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1.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1032, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chemotherapy refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) have a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. In this phase Ib/II clinical trial, we established the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RPTD) for the combination of capecitabine and ziv-aflibercept, and then we evaluated the efficacy of the combination in patients with chemotherapy refractory metastatic CRC. METHODS: All patients were required to have a Karnofsky Performance Status > 70% and adequate organ function. The phase Ib dose escalation cohort included patients with advanced solid tumors who had progressed on all standard therapies. Using a standard 3 + 3 design, we identified the MTD and RPTD for the combination. Fifty patients with metastatic CRC who had progressed on or were intolerant of a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and bevacizumab were then enrolled in a single-arm phase II expansion cohort, and were treated at the RPTD. Prior EGFR antibody therapy was required for subjects with RAS wildtype tumors. The primary endpoint for the expansion cohort was progression-free survival (PFS) at two months. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 63 patients were enrolled and evaluable for toxicity (13 dose escalation; 50 expansion). The MTD and RPTD were: capecitabine 850 mg/m2, P.O. bid, days 1-14, and ziv-aflibercept 6 mg/kg I.V., day 1, of each 21-day cycle. In the expansion cohort, 72% of patients were progression-free at two months (95% confidence interval [CI], 60-84%). Median PFS and OS were 3.9 months (95% CI, 2.3-4.5) and 7.1 months (95% CI: 5.8-10.0), respectively. Among all patients evaluable for toxicity, the most common treatment related adverse events (all grade [%]; grade ≥ 3 [%]) included palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (41%; 6%), hypertension (33%; 22%), and mucositis (19%; 5%). RNA was isolated from archived tumor specimens and gene expression analyses revealed no association between angiogenic biomarkers and clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: The combination of capecitabine and ziv-aflibercept at the RPTD demonstrated acceptable safety and tolerability. PFS at 2 months in patients with chemotherapy refractory metastatic CRC was significantly greater than that in historical controls, indicating that this combination warrants further study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial was registered in the www.clinicaltrials.gov system as NCT01661972 on July 31, 2012.

2.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 84(4): 909-917, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444620

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RPTD), as well as the safety and tolerability of PF-03446962, a monoclonal antibody targeting activin receptor like kinase 1 (ALK-1), in combination with regorafenib in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: The first stage of this study was a standard "3 + 3" open-label dose-escalation scheme. Cohorts of 3-6 subjects were started with 120 mg of regorafenib given PO daily for 3 weeks of a 4 week cycle, plus 4.5 mg/kg of PF-03446962 given IV every 2 weeks. Doses of both drugs were adjusted according to dose-limiting toxicities (DLT). Plasma was collected for multiplexed ELISA analysis of factors related to tumor growth and angiogenesis. RESULTS: Seventeen subjects were enrolled, of whom 11 were deemed evaluable. Seven subjects were enrolled at dose level 1, and four were enrolled at level - 1. Overall, three DLTs were observed during the dose-escalation phase: two in level 1 and one in level - 1. A planned dose-expansion cohort was not started due to early termination of the clinical trial. Common adverse events were infusion-related reaction, fatigue, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, abdominal pain, dehydration, nausea, back pain, anorexia, and diarrhea. One subject achieved stable disease for 5.5 months, but discontinued treatment due to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The regimen of regorafenib and PF-03446962 was associated with unacceptable toxicity and did not demonstrate notable clinical activity in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer.

3.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 84(2): 383-392, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187169

