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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238337, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249249

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

4.
Public Health Action ; 11(3): 132-138, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and predictors of family planning (FP) know-do gaps among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in low socio-economic urban areas of Karachi, Pakistan. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected 7288 MWRA (16-49 years) to identify predictors of the know-do gap in FP using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: More than one third (35.5%) of MWRA had FP know-do gap, i.e., despite having a knowledge of contraceptives and desire to limit or delay childbearing, they were not using contraceptives. Women were less likely to use FP if they were getting older (25-35 years: OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.09-1.94; >35 years: OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.90-4.80), from certain ethnicities (Sindhi: OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11-2.42; Saraiki: OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.01-2.71; other minorities: OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.63-3.44); did not receive FP counselling: OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.13-1.80; and had not made a joint decision on FP: OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.98). Conversely, women were more likely to use contraceptives if they had >10 years of schooling (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.94), with each increasing number of a living child (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.62-0.75) and each increasing number of contraceptive method known (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98). CONCLUSION: The predictors associated with the FP know-do gap among MWRA should be considered when planning future strategies to improve the contraceptive prevalence rate in Pakistan.

5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131651, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346345

RESUMO

Nanostructured photocatalysts commonly offered opportunities to solve issues scrutinized with the environmental challenges caused by steep population growth and rapid urbanization. This photocatalyst is a controllable characteristic, which can provide humans with a clean and sustainable ecosystem. Over the last decades, one of the current thriving research focuses on visible-light-driven CeO2-based photocatalysts due to their superior characteristics, including unique fluorite-type structure, rigid framework, and facile reducing oxidizing properties of cerium's tetravalent (Ce4+) and trivalent (Ce3+) valence states. Notwithstanding, owing to its inherent wide energy gap, the solar energy utilization efficiency is low, which limits its application in wastewater treatment. Numerous modifications of CeO2 have been employed to enhance photodegradation performances, such as metals and non-metals doping, adding support materials, and coupling with another semiconductor. Besides, all these doping will form a different heterojunction and show a different way of electron-hole migration. Compared to conventional heterojunction, advanced heterojunction types such as p-n heterojunction, Z-scheme, Schottky junction, and surface plasmon resonance effect exhibit superior performance for degradation owing to their excellent charge carrier separation, and the reaction occurs at a relatively higher redox potential. This review attends to providing deep insights on heterojunction mechanisms and the latest progress on photodegradation of various contaminants in wastewater using CeO2-based photocatalysts. Hence, making the CeO2 photocatalyst more foresee and promising to further development and research.

6.
Braz J Microbiol ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241828

RESUMO

Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection is one of the most important causes of reproductive failure in pigs impacting the piggery industry globally with huge economic losses. A cost-effective, simple, rapid, specific, and sensitive method is critical for monitoring PPV infection on pig farms. The main aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid visual detection of porcine parvovirus (PPV) in pigs. A set of six LAMP primers including two outer primers, two inner primers, and two loop primers were designed utilizing the conserved region of capsid protein VP2 gene sequences of PPV and was applied for detection of PPV from porcine samples. Time and temperature conditions for amplification of PPV genes were optimized to be 30 min at 63 °C. The developed assay was ten-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR with analytical sensitivity of 20 pg and 200 pg, respectively. This is the first report of detection of PPV by LAMP assay from India. The assay did not cross-react with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), or classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The LAMP assay was assembled into a LAMP assay kit of 20 reactions and was validated in different laboratories in India. The newly developed LAMP assay was proved to be a specific, sensitive, rapid, and simple method for visual detection of PPV which does not require even costly equipments for performing the test. It complements and extends previous methods for PPV detection and provides an alternative approach for detection of PPV.

