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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235612, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153466

RESUMO

Abstract The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.


Resumo O experimento foi realizado em manga cv. Dusehri para investigar o efeito dos fertilizantes N, P e K no crescimento vegetativo, reprodutivo, produtividade e de qualidade do fruto. Foram utilizadas oito combinações diferentes de fertilizantes: T1 (controle), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) e T8 (NPK). Cada tratamento de N (1.000 g), P (750 g) e K (750 g) foi aplicado duas vezes durante a estação de crescimento em fevereiro e agosto. Todos os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, floração, frutificação, produtividade e outros atributos físico-químicos da manga em relação ao controle. Menos efeito foi observado com a aplicação individual de fertilizante, enquanto os tratamentos combinados aumentaram a maioria dos parâmetros investigados. Especialmente as características qualitativas mostraram diferenças não significativas entre mangueiras tratadas e não tratadas. No entanto, entre os diferentes tratamentos, T8 (NPK) apresentou significância para aspectos de frutificação, como tamanho máximo de folgas de crescimento (177,51 mm), número total de panículas/árvore (845), número total de flores/panícula (974), razão sexual (69,18%), retenção de frutos (13,85%), número total de frutos/árvore (379), produção (82 kg/árvore), peso do fruto (197,5 g) e peso da polpa (135,5 g), além de parâmetros físico-químicos, como TSS (24,53), vitamina C (57,63 mg/100 mL) e açúcar total (20,84%). Em geral, a aplicação combinada de NPK (T8) foi a mais eficaz no aprimoramento dos aspectos de frutificação, produtividade, características físico-químicas, além da melhoria da qualidade dos frutos das mangueiras.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240199, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278495

RESUMO

Abstract One of the most important traits that plant breeders aim to improve is grain yield which is a highly quantitative trait controlled by various agro-morphological traits. Twelve morphological traits such as Germination Percentage, Days to Spike Emergence, Plant Height, Spike Length, Awn Length, Tillers/Plant, Leaf Angle, Seeds/Spike, Plant Thickness, 1000-Grain Weight, Harvest Index and Days to Maturity have been considered as independent factors. Correlation, regression, and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to identify the different durum wheat traits, which significantly contribute to the yield. The necessary assumptions required for applying regression modeling have been tested and all the assumptions are satisfied by the observed data. The outliers are detected in the observations of fixed traits and Grain Yield. Some observations are detected as outliers but the outlying observations did not show any influence on the regression fit. For selecting a parsimonious regression model for durum wheat, best subset regression, and stepwise regression techniques have been applied. The best subset regression analysis revealed that Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike have a marked increasing effect whereas Plant thickness has a negative effect on durum wheat yield. While stepwise regression analysis identified that the traits, Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike significantly contribute to increasing the durum wheat yield. The simple correlation coefficient specified the significant positive correlation of Grain Yield with Germination Percentage, Number of Tillers/Plant, Seeds/Spike, and Harvest Index. These results of correlation analysis directed the importance of morphological characters and their significant positive impact on Grain Yield. The results of PCA showed that most variation (70%) among data set can be explained by the first five components. It also identified that Seeds/Spike; 1000-Grain Weight and Harvest Index have a higher influence in contributing to the durum wheat yield. Based on the results it is recommended that these important parameters might be considered and focused in future durum wheat breeding programs to develop high yield varieties.


