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1.
Clin Biochem ; 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the primary cause of death worldwide. It is mainly caused by atherosclerosis that initiates from a genetic-environmental interaction. Studies highlighted the association of numerous gene polymorphisms with CAD. Omentin-1 is secreted from visceral adipose tissues, intestine, and others; it has anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitivity improving roles. AIM: To explore the association of the omentin-1 gene polymorphisms (rs2274907 and rs2274908) with serum lipid concentrations and CAD in a sample of the Iraqi population. METHODS: A case-control study was followed, in which CAD patients were analyzed versus a group of healthy persons. Serum lipid concentrations were measured by enzymatic methods. Genotyping of the omentin-1 gene for rs2274907 SNP was achieved by ARMS-PCR, while for rs2274908 SNP by allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) techniques. RESULTS: Atherogenic serum lipid concentrations increased significantly in CAD patients relative to the control group. Genotyping of the omentin-1 gene for rs2274907 SNP revealed a significant (OR = 4.11, P = 0.035) elevation of the AT genotype carriers in CAD versus the control groups. The genotype analysis of the rs2274908 SNP failed to exhibit a significant variation. The two analyzed SNPs were indicated to be in linkage disequilibrium (r = 0.772, P < 0.0001). The global haplotype association of the 2 SNPs was demonstrated to be significant (P = 0.006). Serum lipid concentrations were found to be independent of the genotype distribution of the rs2274907 SNP. CONCLUSION: Carriers of the AT genotype of rs2274907 SNP in the omentin-1gene may have a four-fold risk of developing CAD compared to those of the wild genotype. Alterations of serum lipid concentrations may do not depend on the genotypes of this SNP.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793466

RESUMO

According to IPCC Annual Report (AR-5), environmental impact assessment of any product prototype is recommended before its large-scale commercialization; however, no environmental profile analysis of any biodiesel prototype has been conducted in Pakistan. Therefore, objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA), water footprint and cumulative energy demand (CED) of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. (JC) seeds oil in Pakistan. A cradle-to-gate LCA approach was applied for 400 liter (L) JC biodiesel produced in Pakistan. JC biodiesel production chain was divided into three stages i.e., 1). cultivation of JC crop 2). crude oil extraction from JC seeds and 3). crude oil conversion to biodiesel. Primary data for all the stages were acquired through questionnaire surveys, field visits and measurements in the field. Potential environmental impacts were calculated in SimaPro v.9.2 software using Eco-indicator 99 methodology. Results showed that crude oil extraction stage accounted for highest emissions (77%) to the overall environmental impact categories evaluated, followed by oil conversion stage (21%) and JC cultivation stage (02%), respectively. The three stages of JC biodiesel production chain are major contributor to ecotoxicity with a contribution of 57% to this impact category. Higher contribution to ecotoxicity was due to agrochemicals used in the JC cultivation. Similarly, fossil fuels impact category was responsible for 38% of overall environmental impacts. In addition, water footprint of JC biodiesel production chain was 2632.54 m3/reference unit. Cumulative energy required for 400L JC biodiesel production chain was 46745.70 MJ in Pakistan. Fossil diesel consumption, synthetic fertilizers use and purchased electricity were major hotspot sources to environmental burdens caused by JC biodiesel production in Pakistan. By performing sensitivity analysis at 20% reduction of the baseline values of fossil diesel used, synthetic fertilizers and purchased electricity, a marked decrease in environmental footprint was observed. It is highly recommended that use of renewable energy instead of fossil energy would provide environmental benefits such as lower greenhouse gases and other toxic emissions as compared to conventional petroleum fuels. It is also recommended that JC as a biofuel plant, has been reported to have many desired characteristics such as quick growth, easy cultivation, drought resistance, pest and insect resistance, and mainly great oil content in JC seeds (27-40%). Therefore, JC plant is highly recommended to Billion Tree Afforestation Project (BTAP) for plantation on wasteland because it has multipurpose benefits.