7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238339, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161423

RESUMO

The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Paquistão
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238735, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037077

RESUMO

Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Simbiose
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978080

RESUMO

Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia
10.
Chemosphere ; 277: 130285, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794437

RESUMO

Carbon monoxide (CO) is the most harmful pollutant in the air, causing environmental issues and adversely affecting humans and the vegetation and then raises global warming indirectly. CO oxidation is one of the most effective methods of reducing CO by converting it into carbon dioxide (CO2) using a suitable catalytic system, due to its simplicity and great value for pollution control. The CO oxidation reaction has been widely studied in various applications, including proton-exchange membrane fuel cell technology and catalytic converters. CO oxidation has also been of great academic interest over the last few decades as a model reaction. Many review studies have been produced on catalysts development for CO oxidation, emphasizing noble metal catalysts, the configuration of catalysts, process parameter influence, and the deactivation of catalysts. Nevertheless, there is still some gap in a state of the art knowledge devoted exclusively to synergistic interactions between catalytic activity and physicochemical properties. In an effort to fill this gap, this analysis updates and clarifies innovations for various latest developed catalytic CO oxidation systems with contemporary evaluation and the synergistic relationship between oxygen vacancies, strong metal-support interaction, particle size, metal dispersion, chemical composition acidity/basicity, reducibility, porosity, and surface area. This review study is useful for environmentalists, scientists, and experts working on mitigating the harmful effects of CO on both academic and commercial levels in the research and development sectors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Monóxido de Carbono , Catálise , Humanos , Metais , Oxirredução
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125524, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647620

RESUMO

In this work, fibrous silica-titania (FST) was successfully prepared by the microemulsion method prior to the addition of three types of carbonaceous materials: graphitic-carbon nitride, g-C3N4 (CN), graphene nanoplatelets (GN), and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, MWCNT (CNT), via a solid-state microwave irradiation technique. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, FESEM, TEM, FTIR, UV-Vis DRS, N2 adsorption-desorption, XPS and ESR, while their photoactivity was examined on the degradation of toxic 2-chlorophenol (2-CP). The result demonstrated that the initial reaction rate was in the following order: CNFST (5.1 × 10-3 mM min-1) > GNFST (2.5 × 10-3 mM min-1) > CNTFST (2.3 × 10-3 mM min-1). The best performance was due to the polymeric structure of g-C3N4 with a good dispersion of C and N on the surface FST. This dispersion contributed towards an appropriate quantity of defect sites, as a consequence of the greater interaction between g-C3N4 and the FST support, that led to narrowed of band gap energy (2.98 eV to 2.10 eV). The effect of scavenger and ESR studies confirmed that the photodegradation over CNFST occurred via a Z-scheme mechanism. It is noteworthy that the addition of green carbonaceous materials on the FST markedly enhanced the photodegradation of toxic 2-CP.

12.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(4): 1298-1304, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638672

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the immunodominant outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Fusobacterium necrophorum from sheep affected with severe foot-rot. The OMP profile of ovine strains of F. necrophorum has not been well studied. We analyzed the OMP profile of the most frequent lktA variant JKS-F3 of F. necrophorum associated with severe ovine foot-rot with lesion score 4 in order to identify its major immunodominant OMPs. Electrophoretic separations of extracted OMPs showed a number of spots in two-dimensional electrophoretic gels. Two immunoreactive proteins of size around 43 kDa were identified through western blotting using hyperimmune sera raised in rabbits. These two immunogenic OMPs were analyzed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF/MS) which revealed that these two OMPs of lktA variant JKS-F3 of F. necrophorum showed 46 and 42 percent protein sequence coverage and scores of 125 and 114, respectively, with the reported 43 kDa outer membrane protein of F. necrophorum strain H05, a putative porin having properties similar to pore-forming proteins of anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. These identified immunogenic OMPs will contribute to our understanding of the pathogenic role played by this organism in ovine foot-rot and could be exploited to devise an effective control strategy through development of an OMP-based recombinant vaccine to mitigate foot-rot in sheep and goats.


Assuntos
Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos , Fusobacterium necrophorum , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Cabras , Proteínas de Membrana , Coelhos , Ovinos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
13.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97(5): E653-E660, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946132