Resumo Uma das características mais importantes que os produtores de plantas visam melhorar é o rendimento de grãos, que é uma particularidade altamente quantitativa e controlada por várias características agromorfológicas. Foram considerados 12 traços morfológicos como fatores independentes, como Porcentagem de Germinação, Dias para Emergência da Espiga, Altura da Planta, Comprimento da Espiga, Comprimento da Aresta, Perfilhos /Planta, Ângulo da Folha, Sementes /Espiga, Espessura da Planta, Peso de 1000 Grãos, Índice de Colheita e Dias até a Maturidade,. A correlação, regressão e análise de componentes principais (em inglês Principal Component Analysis (PCA)) são usadas para identificar as diferentes características do trigo duro, que contribuem significativamente para o rendimento. As suposições necessárias exigidas para a aplicação da modelagem de regressão foram testadas e todas as suposições são adequadas de acordo com os dados observados. Os outliers são detectados nas observações de características fixas e rendimento de grãos. Algumas observações são detectadas como outliers, mas as observações outliers não mostraram qualquer influência no ajuste da regressão. Para selecionar um modelo de regressão parcimonioso para o trigo duro, foram aplicadas tanto a melhor regressão de subconjunto quanto as técnicas de regressão stepwise. A melhor análise de regressão de subconjunto revelou que a porcentagem de germinação, perfilhos /planta e sementes /espiga tem um efeito de aumento acentuado, enquanto a espessura da planta tem um efeito negativo sobre o rendimento do trigo duro. Enquanto a análise de regressão passo a passo identificou que as características, porcentagem de germinação, perfilhos/planta e sementes /espiga contribuem significativamente para aumentar a produtividade do trigo duro. O coeficiente de correlação simples especificou a correlação positiva significativa do rendimento de grãos com a porcentagem de germinação, número de perfilhos/planta, sementes / espiga e índice de colheita. Esses resultados da análise de correlação direcionaram a importância dos caracteres morfológicos e seu impacto positivo e significativo no rendimento de grãos. Os resultados da PCA mostraram que a maior parte da variação (70%) entre o conjunto de dados pôde ser explicada pelos cinco primeiros componentes. Também identificou que Sementes / Espiga, Peso de 1000 Grãos e Índice de Colheita têm uma maior influência na contribuição para o rendimento do trigo duro. Com base nos resultados, recomenda-se que esses importantes parâmetros possam ser considerados e focados em futuros programas de melhoramento de trigo duro para desenvolver variedades de alto rendimento.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243511, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285591

RESUMO

Abstract Vegetable oils have their specific physicochemical properties due to which they are playing vital role in human nutritional diet for health benefits. Cottonseed oil is obtained from various species of cotton seeds that are famous to be grown mainly for their fiber quality. The most prominently used specie is Gossypium hirsutum. It is obvious that the seeds of different variety of cotton vary as grown in diverse agroclimatic conditions with respect to oil, fats and protein contents. Cottonseed oil is routinely used for cooking and food manufacturing products. Cottonseed oil obtained after proper extraction/processing steps from crude state to refined oil in a variety of ways. Cotton crop is considered for their dual-use purpose, for fiber quality and oil production to promote health benefits in the world. Keeping in view the above facts, this review clearly demonstrated an overview about physicochemical and functional properties of cottonseed oil to promote health benefits associated with the use of this oil. The overall characteristics and all concerned health benefits of CSO will further improve their usefulness is a compact way. We have summarized a brief multi-dimensional features of CSO in all aspects up to the best of our knowledge for the end researchers who can further research in the respective aspect.


Resumo Os óleos vegetais têm propriedades físico-químicas específicas que desempenham um papel vital na dieta nutricional humana em benefício à saúde. O óleo de semente de algodão, utilizado rotineiramente no preparo e na fabricação de alimentos, é obtido através de várias espécies de sementes de algodão, famosas pela alta qualidade de sua fibra., cuja espécie mais utilizada é Gossypium hirsutum. As sementes variam, em relação ao teor do óleo, da gordura e das proteínas, de acordo com o cultivo e as diversas condições agroclimáticas. O óleo de algodão é obtido após etapas adequadas de extração das sementes e processamento do estado bruto ao refinado. Assim, a presente revisão demonstra, de maneira geral, as propriedades físico-químicas e funcionais do óleo de semente de algodão e seus benefícios à saúde humana, resumindo suas características multidimensionais. As características gerais e todos os benefícios do composto podem melhorar ainda mais se utilizadas de forma compacta, auxiliando futuros pesquisadores.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246436, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495159

RESUMO

Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hemolisinas , Mariposas , Animais , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Fertilizantes , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e253009, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495170

RESUMO

Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Etanol , Biotransformação , Fermentação , Estudos Prospectivos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Água
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468521

RESUMO

Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings' body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Linho , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378680

