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1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910300

RESUMO

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), the most prevalent heritable renal phosphate (Pi) wasting disorder, is caused by deactivating mutations of PHEX. Consequently, circulating phosphatonin FGF23 becomes elevated and hypophosphatemia in affected children leads to rickets with skeletal deformity and reduced linear growth while affected adults suffer from osteomalacia and forms of ectopic mineralization. In 2015, we reported uniquely mild XLH in six children and four of their mothers carrying the non-coding PHEX 3'-UTR mutation c.*231A>G. Herein, we characterize this mild XLH variant by comparing its features in 30 individuals to 30 age- and sex-matched patients with XLH but without the 3'-UTR mutation. The "UTR" and "XLH" groups, both comprising 17 children (2-17 years, 3 girls) and 13 adults (23-63 years, 10 women), had mean ages of 23 years. Only 43% of the UTR group versus 90% of the XLH group had received medical treatment for their disorder, including 0% versus 85% of the females, respectively (ps< 0.0001). The UTR group was taller: mean (SD) height Z-score (HZ) -1.0 (1.0) versus -2.0 (1.4) (p=0.0034), with significantly greater height for females [-0.9 (0.7) versus -2.3 (1.4), (p=0.0050)] but not males [-1.2 (1.1) versus -1.9 (1.5) (p=0.1541)], respectively. Mean (SD) "arm span Z-score" (AZ) did not differ between the UTR -0.8 (1.3) versus XLH -1.3 (1.8) groups (p=0.2269). Consequently, the UTR group was more proportionate with a mean ∆Z (AZ - HZ) of 0.1 (0.6) versus 0.7 (1.0) (p=0.0158), respectively. Compared to the XLH group, the UTR group had significantly higher fasting serum Pi and TmP/GFR (ps≤0.0060), serum FGF23 concentrations within the reference range (p=0.0068), and similar serum alkaline phosphatase levels (p = 0.6513). UTR lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was higher (p=0.0343). Thus, the 3'-UTR variant of XLH is distinctly mild, especially in girls and women, posing challenges for its recognition and management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Bone ; 132: 115190, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843680

RESUMO

The SIBLINGs are a subfamily of the secreted calcium-binding phosphoproteins and comprise five small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins [dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), secreted phosphoprotein-1 (SPP1) also called osteopontin (OPN), integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP) also called bone sialoprotein (BSP), matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)]. Each SIBLING has at least one "acidic, serine- and aspartic acid-rich motif" (ASARM) and multiple Ser-x-Glu/pSer sequences that when phosphorylated promote binding of the protein to hydroxyapatite for regulation of biomineralization. Mendelian disorders from loss-of-function mutation(s) of the genes that encode the SIBLINGs thus far involve DSPP causing various autosomal dominant dysplasias of dentin but without skeletal disease, and DMP1 causing autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, type 1 (ARHR1). No diseases have been reported from gain-of-function mutation(s) of DSPP or DMP1 or from alterations of SPP1, IBSP, or MEPE. Herein, we describe severe hypophosphatemic osteosclerosis and hyperostosis associated with skeletal deformity, short stature, enthesopathy, tooth loss, and high circulating FGF23 levels in a middle-aged man and young woman from an endogamous family living in southern India. Both shared novel homozygous mutations within two genes that encode a SIBLING protein: stop-gain ("nonsense") DMP1 (c.556G>T,p.Glu186Ter) and missense SPP1 (c.769C>T,p.Leu266Phe). The man alone also carried novel heterozygous missense variants within two additional genes that condition mineral homeostasis and are the basis for autosomal recessive disorders: CYP27B1 underlying vitamin D dependent rickets, type 1, and ABCC6 underlying both generalized arterial calcification of infancy, type 2 and pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). By immunochemistry, his bone contained high amounts of OPN, particularly striking surrounding osteocytes. We review how our patients' disorder may represent the first digenic SIBLING protein osteopathy.

