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1.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 1095-1105, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074821

RESUMO

A fundamental part of data visualization is transforming data to map abstract information onto visual attributes. While this abstraction is a powerful basis for data visualization, the connection between the representation and the original underlying data (i.e., what the quantities and measurements actually correspond with in reality) can be lost. On the other hand, virtual reality (VR) is being increasingly used to represent real and abstract models as natural experiences to users. In this work, we explore the potential of using VR to help restore the basic understanding of units and measures that are often abstracted away in data visualization in an approach we call data visceralization. By building VR prototypes as design probes, we identify key themes and factors for data visceralization. We do this first through a critical reflection by the authors, then by involving external participants. We find that data visceralization is an engaging way of understanding the qualitative aspects of physical measures and their real-life form, which complements analytical and quantitative understanding commonly gained from data visualization. However, data visceralization is most effective when there is a one-to-one mapping between data and representation, with transformations such as scaling affecting this understanding. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for data visceralization.

2.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 991-1000, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443014

RESUMO

We present a new technique to enable the creation of shape-bounded Wordles, we call ShapeWordle, in which we fit words to form a given shape. To guide word placement within a shape, we extend the traditional Archimedean spirals to be shape-aware by formulating the spirals in a differential form using the distance field of the shape. To handle non-convex shapes, we introduce a multi-centric Wordle layout method that segments the shape into parts for our shape-aware spirals to adaptively fill the space and generate word placements. In addition, we offer a set of editing interactions to facilitate the creation of semantically-meaningful Wordles. Lastly, we present three evaluations: a comprehensive comparison of our results against the state-of-the-art technique (WordArt), case studies with 14 users, and a gallery to showcase the coverage of our technique.

3.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 687-696, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443025

RESUMO

Many edge bundling techniques (i.e., data simplification as a support for data visualization and decision making) exist but they are not directly applicable to any kind of dataset and their parameters are often too abstract and difficult to set up. As a result, this hinders the user ability to create efficient aggregated visualizations. To address these issues, we investigated a novel way of handling visual aggregation with a task-driven and user-centered approach. Given a graph, our approach produces a decluttered view as follows: first, the user investigates different edge bundling results and specifies areas, where certain edge bundling techniques would provide user-desired results. Second, our system then computes a smooth and structural preserving transition between these specified areas. Lastly, the user can further fine-tune the global visualization with a direct manipulation technique to remove the local ambiguity and to apply different visual deformations. In this paper, we provide details for our design rationale and implementation. Also, we show how our algorithm gives more suitable results compared to current edge bundling techniques, and in the end, we provide concrete instances of usages, where the algorithm combines various edge bundling results to support diverse data exploration and visualizations.

4.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 303, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551735

RESUMO

New solutions in operational environments are often, among objective measurements, evaluated by using subjective assessment and judgment from experts. Anyhow, it has been demonstrated that subjective measures suffer from poor resolution due to a high intra and inter-operator variability. Also, performance measures, if available, could provide just partial information, since an operator could achieve the same performance but experiencing a different workload. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate: (i) the higher resolution of neurophysiological measures in comparison to subjective ones; and (ii) how the simultaneous employment of neurophysiological measures and behavioral ones could allow a holistic assessment of operational tools. In this regard, we tested the effectiveness of an electroencephalography (EEG)-based neurophysiological index (WEEG index) in comparing two different solutions (i.e., Normal and Augmented) in terms of experienced workload. In this regard, 16 professional air traffic controllers (ATCOs) have been asked to perform two operational scenarios. Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) has also been recorded to evaluate the level of arousal (i.e., operator involvement) during the two scenarios execution. NASA-TLX questionnaire has been used to evaluate the perceived workload, and an expert was asked to assess performance achieved by the ATCOs. Finally, reaction times on specific operational events relevant for the assessment of the two solutions, have also been collected. Results highlighted that the Augmented solution induced a local increase in subjects performance (Reaction times). At the same time, this solution induced an increase in the workload experienced by the participants (WEEG). Anyhow, this increase is still acceptable, since it did not negatively impact the performance and has to be intended only as a consequence of the higher engagement of the ATCOs. This behavioral effect is totally in line with physiological results obtained in terms of arousal (GSR), that increased during the scenario with augmentation. Subjective measures (NASA-TLX) did not highlight any significant variation in perceived workload. These results suggest that neurophysiological measure provide additional information than behavioral and subjective ones, even at a level of few seconds, and its employment during the pre-operational activities (e.g., design process) could allow a more holistic and accurate evaluation of new solutions.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213675, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875387

