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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278537

RESUMO

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259781

RESUMO

Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Ácido Cítrico , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Nutrientes
3.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 29(8): 1096-1116, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of neuropathic-like pain (NP) and pain sensitization (PS) defined by self-report questionnaires in knee and hip osteoarthritis, and whether prevalence is potentially explained by disease-severity or affected joint. DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL were systematically searched (1990-April 2020) for studies describing the prevalence of NP and PS in knee and hip osteoarthritis using self-report questionnaires. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Statistical heterogeneity between studies and sub-groups (affected joint and population source as a proxy for disease severity) was assessed (I2 statistic and the Chi-squared test). RESULTS: From 2,706 non-duplicated references, 39 studies were included (2011-2020). Thirty-six studies reported on knee pain and six on hip pain. For knee osteoarthritis, the pooled prevalence of NP was: using PainDETECT, possible NP(score ≥13) 40% (95%CI 32-48%); probable NP(score >18) 20% (95%CI 15-24%); using Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs, 32% (95%CI 26-38%); using Douleur Neuropathique (DN4) 41% (95% CI 24-59%). The prevalence of PS using Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI) was 36% (95% CI 12-59%). For hip osteoarthritis, the pooled prevalence of NP was: using PainDETECT, possible NP 29% (95%CI 22-37%%); probable NP 9% (95%CI 6-13%); using DN4 22% (95%CI 12-31%) in one study. The prevalence of possible NP pain was higher at the knee (40%) than the hip (29%) (difference 11% (95% CI 0-22%), P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Using self-report questionnaire tools, NP was more prevalent in knee than hip osteoarthritis. The prevalence of NP in knee and hip osteoarthritis were similar for each joint regardless of study population source or tool used. Whether defining NP using self-report questionnaires enables more effective targeted therapy in osteoarthritis requires investigation.

4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112389, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901903

RESUMO

The present study aims to formulate the characterization and distribution of microplastic in the estuarine surface sediments of Kayamkulam estuary, southwest coast of India. The sediments were dominated by fibre and film shaped microplastic substances. The surface sediments were dominated by <1000 µm microplastics. The composition of microplastics in descending order was as follows: polyester > polypropylene > polyethylene. The distribution of microplastics was significantly higher than that observed in the other study regions, except for Pearl river estuary and Guanabara Bay. The distribution of microplastics was chiefly controlled by estuarine inundating water and the distance of the sampling site from the open sea.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11346, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304681

RESUMO

Background Social media is a crucial part of our daily life. Facebook, being the biggest social media platform, plays a significant role in the spread of information influencing the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Health care agencies like the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use social media as a platform to impart information regarding COVID-19; simultaneously, there is a spread of misinformation on social media, masking the credible sources of information. Our research aims to assess the utility of Facebook in providing misinformation and testing its "fact-check policy." Methods An online search was conducted on Facebook by a newly created account to eliminate bias. The Facebook search bar was used to investigate multiple keywords. Data were tabulated in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA). Descriptive statistical analysis of Facebook accounts and posts was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) while statistical importance was set a priority at a p-value of 0.05. Results Our study consisted of 454 Facebook posts. Most (22.5%) were posted by verified accounts and 23.9% by informal individual/group accounts. The tone for most (40.4%) COVID-19 information was serious while the most common (43.9%) topic was medical/public health. In total, 22.3% included misinformation, 19.6% were unverifiable, and 27.5% included correct information verifiable by the WHO or CDC. Conclusions Misinformation/unverifiable information related to the COVID-19 crisis is spreading at a distressing rate on social media. We quantified the misinformation and tested Facebook's "fact-check policy." We advise strict initiatives to control this infodemic and advise future researches to evaluate the accuracy of content being circulated on other social media platforms.