RESUMO

Vegetable oils have their specific physicochemical properties due to which they are playing vital role in human nutritional diet for health benefits. Cottonseed oil is obtained from various species of cotton seeds that are famous to be grown mainly for their fiber quality. The most prominently used specie is Gossypium hirsutum. It is obvious that the seeds of different variety of cotton vary as grown in diverse agroclimatic conditions with respect to oil, fats and protein contents. Cottonseed oil is routinely used for cooking and food manufacturing products. Cottonseed oil obtained after proper extraction/processing steps from crude state to refined oil in a variety of ways. Cotton crop is considered for their dual-use purpose, for fiber quality and oil production to promote health benefits in the world. Keeping in view the above facts, this review clearly demonstrated an overview about physicochemical and functional properties of cottonseed oil to promote health benefits associated with the use of this oil. The overall characteristics and all concerned health benefits of CSO will further improve their usefulness is a compact way. We have summarized a brief multi-dimensional features of CSO in all aspects up to the best of our knowledge for the end researchers who can further research in the respective aspect.


Assuntos
Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Promoção da Saúde , Gossypium , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e240199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190802

RESUMO

One of the most important traits that plant breeders aim to improve is grain yield which is a highly quantitative trait controlled by various agro-morphological traits. Twelve morphological traits such as Germination Percentage, Days to Spike Emergence, Plant Height, Spike Length, Awn Length, Tillers/Plant, Leaf Angle, Seeds/Spike, Plant Thickness, 1000-Grain Weight, Harvest Index and Days to Maturity have been considered as independent factors. Correlation, regression, and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to identify the different durum wheat traits, which significantly contribute to the yield. The necessary assumptions required for applying regression modeling have been tested and all the assumptions are satisfied by the observed data. The outliers are detected in the observations of fixed traits and Grain Yield. Some observations are detected as outliers but the outlying observations did not show any influence on the regression fit. For selecting a parsimonious regression model for durum wheat, best subset regression, and stepwise regression techniques have been applied. The best subset regression analysis revealed that Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike have a marked increasing effect whereas Plant thickness has a negative effect on durum wheat yield. While stepwise regression analysis identified that the traits, Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike significantly contribute to increasing the durum wheat yield. The simple correlation coefficient specified the significant positive correlation of Grain Yield with Germination Percentage, Number of Tillers/Plant, Seeds/Spike, and Harvest Index. These results of correlation analysis directed the importance of morphological characters and their significant positive impact on Grain Yield. The results of PCA showed that most variation (70%) among data set can be explained by the first five components. It also identified that Seeds/Spike; 1000-Grain Weight and Harvest Index have a higher influence in contributing to the durum wheat yield. Based on the results it is recommended that these important parameters might be considered and focused in future durum wheat breeding programs to develop high yield varieties.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Paquistão , Fenótipo , Sementes
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e235612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681899

RESUMO

The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.


Assuntos
Mangifera , Animais , Aves , Fertilizantes , Frutas , Árvores
10.
11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 75: 218-220, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249175

RESUMO

Pneumocephalus describes the presence of air within the cranial cavity and is often self-limiting. Tension pneumocephalus is a neurosurgical emergency manifested by headaches, seizures, reduced consciousness and even death resulting from raised intracranial pressure. Differentiating both entities clinically is often challenging but crucial. We present a case involving a sixty-year-old male who was transferred to our unit after he collapsed while undergoing rehabilitation. The patient had undergone a combined bifrontal craniotomy and transnasal endoscopic resection of recurrent sinonasal adenocarcinoma with anterior skull base involvement eight days prior. Imaging demonstrated the classic Mt. Fuji sign and a diagnosis of tension pneumocephalus was formed. The patient proceeded for definitive management which included a multi-layered repair of the anterior skull base. The three mechanisms that propose the development of tension pneumocephalus include the ball-valve mechanism, the inverted soda-bottle effect and rarely, infection from gas forming organisms. A review of current literature on PubMed/MEDLINE revealed tension pneumocephalus after skull base surgery to be a rare entity with only eleven cases reported. Most patients achieved complete recovery of symptoms post-treatment. Clinicians should recognise tension pneumocephalus as a potential complication after skull base surgery. Accurate diagnosis requires appreciation of imaging features and a high index of suspicion. Prompt management is imperative to prevent possible devastating outcomes.