3.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 379(6): 38, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554344

RESUMO

Pyrone moieties are present in natural products and can be synthesized by a diverse range of synthetic methods, resulting in the formation of various derivatives through chemical modifications. Many pyrone-based derivatives are commercially available and are biocompatible. They are building blocks of various intermediates in organic synthesis. They possess remarkable biological properties including antimicrobial, antiviral, cytotoxic, and antitumor activity. These characteristics have made them valuable for the development of drugs. We have summarized recent developments in the synthesis of 2-pyrone and its derivatives and their potential applications. With regard to synthetic approaches, the focus has been on metal-free and transition metal-catalyzed reactions.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Pironas/síntese química , Pironas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Pironas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255853, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379662

RESUMO

Health assumptions to the population due to the utilization of contaminated vegetables have been a great concern all over the world. In this study, an investigation has been conducted to ascertain metal concentrations in the wastewater, soil and commonly consumed vegetables from the vicinity of Gadoon Industrial Estate Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) and total solids (TS) and heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Moreover, possible health risks due to the consumption of vegetables have also been estimated. pH and TSS in wastewater were found to be higher than the permissible limit set by WHO (1996). These results revealed that Cr concentration in the wastewater was above the permissible limits of United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which may lead to a detrimental effect on soil quality deterioration, ultimately leading to food contamination. ANOVA analysis demonstrated a significant difference in soil samples for Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu at p ≤ 0.001, for Mn at p ≤ 0.05 while no significant difference was observed for Fe respectively. ANOVA analysis also exhibited the highest mean value for Pb, Cr, Cd and Zn in vegetables. A substantial positive correlation was found among the soil and vegetable contamination. The transfer factor for Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cd and Cu was greater than 0.5 due to contamination caused by domestic discharges and industrial effluents. Health assessment via consumption of dietary vegetables revealed a higher level than the permissible limit (HRI > 1) for Pb and Cd in children and adults. Enrichment factor (EF) due to consumption of vegetables was found higher for Pb and Cr respectively. Based on the findings of this study, there would be a significant risk to the consumers associated with consumptions of vegetables being cultivated in Gadoon Industrial Estate area of district Swabi. Therefore, strict regulatory control measures are highly recommended for the safety of vegetables originated from the study area.

5.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 363, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on ticks infesting equids are lacking in various parts of the world, including Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of ticks infesting equids, associated risk factors and rickettsial detection in ticks from equids in KP. METHODS: Inspection of 404 equid hosts from November 2018 to October 2019 resulted in the collection of 550 ticks. Data on tick-associated risk factors were collected from equid owners by means of a questionnaire. After morphological identification, partial DNA sequences of the tick mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene were used for taxonomic confirmation of species. Partial sequences of the gltA and ompA genes were used for Rickettsia detection in ticks. RESULTS: A total of 550 tick specimens were collected on 324 (80.2%) of the equids inspected, of which 161 were horses (50%), 145 (45%) were donkeys and 18 were mules (5%). The ticks were identified as belonging to the following five species: Rhipicephalus microplus (341 specimens, 62% of the total ticks), Rh. haemaphysaloides (126, 23%), Rh. turanicus (39, 7%), Rh. sanguineus (s.l.) (33, 6%) and Hyalomma anatolicum (11, 2%). The most prevalent tick life stage was adult females (279, 51%) followed by adult males (186, 34%) and nymphs (85, 15%). Higher tick infestations were observed on male equids (relative risk [RR] 0.7432, P < 0.0005) and adult equids (RR 1.268, P < 0.0020). Ticks were frequently attached to the axial region of horses (55, 21%), sternum of donkeys (44, 21%) and belly of mules (19, 23%) (P < 0.04). Temporal patterns of tick infestation in association with temperature and humidity were highly significant (P < 0.05). Risk factors, such as animal housing (P < 0.0003), living management (P < 0.006), grazing type (P < 0.01) and location in hilly areas (P < 0.02), significantly enhanced the chances for tick infestation. Tick species analyzed in this study were phylogenetically related to species from Afghanistan, China, South Africa and Taiwan. Partial sequences of the gltA and ompA genes obtained from Rh. microplus and Rh. haemaphysaloides were 100% identical to the spotted fever group pathogen Rickettsia massiliae. CONCLUSIONS: Equids exposed to significant risk factors were infected by one or more of at least five tick species in KP, Pakistan, and some of the ticks harbored the human pathogen R. massiliae.


