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1.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2021: 5570963, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876946

RESUMO

Background: The term "persisters" refers to a small bacterial population that persists during treatment with high antibiotic concentration or dose in the absence of genetic resistance. The present study was designed to investigate the transcriptional response in indigenous Klebsiella pneumoniae under the ciprofloxacin stress. Methods: Isolation and identification of K. pneumoniae were carried out through standard microbiological protocols. The characterization of quinolone resistance was performed by estimating the quinolone susceptibility testing, MIC estimation, and detecting the QRDR and PMQR. Transcriptional response of the isolates to ciprofloxacin was determined using qPCR. Results: Among 34 isolates, 23 (67%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Both QRDR (gyrA and gyrB) and PMQR (qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS) were detected in the isolates, and all were found resistant to ciprofloxacin. The mRNA levels of both mutS and euTu under the influence of ciprofloxacin were significantly increased. On ciprofloxacin exposure, the mRNA levels of the DNA damage response element (mutS) were raised in a time-dependent fashion. K. pneumoniae showed high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin in the presence of mutations in QRDR and PMQR genes. Conclusion: The transcriptional response revealed the upregulation of DNA repair and protein folding elements (mutS and euTu) in ciprofloxacin stress and delayed cell division. The ciprofloxacin was found to trigger various stress responses in a time- and concentration-dependent manner.

2.
J Appl Biomed ; 19(1): 1-13, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907711

RESUMO

Due to its aggressive nature and low survival rate, esophageal cancer is one of the deadliest cancer. While the intestinal microbiome significantly influences human health and disease. This research aimed to investigate and characterize the relative abundance of intestinal bacterial composition in esophageal cancer patients. The fecal samples were collected from esophageal cancer patients (n = 15) and healthy volunteers (n = 10). The PCR-DGGE was carried out by focusing on the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and qPCR was performed for Bacteroides vulgatus, Escherichia coli, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium leptum and Lactobacillus. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene targeting the V3+V4 region was performed on 20 randomly selected samples. PCR-DGGE and High-throughput diversity results showed a significant alteration of gut bacterial composition between the experimental and control groups, which indicates the gut microbial dysbiosis in esophageal cancer patients. At the phylum level, there was significant enrichment of Bacteroidetes, while a non-significant decrease of Firmicutes in the experimental group. At family statistics, a significantly higher level of Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, while a significantly lower abundance of Prevotellaceae and Veillonellaceae were observed. There was a significantly high prevalence of genera Bacteroides, Escherichia-Shigella, while a significantly lower abundance of Prevotella_9 and Dialister in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the species analysis also showed significantly raised level of Bacteroides vulgatus and Escherichia coli in the experimental group. These findings revealed a significant gut microbial dysbiosis in esophageal cancer patients. So, the current study can be used for the understanding of esophageal cancer treatment, disease pathway, mechanism, and probiotic development.

3.
J Mol Model ; 28(1): 18, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962590

RESUMO

Development of novel materials for organic solar cells is a booming area of current research. Fused-ring electron accepters are the potential agents of revolution in organic photovoltaic devices and revealing high efficiency in organic solar cells. This study highlights the novel quad-rotor-shaped molecules as first example of efficient fused-ring non-fullerene acceptor materials with proficient photovoltaic parameters for their utilization in high-performance organic solar cells. First time, eight quad-rotor-shaped fused-ring electron accepters (QRFR-1-QRFR-8) are developed via modulating end-caps of experimentally synthesized (BFTT-TN) molecule (QRFR). Optoelectronic properties of proposed molecules are determined using frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), UV-Visible, density of state (DOS), overlap DOS (ODOS), transition density matrix (TDM) heat maps, open circuit voltage (Voc), binding energies (Eb), reorganization energy of electron (λe), hole (λh), charge transfer analysis, and compared with reference QRFR. All proposed fused-ring electron accepters disclose less energy gap and λmax in near IR region than QRFR after end-capped engineering. Highest Voc with respect to HOMOPM6-LUMOacceptor is found 1.66 V in QRFR-6 than QRFR (1.63 V). Eb values of QRFR-1-QRFR-8 are found better and comparable with QRFR. The λe is found smaller than QRFR in all molecules except QRFR-5. The proposed quad-rotor-shaped molecules exhibit proficient photovoltaic features and can serve as best candidate for organic solar cells when blended with PM6 film. This study not only enlightens the researchers to use end-capped reforms as effective tactic for designing materials, but also provides novel quad-rotor-shaped materials to experimentalist for synthesis and their usage in future application of organic solar cells.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757555