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of lapatinib on the QTc interval and ECG parameters in patients with advanced solid tumors. METHODS: This was a multicenter, placebo-controlled study in subjects with advanced solid tumors. Subjects were administered two doses of matching placebo on day 1, 12 h apart and one dose in the morning on day 2. Two doses of lapatinib 2000 mg were administered orally on day 3, 12 h apart and one dose in the morning on day 4. Twelve-lead digital ECGs were extracted from continuous Holter recordings at pre-specified time points over the 24-h period on days 2 and 4. Venous blood samples for lapatinib concentrations were obtained immediately following the ECGs. RESULTS: A maximum mean baseline-adjusted, placebo time-matched increase in QTcF, (ddQTcF) in the evaluable, (EV) population (n = 37) of 8.8 ms (90% CI 4.1, 13.4) occurred approximately 10 h after the third lapatinib dose. These results were consistent with those in the pharmacodynamic, PD population, (n = 52) (ddQTcF = 7.9 ms; 90% CI 4.1, 11.7). No subject experienced QTcF increases from baseline of > 60 ms on lapatinib or placebo. The geometric mean lapatinib Cmax of 3902 ng/mL was observed at 3.6 h post-dose. CONCLUSIONS: These data show a relevant, treatment-related increase in QTcF after treatment with three doses of lapatinib 2000 mg. This study confirms the need for caution in patients with solid tumors treated with lapatinib, and who are concomitantly receiving drugs that are strong CYP3A inhibitors and/or prolong the QTc.

4.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 29(6): 123-131, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: One of the standard of care regimens for advanced pancreatic cancer is gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. The efficacy of gemcitabine is limited by dose-limiting hematologic toxicities especially neutropenia. Uncovering the variability of these toxicities attributed to germline DNA variation is of great importance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CALGB 80303 was a randomized study in advanced pancreatic cancer patients treated with gemcitabine with or without bevacizumab. The study protocol included genotyping of genes of gemcitabine disposition (CDA, DCTD, SLC29A1, SLC28A1, and SLC29A2), as well as a genome-wide analysis. The clinical phenotype was time to early high-grade neutropenia event accounting for progression or death or other treatment-terminating adverse events as competing for informative events. The inference was carried out on the basis of the association between genotype and cause-specific hazard of a neutropenic event. RESULTS: The primary analyses were carried out on the basis of 294 genetically estimated European pancreatic cancer patients. For CDA rs2072671 (A>C), AC and CC patients had a lower risk of neutropenia than AA patients (P=0.01, hazard ratio: 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.41-0.89). For SLC28A1 rs3825876 (G>A), AA patients have a higher risk of neutropenia than GA and GG patients (P=0.02, hazard ratio: 1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.16). CDA rs2072671 was associated with increased mRNA expression in whole blood in three studies (P=2.7e-14, 6.61e-62, and 9.70e-65). In the genome-wide analysis, variants in TGFB2 were among the top hits (lowest P=1.62e-06) but had no effect in luciferase assays. CONCLUSION: This is the first genetic analysis of gemcitabine-induced neutropenia using a competing risk model in a prospective randomized clinical study has proposed a potentially novel mechanism of the protective effect of the CDA rs2072671 variant. Further confirmation is needed.

