Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 164
Filtrar
1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 606099, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936030

RESUMO

Introduction: Besides recurrent infections, a proportion of patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders (CVID) may suffer from immune dysregulation such as granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). The optimal treatment of this complication is currently unknown. Experienced-based expert opinions have been produced, but a systematic review of published treatment studies is lacking. Goals: To summarize and synthesize the published literature on the efficacy of treatments for GLILD in CVID. Methods: We performed a systematic review using the PRISMA guidelines. Papers describing treatment and outcomes in CVID patients with radiographic and/or histologic evidence of GLILD were included. Treatment regimens and outcomes of treatment were summarized. Results: 6124 papers were identified and 42, reporting information about 233 patients in total, were included for review. These papers described case series or small, uncontrolled studies of monotherapy with glucocorticoids or other immunosuppressants, rituximab monotherapy or rituximab plus azathioprine, abatacept, or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Treatment response rates varied widely. Cross-study comparisons were complicated because different treatment regimens, follow-up periods, and outcome measures were used. There was a trend towards more frequent GLILD relapses in patients treated with corticosteroid monotherapy when compared to rituximab-containing treatment regimens based on qualitative endpoints. HSCT is a promising alternative to pharmacological treatment of GLILD, because it has the potential to not only contain symptoms, but also to resolve the underlying pathology. However, mortality, especially among immunocompromised patients, is high. Conclusions: We could not draw definitive conclusions regarding optimal pharmacological treatment for GLILD in CVID from the current literature since quantitative, well-controlled evidence was lacking. While HSCT might be considered a treatment option for GLILD in CVID, the risks related to the procedure are high. Our findings highlight the need for further research with uniform, objective and quantifiable endpoints. This should include international registries with standardized data collection including regular pulmonary function tests (with carbon monoxide-diffusion), uniform high-resolution chest CT radiographic scoring, and uniform treatment regimens, to facilitate comparison of treatment outcomes and ultimately randomized clinical trials.

3.
Trials ; 22(1): 213, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COPD is a leading cause of death globally, with the majority of morbidity and mortality occurring in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. While tobacco-smoke exposure is the most important risk factor for COPD in high-income settings, household air pollution from biomass smoke combustion is a leading risk factor for COPD in LMICs. Despite the high burden of biomass smoke-related COPD, few studies have evaluated the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in this context. Currently recommended inhaler-based therapy for COPD is neither available nor affordable in most resource-limited settings. Low-dose theophylline is an oral, once-a-day therapy, long used in high-income countries (HICs), which has been proposed for the management of COPD in LMICs in the absence of inhaled steroids and/or bronchodilators. The Low-dose Theophylline for the Management of Biomass-Associated COPD (LODOT-BCOPD) trial investigates the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of low-dose theophylline for the management of biomass-related COPD in a low-income setting. METHODS: LODOT-BCOPD is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of low-dose theophylline in improving respiratory symptoms in 110 participants with moderate to severe COPD in Central Uganda. The inclusion criteria are as follows: (1) age 40 to 80 years, (2) full-time resident of the study area, (3) daily biomass exposure, (4) post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC below the 5th percentile of the Global Lung Initiative mixed ethnic reference population, and (5) GOLD Grade B-D COPD. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive once daily low-dose theophylline (200 mg ER, Unicontin-E) or placebo for 52 weeks. All participants will receive education about self-management of COPD and rescue salbutamol inhalers. We will measure health status using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and quality of life using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) at baseline and every 6 months. In addition, we will assess household air pollution levels, serum inflammatory biomarkers (fibrinogen, hs-CRP), and theophylline levels at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months. The primary outcome is change in SGRQ score at 12 months. Lastly, we will assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention by calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the EQ-5D. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov  NCT03984188 . Registered on June 12, 2019 TRIAL ACRONYM: Low-dose Theophylline for the Management of Biomass-Associated COPD (LODOT-BCOPD).