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced in the world and is frequently used in dental sealants, water bottles, food, and beverage packaging. Due to persistent applications, BPA has become a potential threat to a variety of organisms including public health. In this study, a total of 80 bighead carps were randomly placed in different four groups (A-D). Fish in groups B, C, and D were exposed to BPA @500, 1000, and 1500 µg/L, respectively for 60 days. Fish in group A served as an untreated control group. The body weight was significantly decreased while the absolute and relative weight of different visceral organs increased significantly (p < 0.05) in fish exposed to higher concentration (1500 µg/L) of BPA. Results on proximate analysis showed significantly lower values of crude proteins, lipids, and moisture contents while increased contents of ash in muscles of treated fish. The erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, lymphocytes, and monocytes significantly decreased while total leukocyte and neutrophil counts significantly increased in treated fish. Results exhibited that different serum biochemistry parameters like serum albumin and total proteins decreased significantly (p < 0.05) while alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in treated fish. Histopathological ailments like pyknosis, degeneration of glomeruli, increased Bowman's space, ceroid formation in kidneys while ceroid formation, hemorrhages, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, nuclear hypertrophy, and eccentric nuclei were observed in the liver of treated fish. Histological observation of different sections of the brain of treated fish exhibited degeneration of neurons in the cerebellum, lipofuscin deposition, microgliosis, necrotic neurons, inflammatory cells, and hemorrhage. Results on light microscopic observation of different sections of the heart of bighead carp revealed necrosis, inflammatory reaction, neutrophilic myocarditis, and hemorrhages. In conclusion, it is suggested that BPA induces adverse effects on physical, blood-biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes in multiple visceral tissues of exposed fish.

5.
Toxicology ; 462: 152957, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537261

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin is frequently detected in different food products and has been widely studied for its toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxic effects, relationship between gut microbiome and liver metabolite mediated hepatotoxicity mechanisms induced by ZEN are still not clear. Here, we reported that the different microscopic changes like swelling of hepatocyte, disorganization of hepatocytes and extensive vacuolar degeneration were observed, and the mitochondrial functions decreased in exposed mice. Results exhibited up-regulation in expression of signals of apoptosis and autophagy in liver of treated mice via mitochondrial apoptotic and autophagy pathway (Beclin1/p62). The diversity of gut microbiome decreased and the values of various microbiome altered in treated mice, including 5 phyla (Chloroflexi, Sva0485, Methylomirabilota, MBNT15 and Kryptonia) and genera (Frankia, Lactococcus, Anaerolinea, Halomonas and Sh765B-TzT-35) significantly changed. Liver metabolism showed that the concentrations of 91 metabolite including lipids and lipid like molecules were significantly changed. The values of phosphatidylcholine, 2-Lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidate concentrations suggestive of abnormal glycerophosphate metabolism pathway were significantly increased in mice due to exposure to ZEN. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the disorders in gut microbiome and liver metabolites due to exposure to ZEN in mice may affect the liver.

6.
ACS Omega ; 6(30): 19435-19444, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368531

RESUMO

Gas sensors are widely explored due to their remarkable detection efficiency for pollutants. Phosgene is a toxic gas and its high concentration in the environment causes some serious health problems like swollen throat, a change in voice, late response of nervous systems, and many more. Therefore, the development of sensors for quick monitoring of COCl2 in the environment is the need of the time. In this aspect, we have explored the adsorption behavior of late transition metal-decorated Mg12O12 nanoclusters for COCl2. Density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level is used for optimization, frontier molecular orbital analysis, dipole moment, natural bonding orbitals, bond lengths, adsorption energies, and global reactivity descriptor analysis. Decoration of Zn on pure Mg12O12 delivered two geometries named as Y1 and Y2 with adsorption energy values of -388.91 and -403.11 kJ/mol, respectively. Adsorption of COCl2 on pure Mg12O12 also delivered two geometries (X1 and X2) with different orientations of COCl2. The computed adsorption energy values of X1 and X2 are -44.92 and -71.32 kJ/mol. However, adsorption of COCl2 on Zn-decorated Mg12O12 offered two geometries named as Z1 and Z2 with adsorption energy values of -455.22 and -419.04 kJ/mol, respectively. These adsorption energy values suggested that Zn decoration significantly enhances the adsorption capability of COCl2 gas. Further, the narrow band gap and large dipole moment values of COCl2-adsorbed Zn-decorated Mg12O12 nanoclusters suggested that designed systems are efficient candidates for COCl2 adsorption. Global reactivity indices unveil the great natural stability and least reactivity of designed systems. Results of all analyses suggested that Zn-decorated Mg12O12 nanoclusters are efficient aspirants for the development of high-performance COCl2 sensing materials.