5.
Oncologist ; 24(7): 921-932, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) typically entails a biologic such as bevacizumab (BEV) with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan (FOLFIRI). STEAM (NCT01765582) assessed the efficacy of BEV plus FOLFOX/FOLFIRI (FOLFOXIRI), administered concurrently (cFOLFOXIRI-BEV) or sequentially (sFOLFOXIRI-BEV, FOLFOX-BEV alternating with FOLFIRI-BEV), versus FOLFOX-BEV for mCRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with previously untreated mCRC (n = 280) were randomized 1:1:1 to cFOLFOXIRI-BEV, sFOLFOXIRI-BEV, or FOLFOX-BEV and treated with 4-6-month induction followed by maintenance. Coprimary objectives were overall response rate (ORR; first-line cFOLFOXIRI-BEV vs. FOLFOX-BEV) and progression-free survival (PFS; pooled first-line cFOLFOXIRI-BEV and sFOLFOXIRI-BEV vs. FOLFOX-BEV). Secondary/exploratory objectives included overall survival (OS), liver resection rates, biomarker analyses, and safety. RESULTS: ORR was 72.0%, 72.8%, and 62.1% and median PFS was 11.9, 11.4, and 9.5 months with cFOLFOXIRI-BEV, sFOLFOXIRI-BEV, and FOLFOX-BEV, respectively. OS was similar between arms. ORR between cFOLFOXIRI-BEV and FOLFOX-BEV did not significantly differ (p = .132); thus, the primary ORR endpoint was not met. cFOLFOXIRI-BEV and sFOLFOXIRI-BEV numerically improved ORR and PFS, regardless of RAS status. Median PFS was higher with pooled concurrent and sequential FOLFOXIRI-BEV versus FOLFOX-BEV (11.7 vs. 9.5 months; hazard ratio, 0.7; 90% confidence interval, 0.5-0.9; p < .01). Liver resection rates were 17.2% (cFOLFOXIRI-BEV), 9.8% (sFOLFOXIRI-BEV), and 8.4% (FOLFOX-BEV). Grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were observed in 91.2% (cFOLFOXIRI-BEV), 86.7% (sFOLFOXIRI-BEV), and 85.6% (FOLFOX-BEV) of patients, with no increase in serious chemotherapy-associated TEAEs. CONCLUSION: cFOLFOXIRI-BEV and sFOLFOXIRI-BEV were well tolerated with numerically improved ORR, PFS, and liver resection rates versus FOLFOX-BEV, supporting triplet chemotherapy plus BEV as a first-line treatment option for mCRC. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The combination of first-line FOLFIRI with FOLFOX and bevacizumab (concurrent FOLFOXIRI-BEV) improves clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) relative to FOLFIRI-BEV or FOLFOX-BEV, but it is thought to be associated with increased toxicity. Alternating treatment of FOLFOX and FOLFIRI (sequential FOLFOXIRI-BEV) could improve tolerability. In the phase II STEAM trial, which is the largest study of FOLFOXIRI-BEV in patients in the U.S., it was found that both concurrent and sequential FOLFOXIRI-BEV are active and well tolerated in patients with previously untreated mCRC, supporting the use of these regimens as potential first-line treatment options for this population.

6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16332, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397360

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is essential in tumor biology and is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligands and receptors. Here we aimed to discover genetic variants associated with levels of circulating angiogenic proteins in cancer patients. Plasma was collected at baseline in 216 pancreatic and 114 colorectal cancer patients. Thirty-one angiogenic proteins were measured by ELISA. 484,523 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) were tested for association with plasma levels for each protein in pancreatic cancer patients. Three top-ranked hits were then genotyped in colorectal cancer patients, where associations with the same proteins were measured. The results demonstrated rs2284284 and MCP1 (P-value = 6.7e-08), rs7504372 and VEGF-C (P-value = 9.8e-09), and rs7767396 and VEGF-A (P-value = 5.8e-09) were SNP-protein pairs identified in pancreatic cancer patients. In colorectal cancer patients, only rs7767396 (A > G) and VEGF-A was validated (P-value = 5.18e-05). The AA genotype of rs7767396 exhibited 2.04-2.3 and 2.7-3.4-fold higher VEGF-A levels than those with AG and GG genotypes. The G allele of rs7767396 reduces binding of the NF-AT1 transcription factor. In conclusion, a common genetic variant predicts the plasma levels of VEGF-A in cancer patients through altered binding of NF-AT1.

7.
Br J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two first-line (1L) bevacizumab trials showed the prognostic value of primary tumour location in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In this retrospective subgroup analysis, further analysis of the predictive effect of bevacizumab is presented. METHODS: Patients with sidedness information from two randomised phase III studies of bevacizumab + chemotherapy (CT) vs CT as 1L mCRC treatment were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: Sidedness was determined in 1590 (27% right and 73% left) of 2214 patients. Progression-free survival was improved with bevacizumab + CT vs CT in right-sided (HR = 0.75; 95% CI 0.61, 0.93; p = 0.008) and left-sided (HR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.67, 0.86; p < 0.001) mCRC (pooled analysis). Similarly, overall survival was numerically improved with bevacizumab + CT vs CT in right-sided mCRC (HR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.65, 1.03; p = 0.085), and significantly improved in left-sided mCRC (HR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.74, 0.98; p = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis indicates that the effect of bevacizumab is independent of tumour location in mCRC.