6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111410, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753194

RESUMO

Element concentration (Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Co) in the surface sediments of Ashtamudi estuary, Southwest coast of India, has been analyzed to understand the spatial variation and potential ecological risk status. The sediment pollution index and Potential Ecological Risk index suggest that the northeastern part of the estuary exhibits low to moderate polluted sediments with moderate ecological risk. The results of correlation analysis indicate that the natural weathering process and river input play an important role in the distribution of the elements in the surface sediments of the estuary. The extracted factor results indicate that the fine sediment fractions supporting for accumulation of the trace elements, whereas the enriched level of Fe and Mn is chiefly controlled by the riverine process, and other elements are contributed by anthropogenic influences.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Lagos , Medição de Risco
7.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 28(11): 1403-1411, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost a third of those undergoing knee replacement for osteoarthritis have poor outcomes despite technically successful surgery. Preoperative neuropathic-like pain and/or pain sensitisation may increase the risk of pain following joint replacement. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether preoperative neuropathic-like pain and pain sensitisation predicts pain, function and satisfaction following joint replacement for knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL were systematically searched until March 2020. Studies detecting neuropathic-like pain and/or sensitisation using self-report questionnaires prior to knee replacement for osteoarthritis, and relating this to post-operative outcomes were identified. Data extraction, risk of bias assessment and meta-analysis were performed, where appropriate. RESULTS: Five manuscripts, including one preprint, examining six cohorts were included: four used painDETECT or modified painDETECT, one the Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs, and another the Central Sensitisation Inventory to identify preoperative characteristics. Three studies showed preoperative neuropathic-like pain or sensitisation was associated with more intense post-operative pain. All four studies examining the risk of significant pain after knee replacement suggested it was increased after >3 months. The only study examining patient satisfaction and function found reduced satisfaction, but no difference in function in those with preoperative sensitisation. Meta-analysis found the relative risk of increased pain following knee replacement in those with neuropathic-like pain (painDETECT ≥13) to be 2.05 (95% confidence intervals 1.51, 2.79). CONCLUSION: These results provide consistent but limited evidence that self-report tools detecting neuropathic-like pain and/or pain sensitisation, predict patients at higher risk of pain following knee replacement.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(5)2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110878

RESUMO

Thermal stability, salt tolerance, and solubility in normal and high salinity brine are the major requirements for any surfactant designed for oilfield applications because the surfactant stays in a non-ambient environment inside the reservoir for a long period of time. Herein, a series of new gemini cationic surfactants (GSs) with varying spacer hydrophilicity were synthesized and elucidated using MALDI-ToF-MS, NMR (1H, 13C), as well as FTIR spectroscopy. GSs found to be soluble in normal as well as high salinity brine and aqueous stability tests revealed that GSs possess the ability to retain their structural integrity at high salinity and high temperature conditions because no suspension formation or precipitation was detected in the oven aged sample of GSs at 90 °C for 30 days. Thermal gravimetric analysis displayed a higher decomposition temperature than the real reservoir temperature and the GS with a secondary amine spacer exhibited high heat stability. The significant reduction in surface tension and critical micelle concentration was observed using 1 M NaCl solution in place of deionized water. The difference in surface tension and critical micelle concentration was insignificant when the 1 M NaCl solution was replaced with seawater. The synthesized surfactants can be utilized for oilfield applications in a challenging high temperature high salinity environment.

9.
Scand J Rheumatol ; 48(1): 64-71, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between obesity and knee and hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis across a range of physical performance. METHOD: The body mass index and physical performance (on the 36-item Short Form Health Survey) of 9135 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study participants were measured in 1999-2000. The incidence of knee and hip arthroplasty during 2002-2011 was determined by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. RESULTS: Over 9.1 ± 2.3 years (mean ± sd)) of follow-up, 317 participants had knee and 202 had hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Using those with neither obesity nor significantly impaired physical performance as the reference group, participants with both obesity and significantly impaired physical performance had a higher knee arthroplasty risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.85-7.14] than those with obesity alone (HR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.81-3.44) or impaired physical performance alone (HR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.59-3.02). Similar results were observed for hip arthroplasty (obesity and impaired physical performance: HR = 2.67, 95% CI 1.72-4.15; obesity alone: HR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.51; impaired physical performance alone: HR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.26-2.66). Among overweight/obese patients, 5 kg greater baseline weight increased the knee arthroplasty risk across all levels of physical performance, and hip arthroplasty risk in those with the highest level of physical performance. CONCLUSION: Although impaired physical performance is an independent risk factor for knee and hip arthroplasty, greater weight increased knee arthroplasty for overweight/obese participants at all levels of physical performance, but hip arthroplasty only in those with good physical performance. Targeting weight loss has the potential to reduce the risk of knee arthroplasty and improve patient outcomes, even in those with poor physical performance.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Osteoartrite do Quadril/etiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Austrália/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Climacteric ; 21(2): 132-139, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378442