7.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(8): 210570, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386260

RESUMO

A donor-π-acceptor type series of Triphenylamine-dicyanovinylene-based chromophores (DPMN1-DPMN11) was designed theoretically by the structural tailoring of π-linkers of experimentally synthesized molecules DTTh and DTTz to exploit changes in the optical properties and their nonlinear optical materials (NLO) behaviour. Density functional theory (DFT) computations were employed to understand the electronic structures, absorption spectra, charge transfer phenomena and the influence of these structural modifications on NLO properties. Interestingly, all investigated chromophores exhibited lower band gap (2.22-2.60 eV) with broad absorption spectra in the visible region, reflecting the remarkable NLO response. Furthermore, natural bond orbital (NBO) findings revealed a strong push-pull mechanism in DPMN1-DPMN11 as donor and π-conjugates exhibited positive, while all acceptors showed negative values. Examination of electronic transitions from donor to acceptor moieties via π-conjugated linkers revealed greater linear (〈α〉 = 526.536-641.756 a.u.) and nonlinear (ß tot = 51 313.8-314 412.661 a.u.) response. It was noted that the chromophores containing imidazole in the second p-linker expressed greater hyperpolarizability when compared with the ones containing pyrrole. This study reveals that by controlling the type of π-spacers, interesting metal-free NLO materials can be designed, which can be valuable for the hi-tech NLO applications.

8.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 727766, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458360

RESUMO

Diquat (DQ) is an effective herbicide and is widely used in agriculture. Due to persistent and frequent applications, it can enter into aquatic ecosystem and induce toxic effects to exposed aquatic animals. The residues of DQ via food chain accumulate in different tissues of exposed animals including humans and cause adverse toxic effects. Therefore, it is crucial and important to understand the mechanisms of toxic effects of DQ in exposed animals. We used ducks as test specimens to know the effects of acute DQ poisoning on mechanisms of apoptosis and autophagy in liver tissues. Results on comparison of various indexes of visceral organs including histopathological changes, apoptosis, autophagy-related genes, and protein expression indicated the adverse effects of DQ on the liver. The results of our experimental trial showed that DQ induces non-significant toxic effects on pro-apoptotic factors like BAX, BAK1, TNF-α, caspase series, and p53. The results revealed that anti-apoptotic gene Parkin was significantly upregulated, while an upward trend was also observed for Bcl2, suggesting that involvement of the anti-apoptotic factors in ducklings plays an important role in DQ poisoning. Results showed that DQ significantly increased the protein expression level of the autophagy factor Beclin 1 in the liver. Results on key autophagy factors like LC3A, LC3B, and p62 showed an upward trend at gene level, while the protein expression level of both LC3B and p62 reduced that might be associated with process of translation affected by the pro-apoptotic components such as apoptotic protease that inhibits the occurrence of autophagy while initiating cell apoptosis. The above results indicate that DQ can induce cell autophagy and apoptosis and the exposed organism may resist the toxic effects of DQ by increasing anti-apoptotic factors.

9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112662, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411823

RESUMO

Fluorine being a well-known and essential element for normal physiological functions of tissues of different organisms is frequently used for growth and development of body. The mechanisms of adverse and injurious impacts of fluoride are not clear and still are under debate. Therefore, this study was executed to ascertain the potential mechanisms of sodium fluoride in liver tissues of ducks. For this purpose, a total of 14 ducks were randomly divided and kept in two groups including control group and sodium fluoride treated group. The ducks in control group were fed with normal diet while the ducks in other group were exposed to sodium fluoride (750 mg/kg) for 28 days. The results showed that exposure to sodium fluoride induced deleterious effects in different liver tissues of ducks. The results indicated that mRNA levels of Cas-3, Cas-9, p53, Apaf-1, Bax and Cyt-c were increased in treated ducks with significantly higher mRNA level of Cas-9 and lower levels of the mRNA level of Bcl-2 as compared to untreated control group (P < 0.01). The results showed that protein expression levels of Bax and p53 were increased while protein expression level of Bcl-2 was reduced in treated ducks. No difference was observed in protein expression level of Cas-3 between treated and untreated ducks. The results of this study suggest that sodium fluoride damages the normal structure of liver and induces abnormal process of apoptosis in hepatocyte, which provide a new idea for elucidating the mechanisms of sodium fluoride induced hepatotoxicity in ducks.