RESUMO

Eye tracking systems have recently experienced a diversity of novel calibration procedures, including smooth pursuit and vestibulo-ocular reflex based calibrations. These approaches allowed collecting more data compared to the standard 9-point calibration. However, the computation of the mapping function which provides planar gaze positions from pupil features given as input is mostly based on polynomial regressions, and little work has investigated alternative approaches. This paper fills this gap by providing a new calibration computation method based on symbolic regression. Instead of making prior assumptions on the polynomial transfer function between input and output records, symbolic regression seeks an optimal model among different types of functions and their combinations. This approach offers an interesting perspective in terms of flexibility and accuracy. Therefore, we designed two experiments in which we collected ground truth data to compare vestibulo-ocular and smooth pursuit calibrations based on symbolic regression, both using a marker or a finger as a target, resulting in four different calibrations. As a result, we improved calibration accuracy by more than 30%, with reasonable extra computation time.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Fixação Ocular , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme , Reflexo Vestíbulo-Ocular , Adulto , Algoritmos , Calibragem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Normal , Pupila , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
6.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc ; 2019: 295-304, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308822

RESUMO

Self-tracking feedback with engaging and persuasive visualizations not only helps convey data but can also affect people's attitudes and behaviors. We investigate persuasive self-tracking feedback by augmenting data videos (DVs)-novel, engaging storytelling media. We introduce a new class of DVs, called Persuasive Data Videos (PDVs), by incorporating four persuasive elements-primary task, dialogue, system credibility, and social supports-drawn from the Persuasive System Design Model. We describe the iterative design of PDVs and a within-subjects preliminary validation to check their persuasive potential. We then assess PDVs' feasibility using the Persuasive Potential Questionnaire in a between-subjects study comparing a PDV against a conventional DV on Amazon Mechanical Turk (N = 252). Our results indicate the feasibility of using PDVs in providing individuals' self-tracking feedback to convey persuasive health messages, based on which we discuss opportunities for designing persuasive behavioral feedback in an engaging way.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Comunicação Persuasiva , Autogestão , Gravação em Vídeo , Humanos , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2018: 4619-4622, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30441381

RESUMO

This study aims at investigating the possibility to employ neurophysiological measures to assess the humanmachine interaction effectiveness. Such a measure can be used to compare new technologies or solutions, with the final purpose to enhance operator's experience and increase safety. In the present work, two different interaction modalities (Normal and Augmented) related to Air Traffic Management field have been compared, by involving 10 professional air traffic controllers in a control tower simulated environment. Experimental task consisted in locating aircrafts in different airspace positions by using the sense of hearing. In one modality (i.e. "Normal"), all the sound sources (aircrafts) had the same amplification factor. In the "Augmented" modality, the amplification factor of the sound sources located along the participant head sagittal axis was increased, while the intensity of sound sources located outside this axis decreased. In other words, when the user oriented his head toward the aircraft position, the related sound was amplified. Performance data, subjective questionnaires (i.e. NASA-TLX) and neurophysiological measures (i.e. EEG-based) related to the experienced workload have been collected. Results showed higher significant performance achieved by the users during the "Augmented" modality with respect to the "Normal" one, supported by a significant decreasing in experienced workload, evaluated by using EEG-based index. In addition, Performance and EEG-based workload index showed a significant negative correlation. On the contrary, subjective workload analysis did not show any significant trend. This result is a demonstration of the higher effectiveness of neurophysiological measures with respect to subjective ones for Human-Computer Interaction assessment.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Sistemas Homem-Máquina , Localização de Som , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Carga de Trabalho , Percepção Auditiva , Eletroencefalografia , Audição , Humanos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica , Ocupações
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2018: 5784-5789, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30441650