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability with no cure. The incidence of osteoarthritis is sexually dimorphic: women have a higher rate of osteoarthritis than men after the age of 50. Research has investigated the contribution of sex hormones, reproductive factors and hormone supplementation to osteoarthritis. It has been recognized that different joints are susceptible to different risk factors for osteoarthritis. We reviewed the evidence for the effect of endogenous sex hormones, reproductive factors and hormone supplementation on joint-specific osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and hand. Although the role of these hormonal factors in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is complex, data suggest that endogenous hormones and reproductive factors have a role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, especially knee osteoarthritis, with uncertainty for the effect of exogenous hormones. From the available data, it is hard to conclude whether this is a direct effect of hormonal factors, or whether other factors related to these hormonal factors, i.e. obesity and inflammation, have a role in this association. Further studies should consider the mediation effect of body weight and inflammation, change in body weight throughout life, circulatory levels of all endogenous hormones and circulatory levels of hormones after hormone supplementation in this complex relationship.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite/etiologia , História Reprodutiva , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Articulações/fisiopatologia , Menarca/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
12.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(3)2016 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27525936

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify high-yielding peanut genotypes with resistance to leaf spot disease. The experiments included material from fourteen local and four exotic peanut genotypes that showed highly significant differences among morphological and disease severity parameters in all the genotypes which, in turn, suggested diversity genotypes. Disease severity analysis showed that the highest disease score and damaged leaf area were observed in the genotype Kelincer and the lowest scores and leaf damaged areas were observed in Majalaya super and BARI-2000, respectively. Based on these results, the genotypes BARI-2011, Chakori, Golden, BARI-89, Majalaya Super, BARD-699, BARI-2000, SP-1, and No. 334 can be used by breeders in peanut improvement programs for the development of new cultivars with higher disease resistance and increased yield.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Sementes/genética , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arachis/microbiologia , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia
13.
Scott Med J ; 61(1): 7-16, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27330013

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis of the knee is a complex peripheral joint disorder with multiple risk factors. The molecular basis of osteoarthritis has been generally accepted; however, the exact pathogenesis is still not known. Management of patients with osteoarthritis involves a comprehensive history, thorough physical examination and appropriate radiological investigation. The relative slow progress in the disease allows a stepwise algorithmic approach in treatment. Non-surgical treatment involves patient education, lifestyle modification and the use of orthotic devises. These can be achieved in the community. Surgical options include joint sparing procedures such as arthroscopyando osteotomy or joint-replacing procedures. Joint-replacing procedures can be isolated to a single compartment such as patellofemoral arthroplasty or unicompartmental knee replacement or total knee arthroplasty. The key to a successful long-term outcome is optimal patient selection, preoperative counselling and good surgical technique.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Artroplastia de Substituição , Terapia por Exercício , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteotomia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
14.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 24(10): 1682-1696, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27107630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The optimal therapy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for surgical and non-surgical treatment of FAI on symptom and structural outcomes. DESIGN: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched electronically. Surgical and non-surgical management strategies were searched with "FAI". Studies which included comparison groups and reported symptom or structural outcomes were included (Levels I-III evidence). A risk of bias assessment was performed. RESULTS: Eighteen studies comparing management strategies for FAI were identified. Most studies had high risk of bias. No study compared surgical and non-surgical treatment. When surgical approaches were compared there was evidence of superior symptom outcomes with arthroscopy compared to open surgery and with labral preservation. There was some evidence that surgical interventions are effective in reducing alpha angle (improved hip shape), but no data on whether this affects long-term outcomes. There was some weak evidence that surgery is associated with structural progression of hip osteoarthritis (OA). CONCLUSIONS: Although evidence supports improvement in symptoms after surgery in FAI, no studies have compared surgical and non-surgical treatment. Therefore no conclusion regarding the relative efficacy of one approach over the other can be made. Surgery improves alpha angle but whether this alters the risk of development or progression of hip OA is unknown. This review highlights the lack of evidence for use of surgery in FAI. Given that hip geometry may be modified by non-surgical factors, clarifying the role of non-surgical approaches vs surgery for the management of FAI is warranted.