10.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105106, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311015

RESUMO

This study was ascertained to investigate the adverse effects of pathogenic E. coli on gut microbiota of Tibetan piglets with history of yellow and white dysentery. For this purpose, a total of 18 fecal samples were collected from infected and healthy Tibetan piglets for 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing of V3-V4 region. Results showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidia Fusobacteriota, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota were the predominant bacteria in Tibetan piglets at the level of phylum classification. Results on classification at family level showed that Lactobacillus, Bacteroidota, Fusobacteriota and Enterobacteriaceae were the dominant bacteria. Results on classification of bacteria at phylum level compared with normal piglets indicated that Bacteroidota, Actinobacteriota, Euryarchaota and Spirochaetota in fecal microbial community in Tibetan piglets showing yellow dysenteric and diarrhea group were significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05). Compared with the feces of healthy Tibetan piglets, the abundance of Escherichia-Shigella, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus increased significantly in feces of Tibetan piglets having yellow dysentery and white dysentery. Moreover, results exhibited that the Proteobacteria and Fusobacteriota were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) suggesting dominant microbial community. Results revealed that E. coli induced different pathological alterations in intestine including damage to intestinal epithelial cells, infiltration of inflammatory cells, presence of red blood cells in spaces of tissues, hemorrhages and necrosis of intestinal villi in piglets with history of yellow dysentery. This study for the first time reported the composition, characteristics, and differences of the fecal microflora diversity of Tibetan piglets with yellow and white dysentery in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which can provide a suitable support for effective control of diarrhoeal disease in these animals.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Microbiota , Animais , Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Suínos , Tibet
11.
J Mol Model ; 27(8): 226, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259943

RESUMO

Recently, end-capped acceptors tailoring approach has attracted many researchers because of unceasing higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of resulted compounds. By keeping in view, the crucial role of NFAs in bulk-heterojunction OSCs, herein, we molecularly engineered five new non-fullerene acceptor materials (Y6A1-Y6A5) by modifying a recently synthesized Y6 molecule (R), having 18% power conversion efficiency when combined with D18 donor polymer. The structural-elemental connection, physical-chemical, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic characteristics of novel deigned and reference material (R) are studied with advanced quantum-chemical modulations. Density functional theory and time dependent-density functional theory has been employed through various basis sets to investigate the designed molecules theoretically. Interestingly, all of the newly modeled materials displayed lower excitation energies with lower HOMO-LUMO energy-gaps in-contrast with R molecule. Moreover, a red-shifted absorption and lower reorganizational energies of electron and hole are also a novel feature of these designed materials. The lower binding energy values of modeled materials offers better charge separation and high photo-current density (Jsc) as compared to R. Transition density analysis, open circuit voltage, and molecular electrostatic potential analysis suggested that end-capped acceptors alteration of R molecule is an efficient approach for tuning the optoelectronic properties of non-fullerene-based acceptor molecules (Y6A1-Y6A5). In last, composite study of donor: acceptor (D18:Y6A2) complex has also been carried-out to realize the charge transfer process at the donor-acceptor interface. After all investigations, we hope that our theoretical modeled materials are superior than Y6 molecule, therefore, we endorse these materials for the synthesis to prepare highly-efficient BHJ-OSCs devices.

12.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1171-1193, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The mounting incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and the dearth of novel antibiotics demand alternate therapies to manage the infections caused by resistant superbugs. Bacteriophages and phage=derived proteins are considered as potential alternates to treat such infections, and have several applications in health care systems. The aim of this review is to explore the hidden potential of bacteriophage proteins which may be a practical alternative approach to manage the threat of antibiotic resistance. RESULTS: Clinical trials are in progress for the use of phage therapy as a tool for routine medical use; however, the existing regulations may hamper their development of routine antimicrobial agents. The advancement of molecular techniques and the advent of sequencing have opened new potentials for the design of engineered bacteriophages as well as recombinant bacteriophage proteins. The phage enzymes and proteins encoded by the lysis cassette genes, especially endolysins, holins, and spanins, have shown plausible potentials as therapeutic candidates. CONCLUSION: This review offers an integrated viewpoint that aims to decipher the insights and abilities of bacteriophages and their derived proteins as potential alternatives to antibiotics.

