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Zootaxa ; 4543(4): 498-514, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647283


Cirolanides wassenichae sp. nov., is described from the phreatic zone of the Edwards Aquifer, Texas, USA where it is sympatric with Cirolanides texensis Benedict, 1896. Its status as a new species is based on both morphological and molecular data. Number of antennula articles (3-5 vs 9-15), size (mean sizes of 9.5 and 8.8 mm vs 11.1 and 10.4 mm for males and females, respectively), morphology of pereopods 1-3 (haptorial to semi-haptorial in 1-3 vs only 1 haptorial), and shape of pleotelson (squared, slightly indented vs rounded) are key morphological characteristics that distinguish C. wassenichae sp. nov. from C. texensis. Phylogenies based on cytochrome oxidase 1 and large ribosomal subunit 28S show that divergent morphologies correspond to reciprocally monophyletic groups for both nuclear and mitochondrial datasets. The genus Cirolanides is in need of revision, as our description of C. wassenichae sp. nov. renders C. texensis paraphyletic.

Isópodes , Animais , Feminino , Água Doce , Masculino , Filogenia , Texas
Zootaxa ; 4277(2): 261-273, 2017 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308650


Lacrimacandona n. gen. with its type species Lacrimacandona wisei n. sp. from the San Marcos artesian well on the Texas State University campus (Hays County, Texas, USA) is proposed as a new genus of the subfamily Candoninae. The new species is sexually dimorphic, and so far no congeneric species have been found. The new genus has the following distinguishing characters: subtriangular carapace tapering posteriorly, uropod with a claw-like anterior seta and two short claws, one long "a" setae on male maxilliped, very large asymmetric clasping organs in males, unique shape and size of hemipenis, and unique occurrence of setae on segments.

Crustáceos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Água Subterrânea , Masculino , Texas , Universidades
Ecology ; 97(6): 1530-42, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459783


The prevailing paradigm in subterranean ecology is that below-ground food webs are simple, limited to one or two trophic levels, and composed of generalist species because of spatio-temporally patchy food resources and pervasive energy limitation. This paradigm is based on relatively few studies of easily accessible, air-filled caves. However, in some subterranean ecosystems, chemolithoautotrophy can subsidize or replace surface-based allochthonous inputs of photosynthetically derived organic matter (OM) as a basal food resource and promote niche specialization and evolution of higher trophic levels. Consequently, the current subterranean trophic paradigm fails to account for variation in resources, trophic specialization, and food chain length in some subterranean ecosystems. We reevaluated the subterranean food web paradigm by examining spatial variation in the isotopic composition of basal food resources and consumers, food web structure, stygobiont species diversity, and chromophoric organic matter (CDOM), across a geochemical gradient in a large and complex groundwater system, the Edwards Aquifer in Central Texas (USA). Mean δ13C values of stygobiont communities become increasingly more negative along the gradient of photosynthetic OM sources near the aquifer recharge zone to chemolithoautotrophic OM sources closer to the freshwater-saline water interface (FWSWI) between oxygenated freshwater and anoxic, sulfide-rich saline water. Stygobiont community species richness declined with increasing distance from the FWSWI. Bayesian mixing models were used to estimate the relative importance of photosynthetic OM and chemolithoautorophic OM for stygobiont communities at three biogeochemically distinct sites. The contribution of chemolithoautotrophic OM to consumers at these sites ranged between 25% and 69% of total OM utilized and comprised as much as 88% of the diet for one species. In addition, the food web adjacent to the FWSWI had greater trophic diversity when compared to the other two sites. Our results suggest that diverse OM sources and in situ, chemolithoautotrophic OM production can support complex groundwater food webs and increase species richness. Chemolithoautotrophy has been fundamental for the long-term maintenance of species diversity, trophic complexity, and community stability in this subterranean ecosystem, especially during periods of decreased photosynthetic production and groundwater recharge that have occurred over geologic time scales.

Biodiversidade , Cadeia Alimentar , Água Subterrânea , Invertebrados/classificação , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Animais , Texas