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1.
J Affect Disord ; 274: 1134-1141, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is usually reserved for treatment of severe major depressive disorder (MDD), but may be equally effective in the treatment of moderate-severity MDD. This possibility, however, has only been studied to a very limited extent. We therefore investigated the efficacy of ECT after stratifying patients into severe MDD and moderate-severity MDD. METHODS: We used data from the Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE) study, in which 240 patients (≥60 years) with MDD were treated with right unilateral ultrabrief pulse ECT, combined with venlafaxine. We used the six-item core depression subscale (HAM-D6) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale to define depression severity. Participants with baseline total scores ≥12 on the HAM-D6 were considered to have severe MDD, while those with HAM-D6 total scores <12 were considered to have moderate-severity MDD. RESULTS: Among the participants with severe MDD and moderate-severity MDD, the mean change in the HAM-D6 total score from baseline to endpoint was -8.2 (95% confidence interval (95%CI) = -7.5; -9.0, paired t-test: p < 0.001) and -5.9 (95%CI = -5.1; -6.6, paired t-test: p < 0.001), respectively. A total of 63% of those with severe MDD and 75% of those with moderate-severity MDD achieved remission (HAM-D6 total score ≤4) (Pearson's 2-sample chi-squared test of difference between groups: p = 0.27). LIMITATIONS: The PRIDE study was not designed to address this research question. CONCLUSIONS: ECT combined with venlafaxine appears to be an effective treatment for moderate-severity MDD. It may be appropriate to expand the indications for ECT to include patients with moderate-severity MDD.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 269: 36-42, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established treatment for severe depression but may result in adverse cognitive effects. Available cognitive screening instruments are nonspecific to the cognitive deficits associated with ECT. An ECT-cognitive assessment tool which can be easily administered was developed and validated in a clinical setting. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-six participants were enrolled. The ElectroConvulsive therapy Cognitive Assessment (ECCA) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were administered prospectively to 55 participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) undergoing ECT at three time points: pre-treatment, before the sixth treatment and one-week post-treatment. The psychometric properties of the total and domain scores were evaluated at all three time points. Forty demographically comparable participants with MDD who did not receive ECT, and 41 healthy, age-matched controls were evaluated at a single time point. RESULTS: ECCA and MoCA scores were not statistically different at baseline. Prior to the sixth and final ECT session, total ECCA scores were significantly lower than the MoCA total scores. The ECCA domains of subjective memory, informant-assessed memory, attention, autobiographical memory and delayed verbal recall were significantly lower post-ECT compared to pre-ECT. LIMITATIONS: The ECCA was compared only to the MoCA rather than to a more comprehensive neuropsychological testing. This limitation reflected the real-life clinical burden of performing full neuropsychological testing at three time points during the treatment course. CONCLUSIONS: The ECCA is a brief, reliable, bedside cognitive screening assessment tool that may be useful to monitor cognitive function in patients treated with ECT. The test can be downloaded from fuquacenter.org/ecca.

3.
Lasers Surg Med ; 52(9): 807-813, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In our previous proof-of-principle study, transcranial photobiomodulation (tPBM) with 1,064-nm laser was reported to significantly increase concentration changes of oxygenated hemoglobin (∆[HbO]) and oxidized-state cytochrome c oxidase (∆[oxi-CCO]) in the human brain. This paper further investigated (i) its validity in two different subsets of young human subjects at two study sites over a period of 3 years and (ii) age-related effects of tPBM by comparing sham-controlled increases of ∆[HbO] and ∆[oxi-CCO] between young and older adults. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured sham-controlled ∆[HbO] and ∆[oxi-CCO] using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (bb-NIRS) in 15 young (26.7 ± 2.7 years of age) and 5 older (68.2 ± 4.8 years of age) healthy normal subjects before, during, and after right-forehead tPBM/sham stimulation with 1,064-nm laser. Student t tests were used to test statistical differences in tPBM-induced ∆[HbO] and ∆[oxi-CCO] (i) between the 15 young subjects and those of 11 reported previously and (ii) between the two age groups measured in this study. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed that no significant difference existed in ∆[HbO] and ∆[oxi-CCO] during and post tPBM between the two subsets of young subjects at two study sites over a period of 3 years. Furthermore, the two age groups showed statistically identical net increases in sham-controlled ∆[HbO] and ∆[oxi-CCO]. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided strong evidence to validate/confirm our previous findings that tPBM with 1,064-nm laser enables to increase cerebral ∆[HbO] and ∆[oxi-CCO] in the human brain, as measured by bb-NIRS. Overall, it demonstrated the robust reproducibility of tPBM being able to improve cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism of the human brain in vivo in both young and older adults. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2020 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