13.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131226, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146870

RESUMO

Butachlor is a systemic herbicide widely applied on wheat, rice, beans, and different other crops, and is frequently detected in groundwater, surface water, and soil. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the potential adverse health risks and the underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity caused by exposure to butachlor in invertebrates, other nontarget animals, and public health. For this reason, a total of 20 mice were obtained and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental mice in one group were exposed to butachlor (8 mg/kg) and the mice in control group received normal saline. The liver tissues were obtained from each mice at day 21 of the trial. Results indicated that exposure to butachlor induced hepatotoxicity in terms of swelling of hepatocyte, disorders in the arrangement of hepatic cells, increased concentrations of different serum enzymes such as alkaline phosphate (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The results on the mechanisms of liver toxicity indicated that butachlor induced overexpression of Apaf-1, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Cyt-c, p53, Beclin-1, ATG-5, and LC3, whereas decreases the expression of Bcl-2 and p62 suggesting abnormal processes of apoptosis and autophagy. Results on different metabolites (61 differential metabolites) revealed upregulation of PE and LysoPC, whereas downregulation of SM caused by butachlor exposure in mice led to the disruption of glycerophospholipids and lipid metabolism in the liver. The results of our experimental research indicated that butachlor induces hepatotoxic effects through disruption of lipid metabolism, abnormal mechanisms of autophagy, and apoptosis that provides new insights into the elucidation of the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity in mice induced by butachlor.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Acetanilidas/toxicidade , Animais , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado , Camundongos
14.
ACS Omega ; 6(22): 14191-14199, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124442

RESUMO

Gas sensors are widely used for detection of environmental pollution caused by various environmental factors such as road traffic and combustion of fossil fuels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the leading pollutants of the present age, which causes a number of serious health issues including acute bronchitis, cough, and phlegm, particularly in children. Nowadays, researchers are focused on designing new sensor materials for detection and removal of NO2 from the environment. In this line, we have made an attempt to design NO2 sensing materials by using theoretical techniques. Here, we have reported decoration of Mg12O12 nanoclusters with a late transition metal (Cu) by employing density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set. The decoration of metal on Mg12O12 gives two geometries (M1 and M2) with adsorption energies of -363.81 and -384.09 kJ/mol, respectively. Adsorption of NO2 on pristine Mg12O12 expressed an adsorption energy value of -62.36 kJ/mol. Adsorption of NO2 on Cu-decorated Mg12O12 nanocages delivered two geometries (N1 and N2) with adsorption energies of -442.56 and -447.64 kJ/mol. Metal-decorated Mg12O12 nanoclusters offer better adsorption of NO2 as compared to pristine Mg12O12 . Adsorption of NO2 on Cu-Mg12O12 nanoclusters also causes narrowing of band gap of magnesium oxide nanoclusters. Large dipole moment, high Q NBO with large electrophilic index in NO2-Cu-Mg12O12 nanoclusters suggested that metal-decorated Mg12O12 nanoclusters are efficient candidates for NO2 adsorption. Different geometric parameters and results of global reactivity descriptors show that NO2-Cu-Mg12O12 nanoclusters are quite stable in nature with least reactivity. Thus, conceptualized systems are potential candidates for applications in NO2 sensing materials.