RESUMO

Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is a powerful set of methods for measuring physiological signals from video. Recent advances have shown that a low-cost webcam can be used to measure heart rate, blood flow, respiration, blood oxygen levels and stress. While these methods have many beneficial applications, the unobtrusive and ubiquitous nature of the sensors risk exposing people to unwanted measurement. We present InPhysible the first camouflage system against video- based physiological measurement. The infra-red system can be embedded into any pair of glasses, or other headwear, and disrupts the measurement of the iPPG signal while being imperceptible by the human eye. Our system is flexible and can simulate realistic pulse signals to hinder heart rate measurement. In this paper we present the design of our prototype and a user study validating its efficacy. Finally, we discuss the limitations and implications for data privacy and security.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Fotopletismografia/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Privacidade , Respiração , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235132

RESUMO

Occlusion is an issue in volumetric visualization as it prevents direct visualization of the region of interest. While many techniques such as transfer functions, volume segmentation or view distortion have been developed to address this, there is still room for improvement to better support the understanding of objects' vicinity. However, most existing Focus+Context fail to solve partial occlusion in datasets where the target and the occluder are very similar density-wise. For these reasons, we investigate a new technique which maintains the general structure of the investigated volumetric dataset while addressing occlusion issues. With our technique, the user interactively defines an area of interest where an occluded region or object is partially visible. Then our lens starts pushing at its border occluding objects, thus revealing hidden volumetric data. Next, the lens is modified with an extended field of view (fish-eye deformation) to better see the vicinity of the selected region. Finally, the user can freely explore the surroundings of the area under investigation within the lens. To provide real-time exploration, we implemented our lens using a GPU accelerated ray-casting framework to handle ray deformations, local lighting, and local viewpoint manipulation. We illustrate our technique with five application scenarios in baggage inspection, 3D fluid flow visualization, chest radiology, air traffic planning, and DTI fiber exploration.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136994

RESUMO

Visualizing 3D trajectories to extract insights about their similarities and spatial configuration is a critical task in several domains. Air traffic controllers for example deal with large quantities of aircrafts routes to optimize safety in airspace and neuroscientists attempt to understand neuronal pathways in the human brain by visualizing bundles of fibers from DTI images. Extracting insights from masses of 3D trajectories is challenging as the multiple three dimensional lines have complex geometries, may overlap, cross or even merge with each other, making it impossible to follow individual ones in dense areas. As trajectories are inherently spatial and three dimensional, we propose FiberClay: a system to display and interact with 3D trajectories in immersive environments. FiberClay renders a large quantity of trajectories in real time using GP-GPU techniques. FiberClay also introduces a new set of interactive techniques for composing complex queries in 3D space leveraging immersive environment controllers and user position. These techniques enable an analyst to select and compare sets of trajectories with specific geometries and data properties. We conclude by discussing insights found using FiberClay with domain experts in air traffic control and neurology.

11.
J Eye Mov Res ; 10(5)2018 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828667

RESUMO

We demonstrate the use of different visual aggregation techniques to obtain non-cluttered visual representations of scanpaths. First, fixation points are clustered using the mean-shift algorithm. Second, saccades are aggregated using the Attribute-Driven Edge Bundling (ADEB) algorithm that handles a saccades direction, onset timestamp, magnitude or their combination for the edge compatibility criterion. Flow direction maps, computed during bundling, can be visualized separately (vertical or horizontal components) or as a single image using the Oriented Line Integral Convolution (OLIC) algorithm. Furthermore, cosine similarity between two flow direction maps provides a similarity map to compare two scanpaths. Last, we provide examples of basic patterns, visual search task, and art perception. Used together, these techniques provide valuable insights about scanpath exploration and informative illustrations of the eye movement data.