4.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(3): 261-272, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been found to have antidepressant effects and may have beneficial neurocognitive effects. However, prior research has produced an unclear understanding of the neurocognitive effects of repeated exposure to tDCS. The study's aim was to determine the neurocognitive effects following tDCS treatment in participants with unipolar or bipolar depression. METHOD: The study was a triple-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial across six international academic medical centers. Participants were randomized to high dose (2.5 mA for 30 min) or low dose (0.034 mA, for 30 min) tDCS for 20 sessions over 4 weeks, followed by an optional 4 weeks of open-label high dose treatment. The tDCS anode was centered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at F3 (10/20 EEG system) and the cathode over F8. Participants completed clinical and neurocognitive assessments before and after tDCS. Genotype (BDNF Val66Met and catechol-o-methyltransferase [COMT] Val158Met polymorphisms) were explored as potential moderators of neurocognitive effects. RESULTS: The study randomized 130 participants. Across the participants, tDCS treatment (high and low dose) resulted in improvements in verbal learning and recall, selective attention, information processing speed, and working memory, which were independent of mood effects. Similar improvements were observed in the subsample of participants with bipolar disorder. There was no observed significant effect of tDCS dose. However, BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms interacted with tDCS dose and affected verbal memory and verbal fluency outcomes, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that tDCS could have positive neurocognitive effects in unipolar and bipolar depression. Thus, tDCS stimulation parameters may interact with interindividual differences in BDNF and COMT polymorphisms to affect neurocognitive outcomes, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(3): 304-316, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is limited information regarding the tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) combined with pharmacotherapy in elderly adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Addressing this gap, we report acute neurocognitive outcomes from Phase 1 of the Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE) study. METHODS: Elderly adults (age ≥60) with MDD received an acute course of 6 times seizure threshold right unilateral ultrabrief pulse (RUL-UB) ECT. Venlafaxine was initiated during the first treatment week and continued throughout the study. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and 72 hours following the last ECT session. Statistical significance was defined as a two-sided p-value of less than 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 240 elderly adults were enrolled. Neurocognitive performance acutely declined post ECT on measures of psychomotor and verbal processing speed, autobiographical memory consistency, short-term verbal recall and recognition of learned words, phonemic fluency, and complex visual scanning/cognitive flexibility. The magnitude of change from baseline to end for most neurocognitive measures was modest. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to characterize the neurocognitive effects of combined RUL-UB ECT and venlafaxine in elderly adults with MDD and provides new evidence for the tolerability of RUL-UB ECT in an elderly sample. Of the cognitive domains assessed, only phonemic fluency, complex visual scanning, and cognitive flexibility qualitatively declined from low average to mildly impaired. While some acute changes in neurocognitive performance were statistically significant, the majority of the indices as based on the effect sizes remained relatively stable.

6.
J ECT ; 35(2): 103-105, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment of choice for severe depression but has been underutilized among black patients. This study investigates racial disparities in the administration of ECT in the state of Texas between 1998 and 2013 using population data. DESIGN: Data from the Texas Department of State Health Services were obtained corresponding to the use for all ECT conducted in nonfederal settings during the period from January 2, 1998, to August 30, 2013. The data set comprised quarterly reports generated for each patient, totaling 27,931 patient quarters. Using year-by-year intercensal population estimates for the state of Texas, ECT treatments per capita were compared among black, white, Latina/Latino, and other individuals during this time period. RESULTS: Significantly more white patients were treated each quarter than minority patients (P < 0.001), with Latina/Latino patients recording fewer treatment quarters than any other racial group (P < 0.005). Large discrepancies in diagnosis by race were observed. Black patients were less likely than white and Latina/Latino patients to be diagnosed with depression and 4 times as likely as white patients to carry a diagnosis of schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Concordant with previous data, large racial disparities in the administration of ECT were found in this Texas data set. Despite the limited nature of this data set, these results suggest that continued investigation is required to determine factors responsible for these disparities.