Assuntos
Cavalos/parasitologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Rickettsia/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/genética , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Ninfa/microbiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/classificação
6.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251928, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015005

RESUMO

A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for the matchsticks industry in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan to quantify environmental footprint, water footprint, cumulative energy use, and to identify improvement opportunities in the matchsticks manufacturing process. One carton of matchsticks was used as reference unit for this study. Foreground data was collected from the matchsticks industry through questionnaire surveys, personal meetings, and field measurements. The collected data was transformed into potential environmental impacts through the Centre for Environment Studies (CML) 2000 v.2.05 method present by default in the SimaPro v.9.1 software. Water footprint was calculated using methodology developed by Hoekstra et al., 2012 (water scarcity index) V1.02 and cumulative energy demand by SimaPro v.9.1 software. The results showed that transport of primary material (wood logs), sawn wood for matchsticks, red phosphorous, acrylic varnish, and kerosene fuel oil contributed to the overall environmental impacts. Transport of primary materials and sawn timber for matchsticks contributed significantly to abiotic depletion, global warming, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion, corrosion, human toxicity, and aquatic ecotoxicity effects. The total water footprint for manufacturing one carton of matchsticks was 0.265332 m3, whereas the total cumulative energy demand was 715.860 Mega Joules (MJ), mainly sourced from non-renewable fossil fuels (708.979 MJ). Scenario analysis was also conducted for 20% and 30% reduction in the primary material distance covered by trucks and revealed that reducing direct material transport distances could diminish environmental impacts and energy consumption. Therefore, environmental footprint could be minimized through diverting matchsticks industries freight from indigenous routes to high mobility highways and by promoting industrial forestry close to industrial zones in Pakistan. Many industries did not have emissions control systems, exceeding the permissible limit for emissions established by the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan. Thus, installation of emissions control system could also diminish emissions from match industry in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Combustíveis Fósseis , Indústrias/normas , Água/química , Eutrofização , Aquecimento Global , Humanos , Perda de Ozônio , Paquistão , Madeira/efeitos adversos
7.
Acta Inform Med ; 29(1): 45-50, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012213

RESUMO

Background: Since December 2019. millions of people in the world have been affected with the novel Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and high economic impact has affect many countries especially low socioeconomic one like Iraq due to the high cost and limited availability of RT-PCR for diagnosis of COVID-19, so there should be predictive low cost easily available laboratory tests that can be used before proceeding to the high cost techniques. Objective: In this retrospective study we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CRP, ferritin, LDH and D-dimer in predicting positive cases of COVID-19 in Iraq. Methods: It is a retrospective observational cohort study based on STARD guidelines to determine the diagnostic accuracy of (CRP, LDH, ferritin and D dimer) for COVID-19 of electronic medical records of private medical center in Najaf city, at which 566 individuals were recruited. The investigated subjects were either in close contact with previously COVID-19 positive patients or have one or more symptoms of COVID-19. They were categorized into 2 groups, 205 subjects diagnosed with RT-PCR as COVID-19 negative, and 361 COVID-19 positive patients, results of study variables of the cohort were recruited from the medical records. Results: Combining of these parameters had the following findings: CRP + ferritin; AUC: 0.77 with 55% sensitivity and 97% specificity, Ferritin + LDH; AUC: 0.83 with 65% sensitivity and 92% specificity, CRP+LDH; AUC: 0.78 with 56% sensitivity and 98% specificity, CRP + LDH + ferritin; AUC: 0.85, with 73% sensitivity and 88% specificity, CRP + LDH + ferritin + D dimer; AUC: 0.85 75% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Conclusion: Combination of routine laboratory biomarkers (CRP, LDH and ferritin ±D dimer) can be used to predict the diagnosis of COVID-19 with an accepted sensitivity and specificity before proceeding to definitive diagnosis by RT-PCR.