8.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 17(10): 2248-2256, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997150

RESUMO

TRC105 is an anti-endoglin antibody currently being tested in combination with VEGF inhibitors. In the phase Ib trial, 38 patients were treated with both TRC105 and bevacizumab (BEV), and improved clinical outcomes were observed, despite the fact that 30 patients (79%) were refractory to prior anti-VEGF therapy. Plasma samples were tested for angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers at baseline and on-treatment. To provide broader context of this combination biomarker study, direct cross-study comparisons were made to biomarker studies previously conducted in patients treated with either BEV or TRC105 monotherapy. Upon treatment with BEV and TRC105, pharmacodynamic changes in response to both BEV (PlGF increase) and TRC105 (soluble endoglin increase) were noted. In addition, distinct patterns of change were identified (similar, opposing, neutralizing). Similar patterns were observed when the combination elicited similar effects to those observed with monotherapy treatment (i.e., decreases of Ang-2, increases of IL6 and VCAM-1). Opposing patterns were observed when the combination led to opposing effects compared with monotherapy treatment (i.e., TGFß1, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB, PAI-1). Lastly, neutralizing patterns were observed when one drug led to increase, whereas the other drug led to decrease, and the combination elicited no overall effect on the marker (i.e., VEGF-A, VEGF-D, and IGFBP-3). Patients achieving partial responses or stable disease from the combination exhibited significantly lower expression of E-Cadherin, HGF, ICAM-1, and TSP-2 at baseline. Taken together, the novel biomarker modulations identified may deepen our understanding of the underlying biology in patients treated with BEV and TRC105 compared with either drug alone. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(10); 2248-56. ©2018 AACR.

9.
Oncologist ; 23(7): 782-790, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572245

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose or recommended phase II dose (RPTD) and safety and tolerability of the ganitumab and everolimus doublet regimen followed by the ganitumab, everolimus, and panitumumab triplet regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a standard 3 + 3 dose escalation trial. Doublet therapy consisted of ganitumab at 12 mg/kg every 2 weeks; doses of everolimus were adjusted according to dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). Panitumumab at 4.8 mg/kg every 2 weeks was added to the RPTD of ganitumab and everolimus. DLTs were assessed in cycle 1; toxicity evaluation was closely monitored throughout treatment. Treatment continued until disease progression or undesirable toxicity. Pretreatment and on-treatment skin biopsies were collected to assess insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) target modulation. RESULTS: Forty-three subjects were enrolled. In the doublet regimen, two DLTs were observed in cohort 1, no DLTs in cohort -1, and one in cohort -1B. The triplet combination was discontinued because of unacceptable toxicity. Common adverse events were thrombocytopenia/neutropenia, skin rash, mucositis, fatigue, and hyperglycemia. In the doublet regimen, two patients with refractory non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) achieved prolonged complete responses ranging from 18 to >60 months; one treatment-naïve patient with chondrosarcoma achieved prolonged stable disease >24 months. In dermal granulation tissue, the insulin-like growth factor receptor and mTOR pathways were potently and specifically inhibited by ganitumab and everolimus, respectively. CONCLUSION: The triplet regimen of ganitumab, everolimus, and panitumumab was associated with unacceptable toxicity. However, the doublet of ganitumab at 12 mg/kg every 2 weeks and everolimus five times weekly had an acceptable safety profile and demonstrated notable clinical activity in patients with refractory NSCLC and sarcoma. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This trial evaluated the maximum tolerated dose or recommended phase II dose and safety and tolerability of the ganitumab and everolimus doublet regimen followed by the ganitumab, everolimus, and panitumumab triplet regimen. Although the triplet regimen of ganitumab, everolimus, and panitumumab was associated with unacceptable toxicity, the doublet of ganitumab at 12 mg/kg every 2 weeks and everolimus at five times weekly had an acceptable safety profile and demonstrated notable clinical activity in patients with refractory non-small cell lung cancer and sarcoma.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(2): 316-325, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084918