3.
Bone ; 130: 115047, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472299

RESUMO

Bruck syndrome (BRKS) is the rare disorder that features congenital joint contractures often with pterygia and subsequent fractures, also known as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type XI (OMIM # 610968). Its two forms, BRKS1 (OMIM # 259450) and BRKS2 (OMIM # 609220), reflect autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance of FKBP10 and PLOD2 loss-of-function mutations, respectively. A 10-year-old girl was referred with blue sclera, osteopenia, poorly-healing fragility fractures, Wormian skull bones, cleft soft palate, congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae, progressive scoliosis, bell-shaped thorax, restrictive and reactive pulmonary disease, protrusio acetabuli, short stature, and additional dysmorphic features without joint contractures. Iliac crest biopsy after alendronate treatment that improved her bone density revealed low trabecular connectivity, abundant patchy osteoid, and active bone formation with widely-spaced tetracycline labels. Chromosome 22q11 deletion analysis for velocardiofacial syndrome, COL1A1 and COL1A2 sequencing for prevalent types of OI, and Sanger sequencing of LRP5, PPIB, FKBP10, and IFITM5 for rare pediatric osteoporoses were negative. Copy number microarray excluded a contiguous gene syndrome. Instead, exome sequencing revealed two missense variants in PLOD2 which encodes procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (lysyl hydroxylase 2, LH2); exon 8, c.797G>T, p.Gly266Val (paternal), and exon 12, c.1280A>G, p.Asn427Ser (maternal). In the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database, low frequency (Gly266Val, 0.0000419) and absence (Asn427Ser) implicated both variants as mutations of PLOD2. The father, mother, and sister (who carried the exon 12 defect) were reportedly well with normal parental DXA findings. BRKS2, characterized by under-hydroxylation of type I collagen telopeptides compromising their crosslinking, has been reported in at least 16 probands/families. Most PLOD2 mutations involve exons 17-19 (of 20 total) encoding the C-terminal domain with LH activity. However, truncating defects (nonsense, frameshift, splice site mutations) are also found throughout PLOD2. In three reports, AR PLOD2 mutations are not associated with congenital contractures. Our patient's missense defects lie within the central domain of unknown function of PLOD2. In our patient, compound heterozygosity with PLOD2 mutations is associated with a clinical phenotype distinctive from classic BRKS2 indicating that when COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutation testing is negative for OI without congenital contractures or pterygia, atypical BRKS should be considered.

4.
Bone ; 127: 228-243, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085352

RESUMO

LRP5 encodes low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5). When LRP5 with a Frizzled receptor join on the surface of an osteoblast and bind a member of the Wnt family of ligands, canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling occurs and increases bone formation. Eleven heterozygous gain-of-function missense mutations within LRP5 are known to prevent the LRP5 inhibitory ligands sclerostin and dickkopf1 from attaching to LRP5's first ß-propeller, and thereby explain the rare autosomal dominant (AD) skeletal disorder "high bone mass" (HBM). LRP6 is a cognate co-receptor of LRP5 and similarly controls Wnt signaling in osteoblasts, yet the consequences of increased LRP6-mediated signaling remain unknown. We investigated two multi-generational American families manifesting the clinical and routine laboratory features of LRP5 HBM but without an LRP5 defect and instead carrying a heterozygous LRP6 missense mutation that would alter the first ß-propeller of LRP6. In Family 1 LRP6 c.602C>T, p.A201V was homologous to LRP5 HBM mutation c.641C>T, p.A214V, and in Family 2 LRP6 c.553A>C, p.N185H was homologous to LRP5 HBM mutation c.593A>G, p.N198S but predicting a different residue at the identical amino acid position. In both families the LRP6 mutation co-segregated with striking generalized osteosclerosis and hyperostosis. Clinical features shared by the seven LRP6 HBM family members and ten LRP5 HBM patients included a broad jaw, torus palatinus, teeth encased in bone and, reportedly, resistance to fracturing and inability to float in water. For both HBM disorders, all affected individuals were taller than average for Americans (Ps < 0.005), but with similar mean height Z-scores (P = 0.7606) and indistinguishable radiographic skeletal features. Absence of adult maxillary lateral incisors was reported by some LRP6 HBM individuals. In contrast, our 16 patients with AD osteopetrosis [i.e., Albers-Schönberg disease (A-SD)] had an unremarkable mean height Z-score (P = 0.9401) lower than for either HBM group (Ps < 0.05). DXA mean BMD Z-scores in LRP6 HBM versus LRP5 HBM were somewhat higher at the lumbar spine (+7.8 vs +6.5, respectively; P = 0.0403), but no different at the total hip (+7.9 vs +7.7, respectively; P = 0.7905). Among the three diagnostic groups, only the LRP6 HBM DXA BMD values at the spine seemed to increase with subject age (R = +0.7183, P = 0.0448). Total hip BMD Z-scores were not significantly different among the three disorders (Ps > 0.05), and showed no age effect (Ps > 0.1). HR-pQCT available only for LRP6 HBM revealed indistinct corticomedullary boundaries, high distal forearm and tibial total volumetric BMD, and finite element analysis predicted marked fracture resistance. Hence, we have discovered mutations of LRP6 that cause a dento-osseous disorder indistinguishable without mutation analysis from LRP5 HBM. LRP6 HBM seems associated with generally good health, providing some reassurance for the development of anabolic treatments aimed to enhance LRP5/LRP6-mediated osteogenesis.