Assuntos
Pneumocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumocefalia/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Base do Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroendoscopia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos
12.
Nat Mater ; 19(4): 381-385, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959951

RESUMO

The search continues for nickel oxide-based materials with electronic properties similar to cuprate high-temperature superconductors1-10. The recent discovery of superconductivity in the doped infinite-layer nickelate NdNiO2 (refs. 11,12) has strengthened these efforts. Here, we use X-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory to show that the electronic structure of LaNiO2 and NdNiO2, while similar to the cuprates, includes significant distinctions. Unlike cuprates, the rare-earth spacer layer in the infinite-layer nickelate supports a weakly interacting three-dimensional 5d metallic state, which hybridizes with a quasi-two-dimensional, strongly correlated state with [Formula: see text] symmetry in the NiO2 layers. Thus, the infinite-layer nickelate can be regarded as a sibling of the rare-earth intermetallics13-15, which are well known for heavy fermion behaviour, where the NiO2 correlated layers play an analogous role to the 4f states in rare-earth heavy fermion compounds. This Kondo- or Anderson-lattice-like 'oxide-intermetallic' replaces the Mott insulator as the reference state from which superconductivity emerges upon doping.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(12): 127001, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296157

RESUMO

We report an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of the iron-based superconductor family, Ba_{1-x}Na_{x}Fe_{2}As_{2}. This system harbors the recently discovered double-Q magnetic order appearing in a reentrant C_{4} phase deep within the underdoped regime of the phase diagram that is otherwise dominated by the coupled nematic phase and collinear antiferromagnetic order. From a detailed temperature-dependence study, we identify the electronic response to the nematic phase in an orbital-dependent band shift that strictly follows the rotational symmetry of the lattice and disappears when the system restores C_{4} symmetry in the low temperature phase. In addition, we report the observation of a distinct electronic reconstruction that cannot be explained by the known electronic orders in the system.

15.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 30(10): e13385, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) is abdominal surgery-induced impaired gastrointestinal (GI) motility. We aimed to investigate the effects of DA-9701, a prokinetic agent formulated from Pharbitis Semen and Corydalis tuber, likely mediated via corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways, in a POI model. METHODS: A laparotomy with cecal manipulation was performed to induce POI in guinea pigs. GI transit was measured based on charcoal migration after intragastric administration of DA-9701 1, 3, and 10 mg kg-1 . CRF1 receptor antagonist, CP-154 526 (subcutaneous) or agonist, human/rat (h/r) CRF (intraperitoneal) was injected. Then, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were measured, and the average intensity of the CRF expression was analyzed in the proximal colon and hypothalamus, and c-Fos in the hypothalamus. KEY RESULTS: DA-9701 significantly increased delayed GI transit in POI in a dose-dependent manner and decreased plasma ACTH levels at 10 mg kg-1 . CP-154 526 significantly decreased plasma ACTH levels but was not as effective on GI transit as DA-9701 was. h/r CRF did not significantly affect GI transit and plasma ACTH levels. No significant difference was observed in GI transit and plasma ACTH levels in both groups administered DA-9701 with h/r CRF and h/r CRF alone. CRF expression in the proximal colon decreased after DA-9701 administration, but not significantly, compared with levels in POI alone. However, CRF expression in the hypothalamus was significantly lower in the DA-9701-pretreated POI than in the untreated POI. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: The DA-9701-induced improvement in GI transit and inhibition of plasma ACTH levels was mediated by the central CRF pathway.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleus/metabolismo , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cobaias , Íleus/fisiopatologia , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia
16.
Saudi Med J ; 39(2): 137-141, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of Legionella spp in cooling tower water. Legionella proliferation in cooling tower water has serious public health implications as it can be transmitted to humans via aerosols and cause Legionnaires' disease. METHODS: Samples of cooling tower water were collected from King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) (Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, 2015/2016). The water samples were analyzed by a standard Legionella culture method, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing. In addition, the bacterial community composition was evaluated. RESULTS: All samples were negative by conventional Legionella culture. In contrast, all water samples yielded positive results by real-time PCR (105 to 106 GU/L). The results of 16S rRNA next generation sequencing showed high similarity and reproducibility among the water samples. The majority of sequences were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria, and Legionella was the predominant genus. The hydrogen-oxidizing gram-negative bacterium Hydrogenophaga was present at high abundance, indicating high metabolic activity. Sphingopyxis, which is known for its resistance to antimicrobials and as a pioneer in biofilm formation, was also detected. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that monitoring of Legionella in cooling tower water would be enhanced by use of both conventional culturing and molecular methods.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Legionella/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Comamonadaceae/genética , Comamonadaceae/isolamento & purificação , Legionella/genética , Sphingomonadaceae/genética , Sphingomonadaceae/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água
17.
Science ; 357(6346): 71-75, 2017 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28684521