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ontuxizumab (MORAb-004), a monoclonal antibody that interferes with endosialin (tumor endothelial marker-1) function, in patients with chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer and to identify a responsive patient population based on biomarkers.Experimental Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive weekly intravenous ontuxizumab (8 mg/kg) or placebo plus best supportive care until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Tissue and blood biomarkers were evaluated for their ability to identify a patient population that was responsive to ontuxizumab.Results: A total of 126 patients were enrolled. No significant difference between the ontuxizumab and placebo groups was evident for the primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS), with a median PFS of 8.1 weeks in each group (HR, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.67; P = 0.53). There were no significant differences between groups for overall survival (OS) or overall response rate (ORR). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in the ontuxizumab group (vs. the placebo group, respectively) were fatigue (53.7% vs. 47.5%), nausea (39.0% vs. 35.0%), decreased appetite (34.1% vs. 27.5%), and constipation (28.0% vs. 32.5%). The most common grade 3/4 TEAE in the ontuxizumab group versus placebo was back pain (11.0% vs. 0%). No single biomarker clearly identified patients responsive to ontuxizumab.Conclusions: No benefit with ontuxizumab monotherapy compared with placebo for clinical response parameters of PFS, OS, or ORR was demonstrated. Ontuxizumab was well tolerated. Clin Cancer Res; 24(2); 316-25. ©2017 AACR.

11.
Radiology ; 285(1): 311-318, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787261

RESUMO

Purpose To identify changes in a broad panel of circulating angiogenesis factors after bland transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), a purely ischemic treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods This prospective HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants prior to entry into the study. Twenty-five patients (21 men; mean age, 61 years; range, 30-81 years) with Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 or biopsy-proven HCC and who were undergoing TAE were enrolled from October 15, 2014, through December 2, 2015. Nineteen plasma angiogenesis factors (angiopoietin 2; hepatocyte growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor AA and BB; placental growth factor; vascular endothelial growth factor A and D; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, 2, and 3; osteopontin; transforming growth factor ß1 and ß2; thrombospondin 2; intercellular adhesion molecule 1; interleukin 6 [IL-6]; stromal cell-derived factor 1; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1; and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1]) were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 5 weeks after TAE and were compared with baseline levels by using paired Wilcoxon tests. Tumor response was assessed according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). Angiogenesis factor levels were compared between responders and nonresponders by mRECIST criteria by using unpaired Wilcoxon tests. Results All procedures were technically successful with no complications. Fourteen angiogenesis factors showed statistically significant changes following TAE, but most changes were transient. IL-6 was upregulated only 1 day after the procedure, but showed the largest increases of any factor. Osteopontin and VCAM-1 demonstrated sustained upregulation at all time points following TAE. At 3-month follow-up imaging, 11 patients had responses to TAE (complete response, n = 6; partial response, n = 5) and 11 patients were nonresponders (stable disease, n = 9; progressive disease, n = 2). In nonresponders, the percent change in IL-6 on the day after TAE (P = .033) and the mean percent change in osteopontin after TAE (P = .024) were significantly greater compared with those of responders. Conclusion Multiple angiogenesis factors demonstrated significant upregulation after TAE. VCAM-1 and osteopontin demonstrated sustained upregulation, whereas the rest were transient. IL-6 and osteopontin correlated significantly with radiologic response after TAE. © RSNA, 2017.