4.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 92, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761959

RESUMO

People with rare lung diseases often suffer the burden of delayed diagnosis, limited treatment options, and difficulties in finding expert physicians. One of the reasons for the delay in diagnosis is the limited training for healthcare practitioners on rare diseases. This review explores the main concerns and needs for education on rare lung diseases from the perspectives of both patients and professionals. Despite the increasing interest in rare lung disorders and some recent breakthrough developments on the management of several diseases, healthcare professionals, including general practitioners and hospital workers, receive little education on this topic. Nonetheless, many healthcare professionals show much interest in receiving further training, especially on diagnosis. Patients and families want easier access to high-quality education materials to help them manage their own disease. Well-educated patients are better equipped to deal with chronic diseases, but patient education can be challenging as patients' individual health issues, and diverse backgrounds can create significant barriers. Raising more awareness for rare lung diseases and further development of patient-centred international expert networks like the European Reference Network on Rare Lung Diseases (ERN-LUNG), which includes both experts and patient representatives, are essential for improving care and education on rare lung diseases. Initiatives such as the Rare Disease Day, have been successful in increasing awareness for rare conditions. The development of online tools for accessing information has had positive effects and should be further supported and extended in the future.

5.
Health Serv Res ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of interventions for improving the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), specifically increased use of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on patient outcomes and cost-benefit analysis. DATA SOURCES: We used the national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) datasets in England, local data and experts from the hospital setting, National Prices and National Tariffs, reports and the literature around the effectiveness of PR programs. STUDY DESIGN: The COPD pathway was modeled using discrete event simulation (DES) to capture the patient pathway to an adequate level of detail as well as randomness in the real world. DES was further enhanced by the integration of a health economic model to calculate the net benefit and cost of treating COPD patients based on key sets of interventions. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: A total of 150 input parameters and 75 distributions were established to power the model using the HES dataset, outpatient activity data from the hospital and community services, and the literature. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The simulation model showed that increasing referral to PR (by 10%, 20%, or 30%) would be cost-effective (with a benefit-cost ratio of 5.81, 5.95, and 5.91, respectively) by having a positive impact on patient outcomes and operational metrics. Number of deaths, admissions, and bed days decreased (ie, by 3.56 patients, 4.90 admissions, and 137.31 bed days for a 30% increase in PR referrals) as well as quality of life increased (ie, by 5.53 QALY among 1540 patients for the 30% increase). CONCLUSIONS: No operational model, either statistical or simulation, has previously been developed to capture the COPD patient pathway within a hospital setting. To date, no model has investigated the impact of PR on COPD services, such as operations, key performance, patient outcomes, and cost-benefit analysis. The study will support policies around extending availability of PR as a major intervention.

6.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a common, potentially lethal inborn disorder caused by mutations in alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). Homozygosity for the 'Pi*Z' variant of AAT (Pi*ZZ genotype) causes lung and liver disease, whereas heterozygous 'Pi*Z' carriage (Pi*MZ genotype) predisposes to gallstones and liver fibrosis. The clinical significance of the more common 'Pi*S' variant remains largely undefined and no robust data exist on the prevalence of liver tumours in AATD. DESIGN: Baseline phenotypes of AATD individuals and non-carriers were analysed in 482 380 participants in the UK Biobank. 1104 participants of a multinational cohort (586 Pi*ZZ, 239 Pi*SZ, 279 non-carriers) underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. Associations were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Among UK Biobank participants, Pi*ZZ individuals displayed the highest liver enzyme values, the highest occurrence of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (adjusted OR (aOR)=21.7 (8.8-53.7)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=44.5 (10.8-183.6)). Subjects with Pi*MZ genotype had slightly elevated liver enzymes and moderately increased odds for liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=1.7 (1.2-2.2)) and cholelithiasis (aOR=1.3 (1.2-1.4)). Individuals with homozygous Pi*S mutation (Pi*SS genotype) harboured minimally elevated alanine aminotransferase values, but no other hepatobiliary abnormalities. Pi*SZ participants displayed higher liver enzymes, more frequent liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=3.1 (1.1-8.2)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=6.6 (1.6-26.9)). The higher fibrosis burden was confirmed in a multinational cohort. Male sex, age ≥50 years, obesity and the presence of diabetes were associated with significant liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Our study defines the hepatobiliary phenotype of individuals with the most relevant AATD genotypes including their predisposition to liver tumours, thereby allowing evidence-based advice and individualised hepatological surveillance.