Assuntos
Eletroconvulsoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/tendências , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Texas/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pers Med Psychiatry ; 17-18: 37-42, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832741

RESUMO

Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a noninvasive neuromodulation therapy under investigation for the treatment of severe neuropsychiatric disorders. MST involves inducing a therapeutic seizure under anesthesia in a setting similar to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). To date, randomized controlled trials suggest that MST has similar antidepressant efficacy as ECT, but without significant cognitive adverse effects. Large scale clinical trials are currently underway to confirm these preliminary findings. So far, there has only been one study evaluating the clinical predictors of response to MST and more research is needed. This study found that patients with fewer episodes of depression and a positive family history of depression had a better response to MST. Overall, the ability of MST to focus the delivery of the electric field and the resultant seizure makes targeting seizure therapy to specific brain regions possible, and further research will be helpful in identifying personalized targets to maximize clinical benefit. In this review, we describe MST methodology and how it could be individualized to each patient. We also summarize the clinical and cognitive effects of MST and provide indications of which patients may be most likely to benefit. Finally, we summarize the studied neurophysiological predictors of response.

8.
Brain Stimul ; 11(6): 1282-1290, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has promising antidepressant effects, however, clinical trials have shown variable efficacy. Pre-treatment neurocognitive functioning has previously been identified as an inter-individual predictor of tDCS antidepressant efficacy. OBJECTIVE: In this international multicentre, sham-controlled study, we investigated this relationship while also assessing the influence of clinical and genotype (BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms) factors as predictors of response to active tDCS. METHODS: The study was a triple-masked, parallel, randomized, controlled design across 6 international academic medical centers. Participants were randomized to active (2.5 mA) or sham (34 µA) tDCS for 30 min each session for 20 sessions. The anode was centered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at F3 (10/20 EEG system) and the cathode over the lateral right frontal area at F8. RESULTS: Better pre-treatment attentional processing speed on the Ruff 2 & 7 Selective Attention Test (Total Speed: ß = 0.25, p < .05) and concurrent antidepressant medication use (ß = 0.31, p < .05) predicted antidepressant efficacy with active tDCS. Genotype differences in the BDNF Val66Metand COMT Val158Met polymorphisms were not associated with antidepressant effects. Secondary analyses revealed that only participants in the highest performing Ruff 2 & 7 Total Speed group at pre-treatment in both active and sham tDCS conditions showed significantly greater antidepressant response compared to those with lower performance at both the 2 and 4 week treatment time points (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that high pre-treatment attentional processing speed may be relevant for identifying participants more likely to show better tDCS antidepressant response to both high (2.5 mA) and very low (34 µA) current intensity stimulation. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01562184.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Internacionalidade , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 71: 33-39, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859917