Assuntos
Proteínas Angiogênicas/sangue , Proteínas Angiogênicas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quimioembolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 79(3): 611-619, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase II dose (RPTD), and assess safety and tolerability for the combination of pazopanib plus TH-302, an investigational hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP), in adult patients with advanced solid tumors. METHODS: This was an open-label, non-randomized, single-center, phase I trial consisting 2 stages. Stage 1 was a standard "3 + 3" dose escalation design to determine safety and the RPTD for TH-302 plus pazopanib combination. Stage 2 was an expanded cohort to better describe the tolerability and toxicity profile at the MTD. Pazopanib was orally dosed at 800 mg daily on days 1-28 for all cohorts. TH-302 was administered intravenously on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-day cycle at doses of 340 mg/m2 (cohort 1) or 480 mg/m2 (cohort 2). Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was assessed in the first 28-day cycle. Efficacy was assessed every 2 cycles. RESULTS: Thirty patients were enrolled between December 2011 and September 2013. In the dose escalation stage, 7 patients were enrolled in the 340 mg/m2 TH-302 cohort and 6 patients in the 480 mg/m2 TH-302 cohort. Ten patients were evaluable for DLT. DLTs included grade 2 intolerable esophagitis (n = 1) in the 340 mg/m2 TH-302 cohort, and grade 3 vaginal inflammation (n = 1) and grade 3 neutropenia with grade 3 thrombocytopenia (n = 1, same patient) in the 480 mg/m2 TH-302 cohort. The 340 mg/m2 TH-302 cohort was determined to be MTD and RPTD. The most common treatment-related adverse events were hematologic (anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia), nausea/vomiting, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, constipation, fatigue, mucositis, anorexia, pain, and hypertension. Partial response (PR) was observed in 10% (n = 3) of patients, stable disease (SD) in 57% (n = 17), and progressive disease (PD) in 23% (n = 7). Due to toxicity, 3 patients were discontinued from study drug prior to first radiographic assessment but were included in these calculations. Disease control ≥6 months was observed in 37% of patients (n = 11). CONCLUSIONS: The RPTD for this novel combination is pazopanib 800 mg daily on days 1-28 plus TH-302 340 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15 of each 28-day cycle. Preliminary activity was seen in treatment-refractory cancers and supports potential value of co-targeting tumor angiogenesis and tumor hypoxia.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitroimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Mostardas de Fosforamida/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cancer Med ; 5(9): 2249-60, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465221

RESUMO

Circulating protein markers were assessed in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with cetuximab in CALGB 80203 to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Patients with locally advanced or metastatic CRC received FOLFOX or FOLFIRI chemotherapy (chemo) or chemo in combination with cetuximab. Baseline plasma samples from 152 patients were analyzed for six candidate markers [epidermal growth factor (EGF), heparin-binding EGF (HBEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, HER3, and CD73]. Analyte levels were associated with survival endpoints using univariate Cox proportional hazards models. Predictive markers were identified using a treatment-by-marker interaction term in the Cox model. Plasma levels of EGF, HBEGF, HER3, and CD73 were prognostic for overall survival (OS) across all patients (KRAS mutant and wild-type). High levels of EGF predicted for lack of OS benefit from cetuximab in KRAS wild-type (WT) patients (chemo HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.74-1.29; chemo+cetuximab HR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.05-2.25; interaction P = 0.045) and benefit from cetuximab in KRAS mutant patients (chemo HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.02-2.92; chemo+cetuximab HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.67-1.21; interaction P = 0.026). Across all patients, higher HER3 levels were associated with significant OS benefit from cetuximab treatment (chemo HR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.68-13.84; chemo+cetuximab HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.31-2.95; interaction P = 0.046). CD73 was also identified as predictive of OS benefit in KRAS WT patients (chemo HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.88-1.84; chemo+cetuximab HR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.32-1.13; interaction P = 0.049). Although these results are preliminary, and confirmatory studies are necessary before clinical application, the data suggest that HER3 and CD73 may play important roles in the biological response to cetuximab.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem , Proteínas ras/genética
15.
Mol Cancer Res ; 14(6): 539-47, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951228