7.
Lancet ; 397(10277): 928-940, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631128

RESUMO

Low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear a disproportionately high burden of the global morbidity and mortality caused by chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs), including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and post-tuberculosis lung disease. CRDs are strongly associated with poverty, infectious diseases, and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and contribute to complex multi-morbidity, with major consequences for the lives and livelihoods of those affected. The relevance of CRDs to health and socioeconomic wellbeing is expected to increase in the decades ahead, as life expectancies rise and the competing risks of early childhood mortality and infectious diseases plateau. As such, the World Health Organization has identified the prevention and control of NCDs as an urgent development issue and essential to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. In this Review, we focus on CRDs in LMICs. We discuss the early life origins of CRDs; challenges in their prevention, diagnosis, and management in LMICs; and pathways to solutions to achieve true universal health coverage.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether improvements in school age outcomes had occurred between two cohorts of births at 22-25 weeks of gestation to women residents in England in 1995 and 2006. DESIGN: Longitudinal national cohort studies. SETTING: School-based or home-based assessments at 11 years of age. PARTICIPANTS: EPICure2 cohort of births at 22-26 weeks of gestation in England during 2006: a sample of 200 of 1031 survivors were evaluated; outcomes for 112 children born at 22-25 weeks of gestation were compared with those of 176 born in England during 1995 from the EPICure cohort. Classroom controls for each group acted as a reference population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised measures of cognition and academic attainment were combined with parent report of other impairments to estimate overall neurodevelopmental status. RESULTS: At 11 years in EPICure2, 18% had severe and 20% moderate impairments. Comparing births at 22-25 weeks in EPICure2 (n=112), 26% had severe and 21% moderate impairment compared with 18% and 32%, respectively, in EPICure. After adjustment, the OR of moderate or severe neurodevelopmental impairment in 2006 compared with 1995 was 0.76 (95% CI 0.45 to 1.31, p=0.32). IQ scores were similar in 1995 (mean 82.7, SD 18.4) and 2006 (81.4, SD 19.2), adjusted difference in mean z-scores 0.2 SD (95% CI -0.2 to 0.6), as were attainment test scores. The use of multiple imputation did not alter these findings. CONCLUSION: Improvements in care and survival between 1995 and 2006 are not paralleled by improved cognitive or educational outcomes or a reduced rate of neurodevelopmental impairment.

9.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476252

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The majority of the morbidity and mortality related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the increasing burden of COPD, disease-specific knowledge among healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients in LMICs remains limited. COPD knowledge questionnaires are valid and reliable tools to assess COPD knowledge and can be employed in settings with limited health literacy. OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess validity and reliability of a COPD knowledge questionnaire among individuals with COPD in three LMIC settings. METHODS: Twelve questions were generated by an expert team of sixteen researchers, physicians, and public health professionals to create an LMIC-specific COPD knowledge questionnaire. Content was based on previous instruments, clinical guidelines, focus group discussions, and questionnaire piloting. Participants with COPD completed the questionnaire across three diverse LMIC settings before and three months after delivery of a standardized COPD specific education package by a local community health worker (CHW) trained to deliver the education to an appropriate standard. We utilized paired t-tests to assess improvement in knowledge post-intervention. RESULTS: Questionnaire development initially yielded 52 items. Based on community feedback and expertise, items were eliminated and added yielding a final 12-item questionnaire, with a maximum total score of 12. A total of 196 participants with COPD were included this study in Nepal (n=86), Peru (n=35) and Uganda (n=75). Mean (± SD) baseline score was 8.0 ± 2.5 and 3-months post-education the mean score was 10.2 ± 1.7 among participants. The CHW-led COPD educational intervention improved COPD knowledge among community members by 2.2 points (95% CI 1.8 to 2.6, t=10.9, p<0.001). Internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha was 0.75. CONCLUSION: The LMIC COPD-KQ demonstrates face and content validity and acceptable internal consistency through development phases, suggesting a reliable and valid COPD education instrument that can be utilized to assess educational interventions across LMIC settings. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03365713).