15.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067122

RESUMO

Organic materials development, especially in terms of nonlinear optical (NLO) performance, has become progressively more significant owing to their rising and promising applications in potential photonic devices. Organic moieties such as carbazole and quinoline play a vital role in charge transfer applications in optoelectronics. This study reports and characterizes the donor-acceptor-donor-π-acceptor (D-A-D-π-A) configured novel designed compounds, namely, Q3D1-Q3D3, Q4D1-Q1D2, and Q5D1. We further analyze the structure-property relationship between the quinoline-carbazole compounds for which density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level to obtain the optimized geometries, natural bonding orbital (NBO), NLO analysis, electronic properties, and absorption spectra of all mentioned compounds. The computed values of λmax, 364, 360, and 361 nm for Q3, Q4, and Q5 show good agreement of their experimental values: 349, 347, and 323 nm, respectively. The designed compounds (Q3D1-Q5D1) exhibited a smaller energy gap with a maximum redshift than the reference molecules (Q3-Q5), which govern their promising NLO behavior. The NBO evaluation revealed that the extended hyperconjugation stabilizes these systems and caused a promising NLO response. The dipole polarizabilities and hyperpolarizability (ß) values of Q3D1-Q3D3, Q4D1-Q1D2, and Q5D1 exceed those of the reference Q3, Q4, and Q5 molecules. These data suggest that the NLO active compounds, Q3D1-Q3D3, Q4D1-Q1D2, and Q5D1, may find their place in future hi-tech optical devices.

16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 218: 112284, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945902

RESUMO

Copper poses huge environmental and public health concerns due to its widespread and persistent use in the past several decades. Although it is well established that at higher levels copper causes nephrotoxicity, the exact mechanisms of its toxicity is not fully understood. Therefore, this experimental study for the first time investigates the potential molecular mechanisms including transcriptomics, metabolomics, serum biochemical, histopathological, cell apoptosis and autophagy in copper-induced renal toxicity in pigs. A total of 14 piglets were randomly assigned to two group (7 piglets per group) and treated with a standard diet (11 mg CuSO4 per kg of feed) and a high copper diet (250 mg CuSO4 per kg of feed). The results of serum biochemical tests and renal histopathology suggested that 250 mg/kg CuSO4 in the diet significantly increased serum creatinine (CREA) and induced renal tubular epithelial cell swelling. Results on transcriptomics and metabolomics showed alteration in 804 genes and 53 metabolites in kidneys of treated pigs, respectively. Combined analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics indicated that different genes and metabolism pathways in kidneys of treated pigs were involved in glycerophospholipids metabolism and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Furthermore, copper induced mitochondrial apoptosis characterized by increased bax, bak, caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9 expressions while decreased bcl-xl and bcl2/bax expression. Exposure to copper decreased the autophagic flux in terms of increased number of autophagosomes, beclin1 and LC3b/LC3a expression and p62 accumulation. These results indicated that the imbalance of glycosphingolipid metabolism, the impairment of autophagy and increase mitochondrial apoptosis play an important role in copper induced renal damage and are useful mechanisms to understand the mechanisms of copper nephrotoxicity.

17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(39): 54647-54660, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014480

RESUMO

Arsenic trioxide (ATO) and antimony (Sb) are well-known ubiquitous environmental contaminants and cause unpromising male reproductive effects in target and non-target exposed organisms. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ATO or/and Sb on process of autophagy, apoptosis, and reproductive organ in adult mice. For this reason, a total of 32 adult mice were randomly divided into different groups like control group, ATO-treated group, Sb-treated group, and combined group. The duration of current experimental trial was 2 months. Various adverse effects of ATO or/and Sb on sperm parameters, oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis were determined in testis of mice. Results indicated that parameters of sperm quality for organ coefficient, sperm count, ratio of sperm survival, testosterone level, and germ cells were significantly decreased, while malformation rate and vacuolization significantly increased in mice exposed to different treatments. Furthermore, the status of antioxidant index of T-AOC, SOD, and MsrB1 levels was reduced, while MDA increased significantly in ATO + Sb group. Results on TEM investigation determined that the autophagosomes, autolysosome, nuclear pyknosis, and chromatin condensation were prominent ailments, and the levels of autophagy and pro-apoptosis indictors including Beclin1, Atg-5, LC3B/LC3A, caspase-8, cytc, cleaved caspase-3, p53, and Bax were up-regulated in treated group, while the content of an anti-apoptosis maker (Bcl-2) was down-regulated. In conclusion, the results of our experiment suggested that abnormal process of autophagy and apoptosis was triggered by arsenic and antimony, and intensity of toxic effects increased in combined treatments of ATO and Sb.


