequência , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Sotos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Sotos/genética , Síndrome
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