10.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414261

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted specialty chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) care. We examined the degree to which care has moved to remote approaches, eliciting clinician and patient perspectives on what is appropriate for ongoing remote delivery. METHODS: Using an online research platform, we conducted a survey and consensus-building process involving clinicians and patients with COPD. RESULTS: Fifty-five clinicians and 19 patients responded. The majority of clinicians felt able to assess symptom severity (n=52, 95%), reinforce smoking cessation (n=46, 84%) and signpost to other healthcare resources (n=44, 80%). Patients reported that assessing COPD severity and starting new medications were being addressed through remote care. Forty-three and 31 respondents participated in the first and second consensus-building rounds, respectively. When asked to rate the appropriateness of using remote delivery for specific care activities, respondents reached consensus on 5 of 14 items: collecting information about COPD and overall health status (77%), providing COPD education and developing a self-management plan (74%), reinforcing smoking cessation (81%), deciding whether patients should seek in-person care (72%) and initiating a rescue pack (76%). CONCLUSION: Adoption of remote care delivery appears high, with many care activities partially or completely delivered remotely. Our work identifies strengths and limitations of remote care delivery.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Autogestão , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Fisioterapeutas , Médicos , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e040213, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A proportion of those recovering from COVID-19 are likely to have significant and ongoing symptoms, functional impairment and psychological disturbances. There is an immediate need to develop a safe and efficient discharge process and recovery programme. Established rehabilitation programmes are well placed to deliver a programme for this group but will most likely need to be adapted for the post-COVID-19 population. The purpose of this survey was to rapidly identify the components of a post-COVID-19 rehabilitation assessment and elements of a successful rehabilitation programme that would be required to deliver a comprehensive service for those post-COVID-19 to inform service delivery. DESIGN: A survey comprising a series of closed questions and a free-text comment box allowing for a qualitative analysis. SETTING: Online survey. PARTICIPANTS: Multiprofessional clinicians across specialties were invited to take part. RESULTS: 1031 participants responded from a broad range of specialties. There was overwhelming support for an early posthospital discharge recovery programme to advise patients about the management of fatigue (95% agreed/strongly agreed), breathlessness (94%) and mood disturbances (including symptoms of anxiety and depression, 92%). At the time point of 6-8 weeks, an assessment was considered important, focusing on a broad range of possible symptoms and supporting a return to work. Recommendations for the intervention described a holistic programme focusing on symptom management, return of function and return to employment. The free-text comments added depth to the survey and the need 'not to reinvent the wheel' but rather adapt well-established rehabilitation services to individually tailor needs-based care with continued learning for service development. CONCLUSION: The responses indicate a huge interest and the urgent need to establish a programme to support and mitigate the long-term impact of COVID-19 by optimising and individualising existing rehabilitation programmes.

12.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 3093-3103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273812

RESUMO

Introduction: The Fostair® 100/6 (BDP/FF) pressurized metered-dose inhaler, delivering an extrafine formulation, is licensed for asthma and COPD in the UK. However, its real-life effectiveness for COPD has not been evaluated. This study compared the clinical effectiveness of BDP/FF against other licensed ICS/LABA combination inhalers: the Seretide® Accuhaler® (FP/SAL) and the Symbicort® Turbohaler® (BUD/FF). Methods: A matched historical cohort study was conducted using records of patients with diagnostic codes for COPD from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database (OPCRD). Patients who had received BDP/FF as their first ICS/LABA were matched 1:1 with patients who had received FP/SAL or BUD/FF, resulting in two matched comparisons. Additional analysis was conducted on patients who had never had diagnostic codes for asthma. Noninferiority in terms of the proportion of patients with moderate/severe COPD exacerbations on the different inhalers in the following year was assessed. Noninferiority was achieved if the upper CI limit were ≤1.2. Results: This study included 537 and 540 patient pairs in the BDP/FF vs FP/SAL cohort and the BDP/FF vs BUD/FF cohort, respectively. The proportion of patients with COPD exacerbations in the BDP/FF group was not significantly different from either the FP/SAL (68.7% vs 70.2%, AOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.67-1.19) or BUD/FF group (68.5% vs 69.4%, AOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58-1.08). Noninferiority of BDP/FF in preventing COPD exacerbations was fulfilled in both comparisons. In patients without asthma, BDP/FF was also noninferior to BUD/FF (proportion with COPD exacerbations, 67.8% vs 64.7%, AOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.51-1.1997). Additionally, a significantly lower proportion of patients prescribed BDP/FF had COPD exacerbations than FP/SAL (64.8% vs 73.7%, AOR 0.64 95% CI 0.43-0.96). Conclusion: Initiating ICS/LABA treatment of COPD with extrafine-formulation BDP/FF was noninferior in preventing moderate/severe exacerbations compared to FP/SAL and BUD/FF.