RESUMO

Symptoms of agitation, aggression, and psychosis frequently occur in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). These symptoms are distressing to patients and caregivers, often lead to institutionalization, are associated with increased mortality, and are very difficult to treat. Lithium is an established treatment for bipolar and other psychotic disorders in which agitation can occur. The Lit-AD study is the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of lithium treatment for symptoms of agitation or aggression, with or without psychosis, in older adults diagnosed with AD. Patients are randomly assigned to low dose (150-600 mg) lithium or placebo, targeting a blood level of 0.2-0.6 mmol/L, stratified by the presence/absence of psychotic symptoms. The study duration for each patient is 12 weeks. The primary study outcome is change in the agitation/aggression domain score on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) over the study period. The secondary outcome is improvement in neuropsychiatric symptoms defined as a 30% decrease in a NPI core score that combines agitation/aggression and psychosis domain scores. The Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) is used to assess somatic side effects. Other exploratory analyses examine the associations between improvement on lithium and indices shown to be associated with response to lithium in bipolar disorder: serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, a SNP in intron 1 of the ACCN1 gene, and variation at the 7q11.2 gene locus. If lithium demonstrates efficacy in this Phase II pilot trial, a Phase III study will be developed to establish its clinical utility in these patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02129348.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Compostos de Lítio , Agitação Psicomotora , Transtornos Psicóticos , Idoso , Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Compostos de Lítio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Lítio/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Agitação Psicomotora/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 79(2)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antidepressant medications have a variety of effects on sleep, apart from their antidepressant effects. It is unknown whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has effects on perceived sleep in depressed patients. This secondary analysis examines the effects of ECT on perceived sleep, separate from its antidepressant effects. METHODS: Elderly patients with major depressive disorder, as defined by DSM-IV, received open-label high-dose, right unilateral ultrabrief pulse ECT, combined with venlafaxine, as part of participating in phase 1 of the National Institute of Mental Health-supported study Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE). Phase 1 of PRIDE participant enrollment period extended from February 2009 to August 2014. Depression severity was measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 item (HDRS24), and measures of insomnia severity were extracted from the HDRS24. Participants were characterized at baseline as either "high-insomnia" or "low-insomnia" subtypes, based upon the sum of the 3 HDRS24 sleep items as either 4-6 or 0-3, respectively. Insomnia scores were followed during ECT and were adjusted for the sum of all the HDRS24 non-sleep items. Generalized linear models were used for longitudinal analysis of insomnia scores. RESULTS: Two hundred forty patients participated, with 48.3% in the high-insomnia and 51.7% in the low-insomnia group. Although there was a reduction in the insomnia scores in the high-insomnia group, only 12.4% of them experienced remission of insomnia after a course of ECT, despite an increase in utilization of sleep aids across the course of ECT, from 8.6% to 23.2%. The degree of improvement in insomnia symptoms paralleled the degree of improvement in non-insomnia symptoms. A "low" amount of improvement on the sum of the HDRS non-insomnia items (HDRS-sleep) was accompanied by a "low" amount of improvement in insomnia scores (change of -1.6 ± 1.2, P < .0001), while a "high" amount of improvement on the sum of the HDRS non-insomnia items was accompanied by a "higher" amount of improvement in insomnia scores (change of -3.1 ± 1.6, P < .0001). After adjustment for non-insomnia symptoms, there was no change in insomnia in the low-insomnia group. CONCLUSIONS: We found that ECT, combined with venlafaxine, has a modest anti-insomnia effect that is linked to its antidepressant effect. Most patients will have some degree of residual insomnia after ECT, and will require some consideration of whether additional, targeted assessment and treatment of insomnia is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01028508.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina , Idoso , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/efeitos adversos
14.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 79(1)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide expert recommendations for the safe and effective application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). PARTICIPANTS: Participants included a group of 17 expert clinicians and researchers with expertise in the clinical application of rTMS, representing both the National Network of Depression Centers (NNDC) rTMS Task Group and the American Psychiatric Association Council on Research (APA CoR) Task Force on Novel Biomarkers and Treatments. EVIDENCE: The consensus statement is based on a review of extensive literature from 2 databases (OvidSP MEDLINE and PsycINFO) searched from 1990 through 2016. The search terms included variants of major depressive disorder and transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results were limited to articles written in English that focused on adult populations. Of the approximately 1,500 retrieved studies, a total of 118 publications were included in the consensus statement and were supplemented with expert opinion to achieve consensus recommendations on key issues surrounding the administration of rTMS for MDD in clinical practice settings. CONSENSUS PROCESS: In cases in which the research evidence was equivocal or unclear, a consensus decision on how rTMS should be administered was reached by the authors of this article and is denoted in the article as "expert opinion." CONCLUSIONS: Multiple randomized controlled trials and published literature have supported the safety and efficacy of rTMS antidepressant therapy. These consensus recommendations, developed by the NNDC rTMS Task Group and APA CoR Task Force on Novel Biomarkers and Treatments, provide comprehensive information for the safe and effective clinical application of rTMS in the treatment of MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Consenso , Contraindicações , Humanos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/efeitos adversos
15.
Brain Stimul ; 11(1): 125-133, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has antidepressant effects in unipolar depression, but there is limited information for patients with bipolar depression. Additionally, prior research suggests that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype may moderate response to tDCS. OBJECTIVE: To examine tDCS efficacy in unipolar and bipolar depression and assess if BDNF genotype is associated with antidepressant response to tDCS. METHODS: 130 participants diagnosed with a major depressive episode were randomized to receive active (2.5 milliamps (mA), 30 min) or sham (0.034 mA and two 60-second current ramps up to 1 and 0.5 mA) tDCS to the left prefrontal cortex, administered in 20 sessions over 4 weeks, in a double-blinded, international multisite study. Mixed effects repeated measures analyses assessed change in mood and neuropsychological scores in participants with at least one post-baseline rating in the unipolar (N = 84) and bipolar (N = 36) samples. RESULTS: Mood improved significantly over the 4-week treatment period in both unipolar (p = 0.001) and bipolar groups (p < 0.001). Among participants with unipolar depression, there were more remitters in the sham treatment group (p = 0.03). There was no difference between active and sham stimulation in the bipolar sample. BDNF genotype was unrelated to antidepressant outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study found no antidepressant difference between active and sham stimulation for unipolar or bipolar depression. However, the possibility that the low current delivered in the sham tDCS condition was biologically active cannot be discounted. Moreover, BDNF genotype did not moderate antidepressant outcome. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01562184.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 97: 65-69, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29195125