Assuntos
Impacto Femoroacetabular , Artroscopia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Quadril
15.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 24(8): 1408-12, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27084353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined the association between circulating sex steroid concentrations and risk of osteoarthritis (OA) in men with inconsistent results. Our aim was to examine whether concentrations of circulating sex steroid hormones were associated with the incidence of primary knee and hip arthroplasty for OA in a prospective cohort study. DESIGN: Two thousand four hundred and ninety four men from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) had circulating sex steroid concentrations measured in blood samples drawn at recruitment (1990-1994) and stored in liquid nitrogen. The plasma concentrations of sex hormones, including dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, and sex hormone binding globulin, were measured. The incidence of total knee and hip arthroplasty for OA during 2001-2013 was determined by linking MCCS records to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. RESULTS: One hundred and four men had knee and 80 had hip arthroplasty for OA over 10.7 (SD 3.8) years. Higher concentrations of androstenedione were associated with a decreased risk of total knee (hazard ratio (HR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.98) and hip (HR 0.84 95% CI 0.71-1.00) arthroplasty for OA in overweight and obese men. No significant association was observed for the other measured hormones. CONCLUSION: Low plasma androstenedione concentration is associated with an increased risk of both knee and hip arthroplasty for OA for overweight and obese men. While the findings need to be confirmed in other cohort studies, they suggest that circulating sex steroids may play a role in the pathogenesis of OA in men.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Quadril , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Austrália , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 23(12): 2134-2140, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26093211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D for musculoskeletal health, including osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations were associated with the risk of hip arthroplasty for OA. DESIGN: This study examined 9135 participants from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study who had serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D measured in 1999-2000 and were aged ≥40 years at the commencement of arthroplasty data collection. The incidence of hip arthroplasty for OA during 2002-2011 was determined by linking cohort records to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. RESULTS: Over an average 9.1 (standard deviation (SD) 2.7) years of follow-up, 201 hip arthroplasties for OA were identified (males n = 90; females n = 111). In males, a one-standard-deviation increase in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D was associated with a 25% increased incidence (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.56), with a dose response relationship evident by quartiles of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentration (P for trend 0.04). These results were independent of age, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, smoking status, physical activity, season of blood collection, latitude, hypertension and diabetes, area level disadvantage or after excluding those with extreme low 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations. No significant association was observed in women (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.87, 1.39). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations were associated with an increased risk of hip arthroplasty for OA in males, while no significant association was observed in females. The mechanism for the association warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Sistema de Registros , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/sangue , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Vitamina D/sangue
17.
J Int Soc Prev Community Dent ; 5(2): 131-40, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25992339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effectiveness of the supraomohyoid neck dissection in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of gingivobuccal mucosa of oral cavity with clinically N0 neck, conducted over a period of 2 years from July 2007 to Oct 2009 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Narayana Dental College and Hospital. The study was conducted in patients irrespective of age, sex, size, thickness, and type of differentiation of the lesion. All patients have clinically non-palpable lymphnodes (N0 neck), while patients with palpable lymphnodes, patients with previous surgery, and patients with previous radiotherapy were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Level I was the commonest site of neck metastasis in our study. Among the five patients, two (40%) patients (case 2 and 3) had occult cervical metastasis (level IB nodes are histopathologically positive nodes) and the remaining three patients (60%) had no occult cervical metastasis. The recurrence rate was 20% for patients who received postoperative radiotherapy. There was no morbidity and postoperative dysfunction and the mortality rate was only 20% in our study. CONCLUSION: Supraomohyoid neck dissection is the therapeutic procedure in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus of mandible. Supraomohyoid neck dissection, when indicated, contributes to the concept of less-invasive surgery and offers functional and aesthetic advantages without compromising the clearance with minimal morbidity.