13.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) receive care in respiratory clinics without access to specialist hepatology expertise. Liver disease can develop asymptomatically, and non-invasive markers of fibrosis may help identify patients who require definitive assessment with liver biopsy. We evaluated the utility of non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis in A1ATD to guide testing in settings without ready access to hepatology expertise. METHODS: Patients attending the London A1ATD service undergo assessment using blood tests to calculate the 'APRI' and 'FIB-4' score, liver ultrasound and Fibroscan. Liver biopsy is offered to patients who have abnormal liver function tests with abnormal liver ultrasound and/or liver stiffness >6 kPa on Fibroscan. Liver biopsies were assessed for the presence of A1AT, steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: 75 patients with A1ATD had results for analysis, 56% were female, age 16-82 years. 75% of patients had Fibroscan <6 kPa, 19% had Fibroscan 6-7.9 kPa and 6%>8 kPa. There was a significant correlation between FIB-4 and Fibroscan (r=0.244, p=0.035). Fibroscan >6 kPa corresponded to a FIB-4 score of >1.26. However, FIB-4 >1.26 had poor sensitivity (47%), specificity (32%) and positive-predictive value (PPV; 36%) to identify Fibroscan >6 kPa. The negative-predictive value (NPV) was stronger at 81%. APRI data were similar. Twelve patients underwent liver biopsy, with 11 reports available for analysis. Six had FIB-4 scores<1.26 and five had Fibroscan of <6 kPa. A1AT was present in 64% of biopsies, steatosis in 82%, mild fibrosis in 36%, moderate fibrosis in 9% and severe fibrosis in 9%. CONCLUSION: A combination of liver ultrasound and non-invasive fibrosis tests can help identify patients with A1ATD liver injury. However, APRI and FIB-4 scores alone had poor sensitivity and specificity to justify use as an independent tool for liver pathology in A1ATD.

14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 606333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324422

RESUMO

Background: Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) is a rare, potentially severe pulmonary complication of common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID). Informative clinical trials and consensus on management are lacking. Aims: The European GLILD network (e-GLILDnet) aims to describe how GLILD is currently managed in clinical practice and to determine the main uncertainties and unmet needs regarding diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Methods: The e-GLILDnet collaborators developed and conducted an online survey facilitated by the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) between February-April 2020. Results were analyzed using SPSS. Results: One hundred and sixty-one responses from adult and pediatric pulmonologists and immunologists from 47 countries were analyzed. Respondents treated a median of 27 (interquartile range, IQR 82-maximum 500) CVID patients, of which a median of 5 (IQR 8-max 200) had GLILD. Most respondents experienced difficulties in establishing the diagnosis of GLILD and only 31 (19%) had access to a standardized protocol. There was little uniformity in diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. Fewer than 40% of respondents saw a definite need for biopsy in all cases or performed bronchoalveolar lavage for diagnostics. Sixty-six percent used glucocorticosteroids for remission-induction and 47% for maintenance therapy; azathioprine, rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil were the most frequently prescribed steroid-sparing agents. Pulmonary function tests were the preferred modality for monitoring patients during follow-up. Conclusions: These data demonstrate an urgent need for clinical studies to provide more evidence for an international consensus regarding management of GLILD. These studies will need to address optimal procedures for definite diagnosis and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of GLILD in order to provide individualized treatment options. Non-availability of well-established standardized protocols risks endangering patients.