8.
Inhal Toxicol ; 33(3): 96-112, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a stochastic five-lobe lung model and to compute particle deposition fractions in the five lobes, considering anatomical as well as ventilatory asymmetry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The stochastic five-lobe lung model was derived from an existing stochastic model for the whole lung, which implicitly contains information on the lobar airway structure. Differences in lobar ventilation and sequential filling of individual lobes were simulated by a stochastic lobar ventilation model. Deposition fractions of inhaled unit density particles in the five lobes were calculated by an updated version of the Monte Carlo deposition code Inhalation, Deposition, and Exhalation of Aerosols in the Lung (IDEAL). RESULTS: Simulations for defined exposure and breathing conditions revealed that the two lower lobes receive higher deposition and the two upper lobes lower deposition, compared to the average deposition for the whole lung. The resulting inter-lobar distribution of deposition fractions indicated that the non-uniform lung morphometry is the dominating effect, while non-uniform ventilation only slightly enhances the lobar differences. The relation between average lobe-specific deposition fractions and corresponding average values for the whole lung allowed the calculation of lobe-specific deposition weighting factors. DISCUSSION: Comparison with limited deposition measurements for upper vs. lower (U/L) and left vs. right (L/R) lobes revealed overall agreement between experimental and theoretical data. Calculations of the L/R deposition ratio for inhaled aerosol boli confirmed the hypothesis of Möller et al. that the right lung is less able to expand at the end of a breath because of the restrictive position of the liver.

9.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728950

RESUMO

Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the most widely grown and consumed fruits in Pakistan and all around the world due to their distinct aroma and taste. In 2018, anthracnose symptoms were observed on banana fruit harvested from different plantations of Sindh- a major banana producing Province of Pakistan. Approximately, 25% of banana fruit collected from different plantations were infected. The symptoms consisted of small brown to reddish-brown spots on the fruit surface and then became sunken lesions as the disease progressed. To identify the pathogen, infected tissues (5 mm in diameter) from the margin of the lesions were surface sterilized by dipping in 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 2 min, 70% ethanol for 30 s, and then rinsed twice with sterile distilled water, plated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated at 27°C for 5 days with 12 h light and darkness cycle. Colonies with a similar pattern were consistently isolated and all colonies were sub-cultured using the single-spore method. Colonies first appeared with white colored mycelium and later turned to dark gray. Conidia produced in acervuli were cylindric, hyaline, straight, and aseptate, with both ends rounded. Conidia measured 14.0 ± 0.5 × 3.4 ± 0.6 µm. Conidiomata were dark brown and spherical. On the basis of morphological characterization, the pathogen was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. (Weir et al. 2012). Two independent isolates (PDL2031 and PDL2032) were used for further genetic analysis. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and chitin synthase 1 (CHS-1) gene were amplified from genomic DNA using primer pairs of ITS1/ITS4 and CHS-79F/CHS-345R, respectively (White et al. 1990; Damm et al. 2012). The GenBank accession numbers (MW493198, MW504711 for ITS and MW530421, MW530422 for CHS-1) of the sequences exhibited 99% to 100% identity to multiple sequences of C. gloeosporioides. To conduct a pathogenicity test, 10 healthy fruits were selected and surface sterilized with 70% ethanol followed by a wash of sterilized water. The fruits were stabbed with a sterile needle and a drop of 20 µl of spore suspension (106 spores/ml) was placed on each wound independently. Meanwhile 10 fruits inoculated with sterile water were treated as controls. The fruits were incubated at 27°C with 90% relative humidity for 10 days. Inoculated fruits exhibited symptoms similar to the original infection. No visible lesions appeared on control fruit. C. gloeosporioides was successfully reisolated from the inoculated fruit, confirming Koch's postulates. Anthracnose of banana is known to be caused by C. musae, C. gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. tropicale, C. chrysophilum, C. theobromicola, and C. scovillei (Kumar et al. 2017; Peres et al. 2001; Vieira et al. 2017; Zakaria et al. 2009; Zhou et al. 2017). To our knowledge, this is first report of anthracnose of banana caused by C. gloeosporioides in Pakistan. The new disease primarily reduces the quality and yield of Banana. Effective measures should be taken to manage this disease.