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Amplification of the MET oncogene is associated with poor prognosis, metastatic dissemination, and drug resistance in many malignancies. We developed a method to capture and characterize circulating tumor cells (CTC) expressing c-MET using a ferromagnetic antibody. Immunofluorescence was used to characterize cells for c-MET, DAPI, and pan-CK, excluding CD45(+) leukocytes. The assay was validated using appropriate cell line controls spiked into peripheral blood collected from healthy volunteers (HV). In addition, peripheral blood was analyzed from patients with metastatic gastric, pancreatic, colorectal, bladder, renal, or prostate cancers. CTCs captured by c-MET were enumerated, and DNA FISH for MET amplification was performed. The approach was highly sensitive (80%) for MET-amplified cells, sensitive (40%-80%) for c-MET-overexpressed cells, and specific (100%) for both c-MET-negative cells and in 20 HVs. Of 52 patients with metastatic carcinomas tested, c-MET CTCs were captured in replicate samples from 3 patients [gastric, colorectal, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC)] with 6% prevalence. CTC FISH demonstrated that MET amplification in both gastric and colorectal cancer patients and trisomy 7 with gain of MET gene copies in the RCC patient. The c-MET CTC assay is a rapid, noninvasive, sensitive, and specific method for detecting MET-amplified tumor cells. CTCs with MET amplification can be detected in patients with gastric, colorectal, and renal cancers. IMPLICATIONS: This study developed a novel c-MET CTC assay for detecting c-MET CTCs in patients with MET amplification and warrants further investigation to determine its clinical applicability. Mol Cancer Res; 14(6); 539-47. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Separação Imunomagnética/métodos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética
16.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 7(6): 875-881, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28078111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic disease of the liver can have hyperbilirubinemia due to a number of reasons, including biliary obstruction. The purpose of this study was to analyze patient outcomes after percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) catheter insertion in patients with extensive hepatic metastatic tumor burden. METHODS: Out of 746 PBD insertions, 44 patients (24 males, 20 females, mean age 57.4 years, range, 34-80 years) had metastatic malignancy with a hepatic tumor burden of greater than 20% parenchymal volume based on pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laboratory data before and after PBD insertion were compared. Survival and outcomes analysis performed. A subanalysis was performed on patients with CT-demonstrated catheter traversal of tumoral tissue. RESULTS: A PBD catheter was successfully inserted in all patients. The mean serum bilirubin level decreased significantly from 10.9±6.4 mg/dL immediately prior to PBD insertion to 7.1±5.6 mg/dL (P<0.001) within one month post PBD insertion. Four patients (11%) demonstrated normalization of bilirubin levels to less than 1.6 mg/dL. Of the 14 patients with a post-procedure CT or MRI, the PBD catheter traversed a tumor in 11 (79%). One of these patients required a transfusion after the procedure and one had recurrent catheter exchanges due to pericatheter leakage. The 30-day overall survival was 41% with a median survival of 19 days. The percentage decrease in serum bilirubin after PBD insertion and pre-procedure international normalized ratio (INR) were correlated with improved survival (OR =3.7, P=0.010 and OR =4.9, P=0.028 respectively). The PBD-associated major complication rate was 16%. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with hyperbilirubinemia and extensive hepatic metastatic disease burden, survival was dismal after PBD catheter insertion. Serum bilirubin level normalization occurred rarely.

17.
J Clin Oncol ; 33(34): 4039-47, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26351344

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma have a poor prognosis and limited second-line treatment options. Evidence suggests a role for the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway in the pathogenesis and clinical course of pancreatic cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this double-blind, phase II study, patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer who had experienced treatment failure with gemcitabine were randomly assigned 1:1 to the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib (15 mg twice daily) plus capecitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily) or placebo plus capecitabine. The primary end point was overall survival (OS); secondary end points included progression-free survival, clinical benefit response, objective response rate, and safety. Prespecified subgroup analyses evaluated treatment heterogeneity and efficacy in patients with evidence of inflammation. RESULTS: In the intent-to-treat population (ruxolitinib, n = 64; placebo, n = 63), the hazard ratio was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.53 to 1.18; P = .25) for OS and was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.52 to 1.10; P = .14) for progression-free survival. In a prespecified subgroup analysis of patients with inflammation, defined by serum C-reactive protein levels greater than the study population median (ie, 13 mg/L), OS was significantly greater with ruxolitinib than with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.85; P = .011). Prolonged survival in this subgroup was supported by post hoc analyses of OS that categorized patients by the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, a systemic inflammation-based prognostic system. Grade 3 or greater adverse events were observed with similar frequency in the ruxolitinib (74.6%) and placebo (81.7%) groups. Grade 3 or greater anemia was more frequent with ruxolitinib (15.3%; placebo, 1.7%). CONCLUSION: Ruxolitinib plus capecitabine was generally well tolerated and may improve survival in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and evidence of systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Cancer J ; 21(4): 322-6, 2015 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26222085