15.
Respir Med ; 173: 105988, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of unplanned readmission. There is need to identify risk factors for, and strategies to prevent readmission in patients with COPD. AIM: To systematically review and summarise the prevalence, risk factors and outcomes associated with rehospitalisation due to COPD exacerbation. METHOD: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Five databases were searched for relevant studies. RESULTS: Fifty-seven studies from 30 countries met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of COPD-related readmission varied from 2.6 to 82.2% at 30 days, 11.8-44.8% at 31-90 days, 17.9-63.0% at 6 months, and 25.0-87.0% at 12 months post-discharge. There were differences in the reported factors associated with readmissions, which may reflect variations in the local context, such as the availability of community-based services to care for exacerbations of COPD. Hospitalisation in the previous year prior to index admission was the key predictor of COPD-related readmission. Comorbidities (in particular asthma), living in a deprived area and living in or discharge to a nursing home were also associated with readmission. Relative to those without readmissions, readmitted patients had higher in-hospital mortality rates, shorter long-term survival, poorer quality of life, longer hospital stay, increased recurrence of subsequent readmissions, and accounted for greater healthcare costs. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalisation in the previous year was the principal risk factor for COPD-related readmissions. Variation in the prevalence and the reported factors associated with COPD-related readmission indicate that risk factors cannot be generalised, and interventions should be tailored to the local healthcare environment.

16.
Thorax ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172844

RESUMO

Large numbers of people are being discharged from hospital following COVID-19 without assessment of recovery. In 384 patients (mean age 59.9 years; 62% male) followed a median 54 days post discharge, 53% reported persistent breathlessness, 34% cough and 69% fatigue. 14.6% had depression. In those discharged with elevated biomarkers, 30.1% and 9.5% had persistently elevated d-dimer and C reactive protein, respectively. 38% of chest radiographs remained abnormal with 9% deteriorating. Systematic follow-up after hospitalisation with COVID-19 identifies the trajectory of physical and psychological symptom burden, recovery of blood biomarkers and imaging which could be used to inform the need for rehabilitation and/or further investigation.

17.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2769-2777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173289

RESUMO

Background: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) account for >90% of deaths and illness episodes related to COPD; however, this condition is commonly underdiagnosed in these settings. Case-finding instruments for COPD may improve diagnosis and identify individuals that need treatment, but few have been validated in resource-limited settings. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Uganda to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a respiratory symptom, exposure and functional questionnaire in combination with peak expiratory flow for COPD diagnosis using post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC z-score below the 5th percentile as the gold standard. We included locally relevant exposure questions and statistical learning techniques to identify the most important risk factors for COPD. We used 80% of the data to develop the case-finding instrument and validated it in the remaining 20%. We evaluated for calibration and discrimination using standard approaches. The final score, COLA (COPD in LMICs Assessment), included seven questions, age and pre-bronchodilator peak expiratory flow. Results: We analyzed data from 1,173 participants (average age 47 years, 46.9% male, 4.5% with COPD) with acceptable and reproducible spirometry. The seven questions yielded a cross-validated area-under-the-curve [AUC] of 0.68 (95% CI 0.61-0.75) with higher scores conferring greater odds of COPD. The inclusion of peak expiratory flow and age improved prediction in a validation sample (AUC=0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.88) with a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The final instrument (COLA) included seven questions, age and pre-bronchodilator peak expiratory flow. Conclusion: COLA predicted COPD in urban and rural settings in Uganda has high calibration and discrimination, and could serve as a simple, low-cost screening tool in resource-limited settings.

18.
Adv Ther ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245531

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has a profound impact on people living with the disease and has a high global economic and social burden. Often, people with COPD are undiagnosed, while those diagnosed are undertreated and undereducated on different aspects of COPD care. Although there are many published evidence-based treatment guidelines from different expert groups and societies, they are frequently not adhered to, which results in significant gaps in care. In particular, 'flare-ups' (known as exacerbations of COPD), which accelerate disease progression, are often under-reported, despite guidelines recommending an escalation of maintenance treatment to prevent subsequent flare-ups. Management of COPD should be proactive to prevent worsening of symptoms and to reduce the risk of future flare-ups and premature death, rather than a secondary reaction to a worsening health status. Key to this is patient access to accurate diagnosis, effective treatment and specialist care, which can vary widely due to socioeconomic differences, geographical locations and poor guideline implementation. In addition, the stigma associated with COPD can act as a barrier, which can result in people being reluctant to access treatment or clinicians being nihilistic. As global patient advocates, we have co-developed this patient charter to set a standard of care that people living with COPD should expect, raising awareness and understanding of the causes and consequences of COPD as well as the potential to improve patient care. Patients with COPD should be empowered to live the highest quality of life possible with the least number of flare-ups. We set out six principles in line with current COPD guideline recommendations, that should be implemented by governments, healthcare providers, policymakers, lung health industry partners and patients/caregivers to drive meaningful change in COPD care.