12.
J Eye Mov Res ; 10(5)2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828671

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate how visualization assets can support the qualitative evaluation of gaze estimation uncertainty. Although eye tracking data are commonly available, little has been done to visually investigate the uncertainty of recorded gaze information. This paper tries to fill this gap by using innovative uncertainty computation and visualization. Given a gaze processing pipeline, we estimate the location of this gaze position in the world camera. To do so we developed our own gaze data processing which give us access to every stage of the data transformation and thus the uncertainty computation. To validate our gaze estimation pipeline, we designed an experiment with 12 participants and showed that the correction methods we proposed reduced the Mean Angular Error by about 1.32 cm, aggregating all 12 participants' results. The Mean Angular Error is 0.25° (SD=0.15°) after correction of the estimated gaze. Next, to support the qualitative assessment of this data, we provide a map which codes the actual uncertainty in the user point of view.

13.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 500-510, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866541

RESUMO

Bundling visually aggregates curves to reduce clutter and help finding important patterns in trail-sets or graph drawings. We propose a new approach to bundling based on functional decomposition of the underling dataset. We recover the functional nature of the curves by representing them as linear combinations of piecewise-polynomial basis functions with associated expansion coefficients. Next, we express all curves in a given cluster in terms of a centroid curve and a complementary term, via a set of so-called principal component functions. Based on the above, we propose a two-fold contribution: First, we use cluster centroids to design a new bundling method for 2D and 3D curve-sets. Secondly, we deform the cluster centroids and generate new curves along them, which enables us to modify the underlying data in a statistically-controlled way via its simplified (bundled) view. We demonstrate our method by applications on real-world 2D and 3D datasets for graph bundling, trajectory analysis, and vector field and tensor field visualization.

14.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl ; 37(1): 27-33, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28103542

RESUMO

An interactive visualization system can support volumetric data exploration in airport security screenings by addressing the challenges unique to the baggage inspection. The proposed system includes a set of interaction techniques that combine the direct manipulation of voxels and their interactive visualization. The system's final tools and GUI design incorporate feedback from airport personnel and were validated by real-world users in terms of effectiveness and ease of use.

15.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 23(1): 541-550, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27875170

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate Confluent Drawings (CD), a technique for bundling edges in node-link diagrams based on network connectivity. Edge-bundling techniques are designed to reduce edge clutter in node-link diagrams by coalescing lines into common paths or bundles. Unfortunately, traditional bundling techniques introduce ambiguity since edges are only bundled by spatial proximity, rather than network connectivity; following an edge from its source to its target can lead to the perception of incorrect connectivity if edges are not clearly separated within the bundles. Contrary, CDs bundle edges based on common sources or targets. Thus, a smooth path along a confluent bundle indicates precise connectivity. While CDs have been described in theory, practical investigation and application to real-world networks (i.e., networks beyond those with certain planarity restrictions) is currently lacking. Here, we provide the first algorithm for constructing CDs from arbitrary directed and undirected networks and present a simple layout method, embedded in a sand box environment providing techniques for interactive exploration. We then investigate patterns and artifacts in CDs, which we compare to other common edge-bundling techniques. Finally, we present the first user study that compares edge-compression techniques, including CD, power graphs, metro-style, and common edge bundling. We found that users without particular expertise in visualization or network analysis are able to read small CDs without difficulty. Compared to existing bundling techniques, CDs are more likely to allow people to correctly perceive connectivity.