RESUMO

We examined whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) plus medications ("STABLE + PHARM" group) had superior HRQOL compared with medications alone ("PHARM" group) as continuation strategy after successful acute right unilateral ECT for major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that scores from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) would be higher during continuation treatment in the "STABLE + PHARM" group versus the "PHARM" group. The overall study design was called "Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly" (PRIDE). Remitters to the acute course of ECT were re-consented to enter a 6 month RCT of "STABLE + PHARM" versus "PHARM". Measures of depressive symptoms and cognitive function were completed by blind raters; SF-36 measurements were patient self-report every 4 weeks. Participants were 120 patients >60 years old. Patients with dementia, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or substance abuse were excluded. The "PHARM" group received venlafaxine and lithium. The "STABLE + PHARM" received the same medications, plus 4 weekly outpatient ECT sessions, with additional ECT session as needed. Participants were mostly female (61.7%) with a mean age of 70.5 ± 7.2 years. "STABLE + PHARM" patients received 4.5 ± 2.5 ECT sessions during Phase 2. "STABLE + PHARM" group had 7 point advantage (3.5-10.4, 95% CI) for Physical Component Score of SF-36 (P < 0.0001), and 8.2 point advantage (4.2-12.2, 95% CI) for Mental Component Score (P < 0.0001). Additional ECT resulted in overall net health benefit. Consideration should be given to administration of additional ECT to prevent relapse during the continuation phase of treatment of MDD. CLINICAL TRIALS.GOV: NCT01028508.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Compostos de Lítio/farmacologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
17.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 4(11): 839-849, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate white matter has shown promise as an intervention for patients with chronic, unremitting depression. To test the safety and efficacy of DBS for treatment-resistant depression, a prospective, randomised, sham-controlled trial was conducted. METHODS: Participants with treatment-resistant depression were implanted with a DBS system targeting bilateral subcallosal cingulate white matter and randomised to 6 months of active or sham DBS, followed by 6 months of open-label subcallosal cingulate DBS. Randomisation was computer generated with a block size of three at each site before the site started the study. The primary outcome was frequency of response (defined as a 40% or greater reduction in depression severity from baseline) averaged over months 4-6 of the double-blind phase. A futility analysis was performed when approximately half of the proposed sample received DBS implantation and completed the double-blind phase. At the conclusion of the 12-month study, a subset of patients were followed up for up to 24 months. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00617162. FINDINGS: Before the futility analysis, 90 participants were randomly assigned to active (n=60) or sham (n=30) stimulation between April 10, 2008, and Nov 21, 2012. Both groups showed improvement, but there was no statistically significant difference in response during the double-blind, sham-controlled phase (12 [20%] patients in the stimulation group vs five [17%] patients in the control group). 28 patients experienced 40 serious adverse events; eight of these (in seven patients) were deemed to be related to the study device or surgery. INTERPRETATION: This study confirmed the safety and feasibility of subcallosal cingulate DBS as a treatment for treatment-resistant depression but did not show statistically significant antidepressant efficacy in a 6-month double-blind, sham-controlled trial. Future studies are needed to investigate factors such as clinical features or electrode placement that might improve efficacy. FUNDING: Abbott (previously St Jude Medical).