RESUMO

Agents that inhibit tumor angiogenesis are widely used and have provided meaningful survival benefits to patients in multiple disease settings. However, these agents differ significantly in their mechanisms of action and potential toxicities, and there are currently no prospectively validated biomarkers to guide the selection of agents for individual patients. Blood-based protein biomarkers are well suited for trials investigating antiangiogenic agents for multiple reasons. Many elements of the molecular pathways that antiangiogenic agents target are present and detectable in the circulation, sample collection is minimally invasive, and samples can be collected throughout the course of treatment. Blood-based biomarkers for antiangiogenic therapies are urgently needed to guide the development of therapeutic strategies. This review provides a brief summary of the current blood-based protein biomarkers for antiangiogenic therapies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Neovascularização Patológica/sangue , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 21(15): 3442-52, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25878330

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In early clinical testing, most novel targeted anticancer therapies have limited toxicities and limited efficacy, which complicates dose and schedule selection for these agents. Confirmation of target inhibition is critical for rational drug development; however, repeated tumor biopsies are often impractical and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and normal skin are often inadequate surrogates for tumor tissue. Based upon the similarities of tumor and wound stroma, we have developed a clinical dermal granulation tissue model to evaluate novel targeted therapies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A 4-mm skin punch biopsy was used to stimulate wound healing and a repeat 5-mm punch biopsy was used to harvest the resulting granulation tissue. This assay was performed at pretreatment and on-treatment evaluating four targeted therapies, bevacizumab, everolimus, erlotinib, and panitumumab, in the context of three different clinical trials. Total and phosphorylated levels VEGFR2, S6RP, and EGFR were evaluated using ELISA-based methodologies. RESULTS: Significant and consistent inhibition of the VEGF pathway (using VEGFR2 as the readout) was observed in granulation tissue biopsies from patients treated with bevacizumab and everolimus. In addition, significant and consistent inhibition of the mTOR pathway (using S6RP as the readout) was observed in patients treated with everolimus. Finally, significant inhibition of the EGFR pathway (using EGFR as the readout) was observed in patients treated with panitumumab, but this was not observed in patients treated with erlotinib. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular analyses of dermal granulation tissue can be used as a convenient and quantitative pharmacodynamic biomarker platform for multiple classes of targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Tecido de Granulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/biossíntese , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Biópsia por Agulha , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/administração & dosagem , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Tecido de Granulação/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Panitumumabe , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(3)2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25713148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to clarify the prognostic impact of primary tumor location in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS: We evaluated the association between tumor location and survival parameters in patients with previously untreated mCRC receiving first-line chemotherapy ± bevacizumab in three independent cohorts: a prospective pharmacogenetic study (PROVETTA) and two randomized phase III trials, AVF2107g and NO16966. Cancers proximal or distal of the splenic flexure were classified as right-sided or left-sided, respectively. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Data were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Among evaluable patients in the PROVETTA (n = 200), AVF2107g (n = 559), and NO16966 (n = 1268) studies, 72.0%, 63.1%, and 73.7% had left-sided tumors, respectively. In PROVETTA, patients with left-sided tumors had superior OS (left-sided vs right-sided: hazard ratio [HR] = .44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .28 to .70, P < .001) and progression-free survival (HR = .52, 95% CI = .36 to .75, P < .001) outcomes. Multivariable analyses confirmed right-sided location as a negative prognostic variable, independent of mucinous histology and BRAF mutational status. Data from the AVF2107g (HR for OS = .55, 95% CI = .43 to .70) and NO16966 trials (HR for OS = .71, 95% CI = .62 to .82 both P < .001) also showed favorable outcomes in patients with left-sided tumors. In both randomized studies, the efficacy of bevacizumab was independent of tumor location. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that primary tumor location is an important prognostic factor in previously untreated mCRC. Given the consistency across an exploratory set and two confirmatory phase III studies, side of tumor origin should be considered for stratification in randomized trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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