5.
Bone ; 116: 321-332, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077757

RESUMO

Sclerosteosis (SOST) refers to two extremely rare yet similar skeletal dysplasias featuring a diffusely radiodense skeleton together with congenital syndactyly. SOST1 is transmitted as an autosomal recessive (AR) trait and to date caused by ten homozygous loss-of-function mutations within the gene SOST that encodes the inhibitor of Wnt-mediated bone formation, sclerostin. SOST2 is transmitted as an autosomal dominant (AD) or AR trait and to date caused by one heterozygous or two homozygous loss-of-function mutation(s), respectively, within the gene LRP4 that encodes the sclerostin interaction protein, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4). Herein, we investigated two teenagers and one middle-aged man with SOST in three families living in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. Next generation sequencing of their genomic DNA using our high bone density gene panel revealed SOST1 in the teenagers caused by a unique homozygous nonsense SOST mutation (c.129C > G, p.Tyr43X) and SOST2 in the man caused by homozygosity for one of the two known homozygous missense LRP4 mutations (c.3508C > T, p.Arg1170Trp). He becomes the fourth individual and the first non-European recognized with SOST2. His clinical course was milder than the life-threatening SOST1 demonstrated by the teenagers who suffered blindness, deafness, and raised intracranial pressure, yet his congenital syndactyly was more striking by featuring bony fusion of digits. All three patients were from consanguineous families and heterozygosity for the SOST mutation was documented in the mothers of both teenagers. Thus, on the endogamous genetic background of Indian Tamils, SOST1 from sclerostin deficiency compared to SOST2 from LRP4 deactivation is a more severe and life-threatening disorder featuring complications due to osteosclerosis of especially the skull. In contrast, the syndactyly of SOST2 is particularly striking by involving bony fusion of some digits. Both the SOST and LRP4 mutations in this ethnic population likely reflect genetic founders.


Assuntos
Hiperostose/patologia , Sindactilia/patologia , Adolescente , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Família , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Hiperostose/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperostose/genética , Índia , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/metabolismo , Linhagem , Sindactilia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sindactilia/genética
6.
J Bone Miner Res ; 30(1): 137-43, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25042154

RESUMO

Heritable forms of hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) include X-linked dominant (XLH), autosomal recessive, and autosomal dominant HR (from deactivating mutations in PHEX, DMP1 or ENPP1, and activating mutations in FGF23, respectively). Over 30 years, we have cared for 284 children with HR. For those 72 deemed sporadic XLH, we preliminarily reported mutation analysis for 30 subjects. Eleven had PHEX mutations. However, the remaining 19 lacked readily identifiable defects in PHEX, DMP1, or FGF23. In 2008, a novel single-base change near the polyadenylation (pA) signal in the 3'-UTR of PHEX was identified in XLH by other investigators. This c.*231A > G mutation is 3-bp upstream of the putative pA signal (AATAAA) in PHEX. Accordingly, we investigated whether this 3'-UTR defect accounted for HR in any of these 19 sporadic XLH patients. PCR amplification and sequencing of their 3'-UTR region showed the c.*231A > G mutation in four unrelated boys. Then, among an additional 22 of our 72 "sporadic" XLH patients, one boy and one girl were found to have the 3'-UTR defect, totaling six patients. Among these 52 sporadic XLH patients with PHEX analysis, 36 were girls and 16 were boys; ie, a ∼2:1 gender ratio consistent with XLH. However, finding five boys and only one girl with this 3'-UTR mutation presented an unexplained gender bias (p = 0.02). Haplotyping for the five boys, all reportedly unrelated, showed a common core haplotype suggesting a founder. Five of their six mothers had been studied clinically and biochemically (three radiologically). Remarkably, the seemingly unaffected mothers of four of these boys carried the 3'-UTR mutation. These healthy women had normal height, straight limbs, lacked the radiographic presentation of XLH, and showed normal or slight decreases in fasting serum Pi levels and/or TmP/GFR. Hence, PHEX c.*231A > G can masquerade as sporadic or X-linked recessive HR.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/genética , Endopeptidase Neutra Reguladora de Fosfato PHEX/genética , Mutação Puntual , Sinais de Poliadenilação na Ponta 3' do RNA/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/sangue , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Radiografia
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(9): 2287-93, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24989131