Assuntos
Antimônio , Testículo , Animais , Antimônio/toxicidade , Apoptose , Trióxido de Arsênio/toxicidade , Autofagia , Masculino , Camundongos
18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(3): 916-920, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current study was designed to isolate the pathogens from burn wounds and determine the antibiogram of these isolates. METHODS: A total of 85 samples were collected from burn patients with the history of different weeks of hospitalization in various public and private hospitals of Faisalabad during September 2017-July 2019 and shifted to Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad for further processing. Isolation and identification of the pathogens was done through conventional microbiological procedures. Disc diffusion method was used for the determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity. RESULTS: A total of 40(91%) samples were found positive for the presence of bacterial or fungal pathogens. Commonly isolated pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus 15 (21.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15 (21.4%), Bacillus subtilis 11(15.7%), Escherichia coli 10(14.2%), Candida albicans 8(11.4%), Aspergillus flavus 6(8.5%) and Salmonella Typhi 5(7.1%). Highest resistance was found against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Cefotaxime was the least effective antibiotic, while Gentamicin and Amphotericin-B were the mosteffective antimicrobial drugs against bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Taking together it was concluded that most isolated pathogen was S. aureus and P. aeruginosa followed by B. subtilis, E. coli, C. albicans, A. flavus and S. typhi from burn wound in hospitalized patients. Anti-biogram studies showed S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were the most resistant pathogens whereas S. typhi, C. albicans and A. flavus were susceptible to various commonly used antibiotics. Cefotaxime was the least effective antibiotic, while Gentamicin and Amphotericin-B were the most effective antimicrobial drugs against bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. It is suggested that alternate anti-microbial agents should be investigated to control the infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Queimaduras , Bactérias , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus
19.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(4): 2453-2459, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911958

RESUMO

Cadmium contamination in croplands is recognized one of the major threat, seriously affecting soil health and sustainable agriculture around the globe. Cd mobility in wastewater irrigated soils can be curtailed through eco-friendly and cost effective organic soil amendments (biochars) that eventually minimizes its translocation from soil to plant. This study explored the possible effects of various types of plants straw biochar as soil amendments on cadmium (Cd) phytoavailability in wastewater degraded soil and its subsequent accumulation in sunflower tissues. The studied biochars including rice straw (RS), wheat straw (WS), acacia (AC) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) to wastewater irrigated soil containing Cd. Sunflower plant was grown as a test plant and Cd accumulation was recorded in its tissues, antioxidant enzymatic activity chlorophyll contents, plant biomass, yield and soil properties (pH, NPK, OM and Soluble Cd) were also examined. Results revealed that addition of biochar significantly minimized Cd mobility in soil by 53.4%, 44%, 41% and 36% when RS, WS, AC and SB were added at 2% over control. Comparing the control soil, biochar amended soil effectively reduced Cd uptake via plants shoots by 71.7%, 60.6%, 59% and 36.6%, when RS, WS, AC and SB. Among all the biochar, rice husk induced biochar significantly reduced oxidative stress and reduced SOD, POD and CAT activity by 49%, 40.5% and 46.5% respectively over control. In addition, NPK were significantly increased among all the added biochars in soil-plant system as well as improved chlorophyll contents relative to non-bioachar amended soil. Thus, among all the amendments, rice husk and wheat straw biochar performed well and might be considered the suitable approach for sunflower growth in polluted soil.

20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 217: 112225, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864983

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to excessive fluoride causes chronic damage in the body tissues and could lead to skeletal and dental fluorosis. Cartilage damage caused by excessive fluoride intake has gained wide attention, but how fluoride accumulation blocks the development of chondrocytes is still unclear. Here, we report a negative correlation between the length and growth plate width after NaF treatments via apoptosis and autophagy, with shrinkage of cells, nuclear retraction, dissolution of chondrocytes. Whereas, fluoride exposure had no significant effect on the number and distribution of the osteoclasts which were well aligned. More importantly, fluoride exposure induced apoptosis of tibial bone through CytC/Bcl-2/P53 pathways via targeting Caspase3, Caspase9, Bak1, and Bax expressions. Meanwhile, the Beclin1, mTOR, Pakin, Pink, and p62 were elevated in NaF treatment group, which indicated that long-term excessive fluoride triggered the autophagy in the tibial bone and produced the chondrocyte injury. Altogether, fluoride exposure induced the chondrocyte injury by regulating the autophagy and apoptosis in the tibial bone of ducks, which demonstrates that fluoride exposure is a risk factor for cartilage development. These findings revealed the essential role of CytC/Bcl-2/P53 pathways in long-term exposure to fluoride pollution and block the development of chondrocytes in ducks, and CytC/Bcl-2/P53 can be targeted to prevent fluoride induced chondrocyte injury.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrogênese , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento
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