10.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787305

RESUMO

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a non-climacteric and a favorite fruit of tropical, sub-tropical and arid regions of the world. During a survey in autumn 2019, leaf lesions were observed on plants (cv. Kandhari) in different orchards of Muzaffargarh (30°4'27.7572″ N, 71°11'4.7544″ E), a major pomegranate-producing region in Punjab Province. Disease incidence ranged from 17 to 20%. Leaf lesions were initially small (1 to 3 mm in diameter), round, purple or reddish-brown, scattered spots. At later stages, spots increased in size and the centers of mature lesions became dark red or black with fungal sporulation. To isolate the pathogen, samples of leaf (5 × 5 mm) were cut from the junction of diseased and healthy tissue, surface disinfected in 75% alcohol for 30 s, sterilized with 6% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min, washed with sterile distilled water three times, air dried in laminar flow hood, and cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA). After one week of incubation at 25 ± 2°C with a 12-h photoperiod, fungal colonies developed, which were initially white and became pale yellow with olivaceous green mycelium after 20 days. On PDA, ascomata were olivaceous green, with a papillate ostiole, globose or ovoidal to obovoidal (155 to 220 × 120 to 240 µm, n=50). Terminal and lateral setae were abundant, brown, and tapering toward the tips (4 to 6 µm, n=50). Asci were greenish and lemon-shaped (6 to 8 × 9 to 13.5 µm, n=50). Ascospores were limoniform and olivaceous gray-brown (10 to 11.5 × 7 to 9 µm, n=50). These morphological characteristics were consistent with the morphology of Chaetomium globosum (Lan et al. 2011; Wang et al. 2016). Genomic DNA was extracted from two isolates and identification of the pathogen was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the partial translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) gene using ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1999) and EF1-983F/EF1-2218R primers (Wang et al. 2016), respectively. The sequences of the PCR products were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers MW522514, MW522352 (ITS), and MW530423, MW530424 (TEF1). BLAST results of the obtained sequences of the ITS and TEF1 genes revealed 100% (513/513 bp) and 99.78% (927/929 bp) similarity with those of C. globosum in GenBank (ITS: KX834823 and KT898637, and TEF1: MG812564 and KC485028). To confirm pathogenicity, inoculum was prepared by harvesting conidia from 10-day-old culture grown in PDA. The surface-disinfected (70% ethyl alcohol, 30 s) leaves of ten 1-year-old seedlings (cv. Kandhari) were sprayed with a spore suspension (1×106 conidia/ml). Leaves of ten seedlings sprayed with sterile distilled water served as controls. All seedlings were covered with plastic bags and placed in a greenhouse at 26°C with 12 h photoperiod. After eight days, symptoms on inoculated leaves were similar to those observed in the orchards; no symptoms were observed on controls. The fungus was reisolated from all symptomatic tissues. C. globosum has been reported on Punica granatum (Guo et al. 2015), Cannabis sativa (Chaffin et al. 2020) and Brassica oleracea (Zhu et al. 2020). This is the first report of C. globosum causing leaf spot on pomegranate in Pakistan. This finding suggests a potential threat to pomegranate production in Pakistan and further studies should focus on effective prevention and control practices of this disease.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450743