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Excimer laser coronary atherectomy (ELCA) is a recognized adjunctive therapy utilized in the percutaneous management of complex coronary lesions. Studies examining its safety and utility have been limited by small sample sizes. Our study examines the determinants and outcomes of ELCA. METHODS: Using the British Cardiac Intervention Society database, data were analyzed on all PCI procedures in the UK between 2006-2016. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine baseline, procedural and outcome associations with ELCA. RESULTS: We identified 1,471 (0.21%) ELCA cases out of 686,358 PCI procedures. Baseline covariates associated with ELCA use were age, BMI, number of lesions, CTO or restenosis attempted and history of prior MI, CABG or PCI. Procedural co-variates associated with ELCA were the use of glycoprotein inhibitors, intravascular imaging, rotational atherectomy, cutting balloons, microcatheters and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Adjusted rates of in-hospital major adverse cardiac/cerebrovascular events (MACCE) or its individual components (death, peri-procedural MI, stroke and major bleed) were not significantly altered by the use of ELCA. However, there were higher odds of dissection (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.17-1.98), perforation (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.44-3.30), slow flow (OR: 1.67, 95% CI 1.18-2.36), reintervention (OR: 2.12, 95% CI 1.14-3.93) and arterial complications (OR: 1.63, 95% CI 1.21-2.21). CONCLUSIONS: ELCA use during complex PCI is associated with higher risk baseline and procedural characteristics. Although increased rates of acute procedural complications were observed, ELCA does not increase likelihood of in-hospital MACCE or its individual components.

14.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97(2): E179-E185, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is increasingly utilized for treatment of coronary disease involving the unprotected left main stem (ULMS). However, no studies to date have examined the outcomes of such interventions when complicated by coronary perforation (CP). METHODS: Using the British Cardiovascular Intervention society (BCIS) database, data were analyzed on all ULMS-PCI procedures complicated by CP in England and Wales between 2007 and 2014. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of ULMS CP and to evaluate the association between this complication and outcomes. RESULTS: During 10,373 ULMS-PCI procedures, CP occurred more frequently than in non-ULMS-PCI (0.9 vs. 0.4%, p < .001) with a stable annual incidence. Covariates associated with CP included number of stents used, female gender, use of rotational atherectomy and chronic total occlusion (CTO) intervention. Adjusted odds of adverse outcomes for ULMS-PCI complicated by CP were higher for peri-procedural complications including cardiogenic shock, tamponade, side-branch loss, DC cardioversion, in-hospital major bleeding, transfusion requirement, and peri-procedural myocardial infarction. There were also significantly increased odds for in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACCE, OR 8.961, 95% CI [4.902-16.383]) and 30-day mortality (OR 5.301, 95% CI [2.741-10.251]). CONCLUSIONS: CP is an infrequent event during ULMS-PCI and is predicted by female gender, rotational atherectomy, CTO interventions or number of stents used. CP was associated with significantly higher odds of mortality and morbidity, but at rates similar to previously published all-comer PCI complicated by CP.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotational atherectomy (RA) during PCI is linked to a higher likelihood coronary perforations (CP). However, the evidence base on incidence, predictors and outcomes of this complication in RA-PCI remains limited. METHODS: Using the British Cardiac Intervention Society database, data were analysed on all RA-PCI procedures in UK 2007-2014. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine baseline, procedural and outcome associations. RESULTS: During 10,980 RA-PCI procedures, 167 CPs were recorded (1.52%) with a stable annual incidence. Baseline and procedural covariates associated with higher rates of RA perforation were number of stents used, female gender, smoking, and left-main stenosis. CP was significantly associated with shock, DC cardioversion, heart block, transfusion, emergency surgery, periprocedural MI, in-hospital major bleed, acute kidney injury, dissection, side branch loss and in-hospital death. CP was also associated with higher rates of in-hospital MACCE (OR 12.22, 95% CI 7.67-19.47), 30-day mortality (OR 10.02, 95% CI 5.87-17.09) and 12-month mortality (OR 3.90, 95% CI 2.53-6.02). CONCLUSIONS: CP is more frequent in RA-PCI than all-comer PCI and is associated with a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. There are a limited number of baseline and procedural co-variates associated with CP in RA-PCI, making it difficult to predict.