RESUMO

The interactions that lead to the emergence of superconductivity in iron-based materials remain a subject of debate. It has been suggested that electron-electron correlations enhance electron-phonon coupling in iron selenide (FeSe) and related pnictides, but direct experimental verification has been lacking. Here we show that the electron-phonon coupling strength in FeSe can be quantified by combining two time-domain experiments into a "coherent lock-in" measurement in the terahertz regime. X-ray diffraction tracks the light-induced femtosecond coherent lattice motion at a single phonon frequency, and photoemission monitors the subsequent coherent changes in the electronic band structure. Comparison with theory reveals a strong enhancement of the coupling strength in FeSe owing to correlation effects. Given that the electron-phonon coupling affects superconductivity exponentially, this enhancement highlights the importance of the cooperative interplay between electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions.

18.
Scott Med J ; 62(2): 58-62, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606006

RESUMO

Conducting a literature search can be a daunting prospect if you have not done it before. This article aims to provide a beginner's guide to searching the medical education literature, by describing how to construct an effective search strategy, the resources that are available and the basics of how searching works.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Literatura , Humanos , Ferramenta de Busca
19.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 29(10): 1-6, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28516458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a transient gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility that commonly develops after abdominal surgery. YH12852, a novel, potent and highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT4 ) receptor agonist, has been shown to improve both upper and lower GI motility in various animal studies and may have applications for the treatment of POI. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of YH12852 in a guinea pig model of POI to explore its therapeutic potential. METHODS: The guinea pig model of POI was created by laparotomy, evisceration, and gentle manipulation of the cecum for 60 seconds, followed by closure with sutures under anesthesia. Group 1 received an oral administration of vehicle or YH12852 (1, 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg) only, while POI Group 2 was intraperitoneally pretreated with vehicle or 5-HT4 receptor antagonist GR113808 (10 mg/kg) prior to oral dosing of vehicle or YH12852 (3 or 10 mg/kg). Upper GI transit was evaluated by assessing the migration of a charcoal mixture in the small intestine, while lower GI transit was assessed via measurement of fecal pellet output (FPO). KEY RESULTS: YH12852 significantly accelerated upper and lower GI transit at the doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg and reached its maximal effect at 10 mg/kg. These effects were significantly blocked by pretreatment of GR113808 10 mg/kg. CONCLUSION AND INFERENCES: Oral administration of YH12852 significantly accelerates and restores delayed upper and lower GI transit in a guinea pig model of POI. This drug may serve as a useful candidate for the treatment of postoperative ileus.


Assuntos
Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleus , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT4 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cobaias , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28417537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methane has been associated with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, slowing intestinal transit time by augmenting contractile activity. However, the precise mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effect of methane on contractile activity, and whether such effects are mediated by nerve impulses or muscular contraction. METHODS: We connected guinea pig ileal muscle strips to a force/tension transducer and measured amplitudes of contraction in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1, 2, 8, 16 Hz) following methane infusion in the presence of tetradotoxin (TTX), atropine, guanethidine, or GR 113808. We then performed calcium imaging using Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 AM in order to visualize changes in calcium fluorescence in response to EFS following methane infusion in the presence of TTX, atropine, or a high K+ solution. KEY RESULTS: Methane significantly increased amplitudes of contraction (P<.05), while treatment with TTX abolished such contraction. Methane-induced increases in amplitude were inhibited when lower-frequency (1, 2 Hz) EFS was applied following atropine infusion (P<.05). Neither guanethidine nor GR 113808 significantly altered contraction amplitudes. Methane significantly increased calcium fluorescence, while this increase was attenuated following atropine infusion (P<.05). Although calcium fluorescence was increased by the high K+ solution under pretreatment with TTX, the intensity of fluorescence remained unchanged after methane infusion. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: The actions of methane on the intestine are influenced by the cholinergic pathway of the enteric nervous system. Our findings support the classification of methane as a gasotransmitter.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Entérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/toxicidade , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cobaias , Masculino , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos
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