RESUMO

Northern red muntjac (Muntiacus vaginalis; "barking deer") is a shy and small-sized cervid mammal, limited to the outer Himalayan foothill forests in Pakistan. Habitat characteristics were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify habitat utilization of barking deer, 80 field surveys were conducted in the study area along transects. 1200 Quadrats at 50 m intervals were deployed along these transect lines to determine microhabitat factors associated with seasonal distribution. The food composition of the barking deer was determined through fecal droppings analysis by micro-histological technique. Forty-five fecal samples of barking deer were collected from the study area (Murree-Kotli Sattian-Kahuta National Pak); summer (28) and winter (17). The micro-histological analysis revealed that more plant species are available in its habitat during the summer season (27) as compared to winter (19). Due to browsing nature barking deer mostly feed on trees in both seasons. While shrubs are slightly higher in winters. In summer barking deer consumed 10 Trees, 6 Shrubs, 5 Herbs, and 6 kinds of grass species. Dominant tree species were Phyllanthus emblica and Acacia modesta. Dominant shrub species were Ziziphus nummularia and Justicia adhatoda. In winter barking deer consumed 8 Trees, 7 Shrubs, 3 Herbs, and 1 Grass. Dominant tree species were Bauhinia variegata and Acacia modesta while shrubs included Ziziphus nummularia and Carissa opaca.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ecossistema , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Cervo Muntjac , Paquistão , Estações do Ano
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1677, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462271

RESUMO

Hydroponic systems are known to provide a platform for uniform growth conditions until the reproductive stage. However, many plant species, including sunflower, show poor growth and survivability under conventional hydroponic systems due to poor nutrient availability, hypoxia and algal contamination. Thus, we tested various hydroponic systems to select a hydroponic system suitable for screening of sunflower germplasm. Sunflower accessions showed better growth and leaf gas exchange in newly-designed over conventional hydroponic systems. Selected hydroponic systems were further engaged in sunflower accession screening under heat and osmotic stress in a two-pan system (210 cm × 60 cm). Heat stress treatment was applied by growing sunflower germplasm at 42 °C and osmotic stress by adding polyethylene glycol 8000 which decreased the osmotic potential to - 0.6 MPa. There was significant variability among the sunflower accessions for their ability to survive under stress. Accessions such as C-2721 (43%), C-291 (46%) and D-14 (43%) had lower cell membrane injury percentage under osmotic stress and high seedling survivability (60‒80%) under heat stress when compared with susceptible accessions. Moreover, resistant accessions exhibited greater cuticular waxes and root length but lower transpiration losses. The newly designed hydroponic platform proved reliable for the selection of resistant sunflower accessions. Selected parental lines were validated by assessing their hybrids under field trials across two seasons under water and temperature stress during the reproductive phase (autumn). Hybrid H3 obtained by crossing drought and heat resistant parents had the highest seed yield and water use efficiency.


Assuntos
Helianthus/fisiologia , Hidroponia/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Helianthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pressão Osmótica , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/fisiologia
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200187, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249205

RESUMO

Abstract Plant based protein sources are one of the best, cost effective and easily available protein sources being used in fish feed. But due to a lower number of micro-biota in fish gut plant meal based diets cannot be digested and absorbed well in fish body. Probiotics were supplemented at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 gkg-1 levels in fish feed for formulating one control and five test diets. In this study, three replicates of each treatment were used and number of fingerlings was 15 in each replicate. The C. carpio (common carp) fingerlings were fed at 5% of live wet weight on their prescribed diet twice daily. The results revealed that supplementation of probiotics in corn gluten meal based diets significantly (p<0.05) improved growth performance, carcass composition and hematological parameters. Most optimum values of growth performance parameters were noted at 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics supplemented diet. C. carpio fingerlings fed corn gluten meal based diet supplemented with 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics indicated significant (p<0.05) improvements in crude protein (17g) crude fat (9g) and gross energy (3 kcalg-1) whereas higher red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) was also recorded in fish blood when fed 2 gkg-1 probiotics level diet. From these results, it was concluded that 2 gkg-1 probiotics supplementation in corn gluten meal based diet is optimum for improving growth performance, body composition and hematology of C. carpio fingerlings.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Carpas , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Hematologia , Zea mays
14.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(12): 1379-1388, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812514