18.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 23(4): 589-93, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25596324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The role of the microcirculation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. This prospective cohort study examined the association between retinal vascular calibre and incidence of knee replacement for OA. DESIGN: 1838 participants of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) Study had retinal vascular calibre measured using a nonmydriatic digital fundus camera in 1999-2000 and were aged ≥ 40 years at joint replacement data collection commencement. The incidence of knee replacement for OA during 2002-2011 was determined by linking cohort records to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR). RESULTS: 77 participants underwent knee replacement for OA. They had narrower retinal arteriolar calibre compared with those without knee replacement (166.1 ± 24.8 µm vs 174.3 ± 24.5 µm, P = 0.004). For every one standard deviation reduction in retinal arteriolar calibre, the incidence of knee replacement increased by 25% (HR 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.56). Participants in the narrower two-thirds of arteriolar calibre had twice the risk of knee replacement compared with those in the widest one-third (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.07-3.74, P = 0.03) after adjustment for sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and HbA1c. There was no association for retinal venular calibre. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal arteriolar narrowing is associated with increased risk of knee replacement for OA suggesting that further work is warranted to determine the role of the microcirculation in the pathogenesis of knee OA.


Assuntos
Arteríolas/patologia , Artroplastia do Joelho , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Constrição Patológica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmoscópios , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Transplant Proc ; 46(10): 3405-7, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25498060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induction therapy improves graft outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We aimed to compare the incidences of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and acute cellular rejection (ACR) as well as graft and patient outcomes in KTRs who underwent induction with alemtuzumab versus rabbit-antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG). METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective study involving patients who underwent kidney transplantation between January 2009 and December 2011 after receiving induction therapy with either alemtuzumab or r-ATG. Maintenance immunosuppression included tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil with early steroid withdrawal. Acute rejection was diagnosed using allograft biopsy. RESULTS: Among the 108 study patients, 68 received alemtuzumab and 40 got r-ATG. There was a significantly higher incidence of AMR (15% vs 2.5%; P = .008) and similar incidence of ACR (4.4% vs 10%; P = .69) for alemtuzumab versus r-ATG groups. One-year serum creatinine levels (l.68 ± 0.8 mg/dL vs 1.79 ± 1.8 mg/dL; P = .66) as well as graft (91.1 ± 3.5% vs 94.5 ± 3.8%; P = .48) and patient (93.8 ± 3.0% vs 96.4 ± 3.5%; P = .92) survivals were similar for the alemtuzumab versus the r-ATG groups. CONCLUSION: Our study showed a higher incidence of AMR and similar incidence of ACR in KTRs who underwent induction with alemtuzumab compared with those who received r-ATG and were maintained on tacrolimus and MMF. This was despite a lower HLA mismatch in the alemtuzumab group. One-year graft survival, patient survival, and allograft function were similar. Inadequate B-cell suppression by alemtuzumab as well as altered phenotypic and functional properties of repopulating B cells could be contributing to heightened risk of AMR in these patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Rim , Alemtuzumab , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Org Lett ; 16(9): 2378-81, 2014 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24762122

RESUMO

The regioselective synthesis of 2,3-di- and 1,2,3-trisubstituted naphthalenes via Directed ortho Metalation (DoM) strategies of N,N-diethyl-O-naphthyl-2-carbamate (1) is presented. Sequential LiTMP metalation-electrophile quench and s-BuLi/TMEDA (or t-BuLi)-electrophile quench of naphthyl-2-carbamate 1 provides a general route to contiguously substituted naphthalenes (6) with full regioselectivity. Further derivatization via ipso-halodesilylation and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling leads ultimately to substituted halonaphthalenes and benzonaphthopyranones (9).

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