RESUMO

Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome (MCTO), an autosomal dominant disorder that often presents sporadically, features carpal-tarsal lysis frequently followed by nephropathy and renal failure. In 2012, mutations in the single-exon gene MAFB were reported in 13 probands with MCTO. MAFB is a negative regulator of RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. We studied nine MCTO patients (seven sporadic patients and one affected mother and son) for MAFB mutation. We PCR-amplified and selectively sequenced the MAFB region that contains the transactivation domain in this 323 amino acid protein, where mutations were previously reported for MCTO. We found five different heterozygous missense defects among eight probands: c.176C > T, p.Pro59Leu; c.185C > T, p.Thr62Ile; c.206C > T, p.Ser69Leu (four had this defect); c.209C > T, p.Ser70Leu; and c.211C > T, p.Pro71Ser. All 5 mutations are within a 13 amino acid stretch of the transactivation domain. Four were identical to the previously reported mutations. Our unique mutation (c.185C > T, p.Thr62Ile) involved the same domain. DNA available from seven parents of the seven sporadic patients did not show their child's MAFB mutation. The affected mother and son had an identical defect. Hence, the mutations for 7/8 probands were suspected to have arisen spontaneously as there was no history of features of MCTO in either parent. Penetrance of MCTO seemed complete. Lack of nonsense or other truncating mutations suggested a dominant-negative pathogenesis. Our findings indicate that only a few transactivation domain-specific mutations within MAFB cause MCTO.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição MafB/genética , Mutação/genética , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteogênese/genética , Osteólise/genética , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mãos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Osteólise/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 25(11): 2527-39, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20499338

RESUMO

Dysosteosclerosis (DSS), an extremely rare dense bone disease, features short stature and fractures and sometimes optic atrophy, cranial nerve palsy, developmental delay, and failure of tooth eruption in infancy or early childhood consistent with osteopetrosis (OPT). Bone histology during childhood shows unresorbed primary spongiosa from deficient osteoclast action. Additionally, there is remarkable progressive flattening of all vertebrae and, by adolescence, paradoxical metaphyseal osteopenia with thin cortical bone. Reports of consanguinity indicate autosomal recessive inheritance, yet more affected males than females suggest X-linked recessive inheritance. We investigated a nonconsanguineous girl with DSS. Osteosclerosis was discovered at age 7 months. Our studies, spanning ages 11 to 44 months, showed weight at approximately 50th percentile, and length diminishing from approximately 30th percentile to -2.3 SD. Head circumference was +4 SD. The patient had frontal bossing, blue sclera, normal teeth, genu valgum, and unremarkable joints. Radiographs showed orbital and facial sclerosis, basilar thickening, bone-in-bone appearance of the pelvis, sclerotic long bone ends, and fractures of ribs and extremities. Progressive metaphyseal widening occurred as vertebrae changed from ovoid to flattened and became beaked anteriorly. A hemogram was normal. Consistent with OPT, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations reflected dietary calcium levels. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and TRACP-5b were subnormal. The iliac crest contained excessive primary spongiosa and no osteoclasts. No mutations were identified in the splice sites or exons for the genes encoding chloride channel 7, T-cell immune regulator 1, OPT-associated transmembrane protein 1, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor C-FMS, ANKH, OPG, RANK, and RANKL. Genomic copy-number microarray was unrevealing. Hence, DSS is a distinctive OPT of unknown etiology featuring osteoclast deficiency during early childhood. How osteopenia follows is an enigma of human skeletal pathobiology.


Assuntos
Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteopetrose/complicações , Osteopetrose/diagnóstico , Osteosclerose/complicações , Osteosclerose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Osteopetrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteosclerose/terapia , Gravidez , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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