RESUMO

The present study quantified environmental impacts of the Rawalpindi Waste Management Company (RWMC) value chain in Pakistan for three consecutive years (2015-2018) using a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Energy potential from municipal solid wastes (MSW) was also predicted till the year 2050. Based on a functional unit of 1.0 tonne of MSW, the study analyzed inputs and outputs data through SimaPro v.8.3 applying CML 2000 methodology and cumulative exergy demand indicator (CExD). LCA revealed that operational activities of RWMC mainly contributed to marine aquatic ecotoxicity, i.e. 8962.83 kg1,4-DBeq t-1 MSW, indicating long-range transport of petrogenic hydrocarbons from the company's fleet gasoline combustion. Similarly, human toxicity potential, global warming potential and freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity potential were also found to be significant, i.e. 18.14 kg1,4-DBeq t-1 MSW, 15.79 kgCO2eq t-1 MSW and 6.22 kg1,4-DBeq t-1 MSW, respectively. The CExD showed that company activities consumed 827.14 MJ t-1 MSW exergy from nature, and gasoline used in MSW transport was the most exergy-intensive process, using 634.47 MJ exergy per tonne MSW disposed of. Projections for energy generation potential up to the year 2050 showed that MSW of Rawalpindi city will have the potential to produce 3901 megawatt of energy to fulfill the energy needs of the country. Possible stratagems to reduce environmental impacts from the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) value chain of RWMC include curtailing dependency on petrogenic and fossil fuels in mobile sources, optimization of waste collection methods and dumping routes, inclining attention toward suitable wastes-to-energy conversion technology and opting for a holistic approach of MSWM in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Cidades , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Paquistão , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
15.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(8): 2089-2096, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714033

RESUMO

Phytic acid's presence in low-cost Moringa by-products effect the availability of important nutrients, diminishing the fish quality and blood composition in fish. Phytate having chelating effects with nutrients and minerals, can be reduced by the supplementation of phytase enzyme. Without the use of enzyme, plant meal may cause water pollution and decrease the fish health that results in higher culture cost. Therefore, current study was designed to check improvement in overall performance of Catla catla fingerlings fed Moringa by product-based diets supplemented with phytase (0, 300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500, FTU/kg). All diets were integrated with non-digestible marker (Cr2O3) at the rate of 1%. The fingerlings were fed couple of times a day (4% of live wet weight). Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement in nutrient digestibility (i.e. EE, CP and GE), carcass composition and hematological parameters (i.e. RBCs, PLT and Hb) at 900, FTU/kg of phytase in contrast with other treatments. Moreover, phytase addition improves the water quality by reducing the nutrients leaching through feces at low cost. Current results indicated that, using mixture of Moringa seed meal and Moringa leaf meal based diet supplemented with phytase at 900, FTU/kg concentration is the most optimum level to develop a cost-effective as well as eco-friendly fish feed with maximum absorption of important nutrients and minerals in fish body resultantly high higher fish performance.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(13): 14983-14992, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069393

RESUMO

Au nanoparticle (NP) decorated heterogeneous TiO2 catalysts are known to be effective in the degradation of various organic pollutants. The photocatalytic performance of such Au-TiO2 structures remarkably depends on the size, morphology, and surface coverage of the Au NPs decorating TiO2. Here we propose an effective way of preparing a highly active Au nanocluster (NC) decorated TiO2 thin film by a novel photodeposition method. By altering the solvent type as well as the illumination time, we achieved well-controlled surface coverage of TiO2 by Au NCs, which directly influences the photocatalytic performance. Here the Au NCs coverage affects both the electron store capacity and the optical absorption of the hybrid Au-TiO2 system. At low surface coverage, 19.2-29.5%, the Au NCs seem to enhance significantly the optical adsorption of TiO2 at UV wavelengths which therefore leads to a higher photocatalytic performance.