16.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 22(1): 379-88, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26390467

RESUMO

Visualization of the trajectories of moving objects leads to dense and cluttered images, which hinders exploration and understanding. It also hinders adding additional visual information, such as direction, and makes it difficult to interactively extract traffic flows, i.e., subsets of trajectories. In this paper we present our approach to visualize traffic flows and provide interaction tools to support their exploration. We show an overview of the traffic using a density map. The directions of traffic flows are visualized using a particle system on top of the density map. The user can extract traffic flows using a novel selection widget that allows for the intuitive selection of an area, and filtering on a range of directions and any additional attributes. Using simple, visual set expressions, the user can construct more complicated selections. The dynamic behaviors of selected flows may then be shown in annotation windows in which they can be interactively explored and compared. We validate our approach through use cases where we explore and analyze the temporal behavior of aircraft and vessel trajectories, e.g., landing and takeoff sequences, or the evolution of flight route density. The aircraft use cases have been developed and validated in collaboration with domain experts.

17.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(8): 1141-57, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26357367

RESUMO

Depicting change captured by dynamic graphs and temporal paths, or trails, is hard. We present two techniques for simplified visualization of such data sets using edge bundles. The first technique uses an efficient image-based bundling method to create smoothly changing bundles from streaming graphs. The second technique adds edge-correspondence data atop of any static bundling algorithm, and is best suited for graph sequences. We show how these techniques can produce simplified visualizations of streaming and sequence graphs. Next, we show how several temporal attributes can be added atop of our dynamic graphs. We illustrate our techniques with data sets from aircraft monitoring, software engineering, and eye-tracking of static and dynamic scenes.

18.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 19(7): 1078-94, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23661006

RESUMO

Place-oriented analysis of movement data, i.e., recorded tracks of moving objects, includes finding places of interest in which certain types of movement events occur repeatedly and investigating the temporal distribution of event occurrences in these places and, possibly, other characteristics of the places and links between them. For this class of problems, we propose a visual analytics procedure consisting of four major steps: 1) event extraction from trajectories; 2) extraction of relevant places based on event clustering; 3) spatiotemporal aggregation of events or trajectories; 4) analysis of the aggregated data. All steps can be fulfilled in a scalable way with respect to the amount of the data under analysis; therefore, the procedure is not limited by the size of the computer's RAM and can be applied to very large data sets. We demonstrate the use of the procedure by example of two real-world problems requiring analysis at different spatial scales.

19.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 17(12): 2364-73, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22034357

RESUMO

In this paper, we present a novel approach for constructing bundled layouts of general graphs. As layout cues for bundles, we use medial axes, or skeletons, of edges which are similar in terms of position information. We combine edge clustering, distance fields, and 2D skeletonization to construct progressively bundled layouts for general graphs by iteratively attracting edges towards the centerlines of level sets of their distance fields. Apart from clustering, our entire pipeline is image-based with an efficient implementation in graphics hardware. Besides speed and implementation simplicity, our method allows explicit control of the emphasis on structure of the bundled layout, i.e. the creation of strongly branching (organic-like) or smooth bundles. We demonstrate our method on several large real-world graphs.

20.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 17(12): 2600-9, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22034382

RESUMO

We present MoleView, a novel technique for interactive exploration of multivariate relational data. Given a spatial embedding of the data, in terms of a scatter plot or graph layout, we propose a semantic lens which selects a specific spatial and attribute-related data range. The lens keeps the selected data in focus unchanged and continuously deforms the data out of the selection range in order to maintain the context around the focus. Specific deformations include distance-based repulsion of scatter plot points, deforming straight-line node-link graph drawings, and as varying the simplification degree of bundled edge graph layouts. Using a brushing-based technique, we further show the applicability of our semantic lens for scenarios requiring a complex selection of the zones of interest. Our technique is simple to implement and provides real-time performance on large datasets. We demonstrate our technique with actual data from air and road traffic control, medical imaging, and software comprehension applications.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Interface Usuário-Computador , Angiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Semântica
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