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Giro do Cíngulo , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Substância Branca , Adulto , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J ECT ; 33(1): 22-25, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27428480

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains an effective treatment for major depressive disorder. Since 1995, Texas has maintained an ECT database including patient diagnoses and outcomes, and reporting any deaths within 14 days of receiving an ECT treatment, encompassing a total of 166,711 ECT treatments administered in Texas over the previously unreported period of 1998 to 2013. METHODS: Descriptive analysis summarized information on deaths reported during the 16-year period-cause of death, type of treatment (index or maintenance) and patient demographics. Multiple logistic regression of death incidence by treatment session was performed to determine whether patient age, sex, race, diagnosis, or year of treatment was associated with death after ECT. RESULTS: Of those deaths occurring within 1 day of an ECT treatment, the death rate was 2.4 per 100,000 treatments. Looking at all deaths within 14 days of an ECT treatment, the death rate increased to 18 per 100,000 treatments but included all deaths regardless of likelihood of causal association with ECT, for example, accidents and suicides, the latter a leading cause of death among individuals with severe major depression or other disorders for which ECT is indicated. Death rate increased significantly with increasing patient age (P = 0.001) and male sex (P = 0.009), and there was a nonsignificant trend toward increased death amongst patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia (P = 0.058) versus depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that ECT is in general a safe procedure with respect to the likelihood of immediate death. Suicide remains a significant risk in ECT patients, despite evidence that ECT reduces suicidal ideation.


Assuntos
Eletroconvulsoterapia/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/mortalidade , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Causas de Morte , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/mortalidade , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/mortalidade , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Fatores Sexuais , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Texas/epidemiologia
20.
J Affect Disord ; 209: 39-45, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27886569

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) referred for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have poorer Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL), compared with other patients with MDD, but ECT is associated with significant and durable improvement in HRQOL. However, no prior research has focused exclusively on elderly patients with MDD receiving ECT. METHODS: HRQOL data from 240 depressed patients over the age of 60 was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36). The SF-36 was measured before and after a course of acute ECT. Predictors of change in HRQOL scores were identified by generalized linear modeling. RESULTS: At baseline, participants showed very poor HRQOL. After treatment with ECT, the full sample showed marked and significant improvement across all SF-36 measures, with the largest gains seen in dimensions of mental health. Across all participants, the Physical Component Summary (PCS) score improved by 2.1 standardized points (95% CI, 0.61,3.56), while the Mental Component Summary (MCS) score improved by 12.5 points (95% CI, 7.2,10.8) Compared with non-remitters, remitters showed a trend toward greater improvement in the PCS summary score of 2.7 points (95%CI, -0.45, 5.9), while the improvement in the MCS summary score was significantly greater (8.5 points, 95% CI, 4.6,12.3) in the remitters than non-remitters. Post-ECT SF-36 measurements were consistently and positively related to baseline scores and remitter/non-remitter status or change in depression severity from baseline. Objective measures of cognitive function had no significant relationships to changes in SF-36 scores. LIMITATIONS: This study's limitations include that it was an open label study with no comparison group, and generalizability is limited to elderly patients. DISCUSSION: ECT providers and elderly patients with MDD treated with ECT can be confident that ECT will result in improved HRQOL in the short-term. Attaining remission is a key factor in the improvement of HRQOL. Acute changes in select cognitive functions were outweighed by improvement in depressive symptoms in determining the short term HRQOL of the participants treated with ECT.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
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