17.
Org Lett ; 21(21): 8568-8571, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603342

RESUMO

A highly efficient heteroannulation between [60]fullerene (C60) and N-methoxy-1H-indole-1-carboxamides has been successfully achieved via the palladium-catalyzed C-H activation and subsequent cyclization. This protocol has remarkable functional group tolerance for the synthesis of C60-fused 3,4-dihydropyrimido[1,6-a]indol-1(2H)-ones. Furthermore, the electrochemically generated dianionic C60-fused 3,4-dihydropyrimido[1,6-a]indol-1(2H)-ones can be regioselectively transformed into 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,16-, and 1,4,9,25-adducts of C60.

18.
Gene ; 662: 118-122, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence is increasing globally and nationally. The etiology of the disease includes environmental and genetic factors. Polymorphism of adiponectin gene was found to be implicated in the pathogenesis of T2DM in numerous populations. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to assess the association of rs2241766 and rs822395 SNPs of adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) with T2DM in Iraqi population. The study included 400 patients with T2DM and 400 healthy individuals served as a control group. Serum lipid concentrations, insulin level and the index of insulin resistance (HOMA) were measured. The genotyping of ADIPOQ for rs2241766 and rs822395 SNPs was performed by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: The genotype distribution of rs2241766 SNP indicated a significant increase of carriers of the homozygous GG (OR: 5.04, CI95%: 2.27-11.19, P: 0.0001) and heterozygous TG (OR: 1.7, CI95%: 1.22-2.39, P: 0.002) variants when compared with those of the wild type, suggesting a risk factor of 2 and 5 to develop the disease. The minor allele frequency (MAF) G was observed to be significantly (P: 0.0001) higher in patients (22%) when compared with the control group (11.74%). Results of rs822395 SNP failed to exhibit a significant difference. Changes of BMI, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and insulin resistance index values in the diabetic patients seemed to be parallel with the presence of MAF of rs2241766 SNP. CONCLUSION: The rs2241766T>G SNP of adiponectin gene is a risk factor for the development of T2DM in Iraqi population and directs the changes of serum lipid concentrations as well as insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
J Food Sci Technol ; 55(3): 1047-1055, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487447

RESUMO

The purpose of current study was to purify and partially depolymerize guar gum by ß-mannanase, HCl, Ba(OH)2 actions and subjected to inspect compositional, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and haemolytic activity. Chemical composition revealed mannose and galactose ratio remained un-altered even after process of purification and hydrolysis. TGA thermograms affirmed initial and final decomposition temperature in various zones. Major decomposition stages apparently revealed partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) exhibited better heat stable properties having more zones of degradation than crude one. Furthermore, all guar fractions (2.5-250 mg/mL) were subjected to haemolysis to evaluate toxic effects during process of hydrolysis. The crude and hydrolyzed guar galactomannans exhibited minor haemolytic activity (1.9 ± 0.03-7.24 ± 0.02%) when compared to 0.1% Triton-X 100 (100% haemolysis) showing no toxic effects to human RBC's. Conclusively, hydrolyzed guar-galactomannans are safe and can be used in food products with improved heat stability.

20.
Chempluschem ; 83(9): 881-885, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950685

RESUMO

Noncovalent carbon bonding, a recently explored σ-hole interaction, was hitherto supposed to be a weak and structure-guided interaction. Here, its role in the intramolecular stabilization of the cis conformation of the amide moiety in acylhydrazones is described. The calculations reveal an electron donation from the lone pair of the nitrogen atom to the empty antibonding C-N orbital [LP(N)→BD*(C-N)] with a concomitant stabilization energy of E(2) =1.2 kcal mol-1 .

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