19.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(11): e17597, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations may facilitate more rapid treatment with reduced risk of hospitalization. Changes in pulse oximetry may permit early detection of exacerbations. We hypothesized that overnight pulse oximetry would be superior to once-daily monitoring for the early detection of exacerbations. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate whether measuring changes in heart rate and oxygen saturation overnight is superior to once-daily monitoring of both parameters and to assess symptom changes in facilitating earlier detection of COPD exacerbations. METHODS: A total of 83 patients with COPD were randomized to once-daily or overnight pulse oximetry. Both groups completed the COPD assessment test questionnaire daily. The baseline mean and SD for each pulse oximetry variable were calculated from 14 days of stable monitoring. Changes in exacerbation were expressed as Z scores from this baseline. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 70.6 (SD 8.1) years, 52% (43/83) were female, and the mean FEV1 was 53.0% (SD 18.5%) predicted. Of the 83 patients, 27 experienced an exacerbation. Symptoms were significantly elevated above baseline from 5 days before to 12 days after treatment initiation. Day-to-day variation in pulse oximetry during the stable state was significantly less in the overnight group than in the once-daily group. There were greater relative changes at exacerbation in heart rate than oxygen saturation. An overnight composite score of change in heart rate and oxygen saturation changed significantly from 7 days before initiation of treatment for exacerbation and had a positive predictive value for exacerbation of 91.2%. However, this was not statistically better than examining changes in symptoms alone. CONCLUSIONS: Overnight pulse oximetry permits earlier detection of COPD exacerbations compared with once-daily monitoring. Monitoring physiological variables was not superior to monitoring symptoms, and the latter would be a simpler approach, except where there is a need for objective verification of exacerbations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03003702; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03003702.

20.
Chest ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines are critical for facilitating cost-effective COPD care. Development and implementation in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) is challenging. To guide future strategy, an overview of current global COPD guidelines is required. RESEARCH QUESTION: We systematically reviewed national COPD guidelines, focusing on worldwide availability and identification of potential development, content, context and quality gaps that may hamper effective implementation. STUDY DESIGN: & Methods: Scoping review of national COPD management guidelines. We assessed: (1) global guideline coverage, (2) guideline information (authors, target audience, dissemination plans), (3) content (prevention, diagnosis, treatments), (4) ethical, legal, socio-economic aspects and (5) compliance with the eight Institute of Medicine (IOM) guideline standards. LMICs guidelines were compared to those from high-income countries (HICs). MAIN RESULTS: Of the 61 national COPD guidelines identified, 30 were from LMICs. Guidelines did not cover 1.93 billion (30.2%) people living in LMICs, whereas only 0.02 billion (1.9%) in HICs were without national guidelines. Compared with HICs, LMIC guidelines targeted fewer healthcare professional groups and less often addressed case finding and co-morbidities. Over 90% of all guidelines included smoking cessation advice. Air pollution reduction strategies were less frequently mentioned in both LMICs (47%) and HICs (42%). LMIC guidelines fulfilled on average 3.37 (42%) of IOM standards compared to 5.29 (66%) in HICs (p<0.05). LMICs scored significantly lower compared with HICs regarding conflicts of interest management, updates, articulation of recommendations and funding transparency (all, p<0.05). INTERPRETATION: Several development, content, context and quality gaps exist in COPD guidelines from LMICs that may hamper effective implementation. Overall, COPD guidelines in LMICs should be more widely available and should be transparently developed and updated. Guidelines may be further enhanced by better inclusion of local risk-factors, case finding and co-morbidity management, preferably tailored to available financial and staff resources.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...