17.
Colorectal Dis ; 22(12): 1885-1907, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757361

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this work was to compare the outcomes of extended right hemicolectomy (ERH), left hemicolectomy (LH) and segmental colectomy (SC) for the surgical management of splenic flexure tumours. METHOD: In compliance with PRISMA statement standards, a systematic review was performed to identify all studies comparing outcomes of ERH, LH and SC for the surgical management of splenic flexure tumours. Primary outcomes included anastomotic leakage and all postoperative complications. The secondary outcomes included operative time, R0 resection, number of harvested lymph nodes, > 12 harvested lymph nodes, severe complications, postoperative mortality, paralytic ileus, wound infection, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, need for reoperation, length of hospital stay, 5-year overall survival and 5-year disease-free survival. The ROBINS-I tool and GRADE system were used to assess the risk of bias and certainty of evidence, respectively. RESULTS: Analysis of 956 patients from seven observational studies showed that ERH was associated with more paralytic ileus than LH (OR 2.74, P = 0.002) and SC (OR 6.67, P < 0.0001) and the operative time was shorter in SC than in ERH (mean difference 25.48, P < 0.0001) and LH (mean difference -17.94, P = 0.0002). There were no differences between ERH, LH and SC in terms of anastomotic leakage, postoperative complications, R0 resection, severe complications, postoperative mortality, wound infection, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, need for reoperation, length of hospital stay, > 12 harvested lymph nodes, 5-year overall survival and 5-year disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence, limited to observational studies, suggests that there is no difference between ERH, LH and SC in terms of postoperative morbidity and mortality, lymph node yield and cancer survival. Randomized controlled trials are required for definite conclusions.

18.
Mov Disord Clin Pract ; 7(5): 489-499, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626792

RESUMO

Background: Many different movement disorders have similar "jerk-like" phenomenology and can be misconstrued as myoclonus. Different types of myoclonus also share similar phenomenological characteristics that can be difficult to distinguish solely based on clinical exam. However, they have distinctive physiologic characteristics that can help refine categorization of jerk-like movements. Objectives: In this review, we briefly summarize the clinical, physiologic, and pathophysiologic characteristics of different types of myoclonus. The methodology and technical considerations for the electrophysiologic assessment of jerk-like movements are reviewed. A simplistic pragmatic approach for the classification of myoclonus and other jerk-like movements based on objective electrophysiologic characteristics is proposed. Conclusions: Clinical neurophysiology is an underutilized tool in the diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders. Various jerk-like movements have distinguishing physiologic characteristics, differentiated in the milliseconds range, which is beyond human capacity. We argue that the categorization of movement disorders as myoclonus can be refined based on objective physiology that can have important prognostic and therapeutic implications.

19.
Brain ; 143(6): 1766-1779, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428227

RESUMO

Humans have a distinguishing ability for fine motor control that is subserved by a highly evolved cortico-motor neuronal network. The acquisition of a particular motor skill involves a long series of practice movements, trial and error, adjustment and refinement. At the cortical level, this acquisition begins in the parieto-temporal sensory regions and is subsequently consolidated and stratified in the premotor-motor cortex. Task-specific dystonia can be viewed as a corruption or loss of motor control confined to a single motor skill. Using a multimodal experimental approach combining neuroimaging and non-invasive brain stimulation, we explored interactions between the principal nodes of the fine motor control network in patients with writer's cramp and healthy matched controls. Patients and healthy volunteers underwent clinical assessment, diffusion-weighted MRI for tractography, and functional MRI during a finger tapping task. Activation maps from the task-functional MRI scans were used for target selection and neuro-navigation of the transcranial magnetic stimulation. Single- and double-pulse TMS evaluation included measurement of the input-output recruitment curve, cortical silent period, and amplitude of the motor evoked potentials conditioned by cortico-cortical interactions between premotor ventral (PMv)-motor cortex (M1), anterior inferior parietal lobule (aIPL)-M1, and dorsal inferior parietal lobule (dIPL)-M1 before and after inducing a long term depression-like plastic change to dIPL node with continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation in a randomized, sham-controlled design. Baseline dIPL-M1 and aIPL-M1 cortico-cortical interactions were facilitatory and inhibitory, respectively, in healthy volunteers, whereas the interactions were converse and significantly different in writer's cramp. Baseline PMv-M1 interactions were inhibitory and similar between the groups. The dIPL-PMv resting state functional connectivity was increased in patients compared to controls, but no differences in structural connectivity between the nodes were observed. Cortical silent period was significantly prolonged in writer's cramp. Making a long term depression-like plastic change to dIPL node transformed the aIPL-M1 interaction to inhibitory (similar to healthy volunteers) and cancelled the PMv-M1 inhibition only in the writer's cramp group. These findings suggest that the parietal multimodal sensory association region could have an aberrant downstream influence on the fine motor control network in writer's cramp, which could be artificially restored to its normal function.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Distônicos/metabolismo , Distúrbios Distônicos/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Distúrbios Distônicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/metabolismo , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos
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