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1.
Nat Med ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820996

RESUMO

Human microbiome science has advanced rapidly and reached a scale at which basic biology, clinical translation and population health are increasingly integrated. It is thus now possible for public health researchers, practitioners and policymakers to take specific action leveraging current and future microbiome-based opportunities and best practices. Here we provide an outline of considerations for research, education, interpretation and scientific communication concerning the human microbiome and public health. This includes guidelines for population-scale microbiome study design; necessary physical platforms and analysis methods; integration into public health areas such as epidemiology, nutrition, chronic disease, and global and environmental health; entrepreneurship and technology transfer; and educational curricula. Particularly in the near future, there are both opportunities for the incorporation of microbiome-based technologies into public health practice, and a growing need for policymaking and regulation around related areas such as prebiotic and probiotic supplements, novel live-cell therapies and fecal microbiota transplants.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658300

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is potential for fecal microbiome profiling to improve colorectal cancer screening. This has been demonstrated by research studies, but it has not been quantified at scale using samples collected and processed routinely by a national screening program. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Between 2016 and 2019, the largest of the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme hubs prospectively collected processed guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) samples with subsequent colonoscopy outcomes: blood-negative [n = 491 (22%)]; colorectal cancer [n = 430 (19%)]; adenoma [n = 665 (30%)]; colonoscopy-normal [n = 300 (13%)]; nonneoplastic [n = 366 (16%)]. Samples were transported and stored at room temperature. DNA underwent 16S rRNA gene V4 amplicon sequencing. Taxonomic profiling was performed to provide features for classification via random forests (RF). RESULTS: Samples provided 16S amplicon-based microbial profiles, which confirmed previously described colorectal cancer-microbiome associations. Microbiome-based RF models showed potential as a first-tier screen, distinguishing colorectal cancer or neoplasm (colorectal cancer or adenoma) from blood-negative with AUC 0.86 (0.82-0.89) and AUC 0.78 (0.74-0.82), respectively. Microbiome-based models also showed potential as a second-tier screen, distinguishing from among gFOBT blood-positive samples, colorectal cancer or neoplasm from colonoscopy-normal with AUC 0.79 (0.74-0.83) and AUC 0.73 (0.68-0.77), respectively. Models remained robust when restricted to 15 taxa, and performed similarly during external validation with metagenomic datasets. CONCLUSIONS: Microbiome features can be assessed using gFOBT samples collected and processed routinely by a national colorectal cancer screening program to improve accuracy as a first- or second-tier screen. The models required as few as 15 taxa, raising the potential of an inexpensive qPCR test. This could reduce the number of colonoscopies in countries that use fecal occult blood test screening.

3.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 27, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in developing countries, yet limited research on the CRC- associated microbiota has been conducted in these areas, in part due to scarce resources, facilities, and the difficulty of fresh or frozen stool storage/transport. Here, we aimed (1) to establish a broad representation of diverse developing countries (Argentina, Chile, India, and Vietnam); (2) to validate a 'resource-light' sample-collection protocol translatable in these settings using guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) cards stored and, importantly, shipped internationally at room temperature; (3) to perform initial profiling of the collective CRC-associated microbiome of these developing countries; and (4) to compare this quantitatively with established CRC biomarkers from developed countries. METHODS: We assessed the effect of international storage and transport at room temperature by replicating gFOBT from five UK volunteers, storing two in the UK, and sending replicates to institutes in the four countries. Next, to determine the effect of prolonged UK storage, DNA extraction replicates for a subset of samples were performed up to 252 days apart. To profile the CRC-associated microbiome of developing countries, gFOBT were collected from 41 treatment-naïve CRC patients and 40 non-CRC controls from across the four institutes, and V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed. Finally, we constructed a random forest (RF) model that was trained and tested against existing datasets from developed countries. RESULTS: The microbiome was stably assayed when samples were stored/transported at room temperature and after prolonged UK storage. Large-scale microbiome structure was separated by country and continent, with a smaller effect from CRC. Importantly, the RF model performed similarly to models trained using external datasets and identified similar taxa of importance (Parvimonas, Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, Alistipes, and Escherichia). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that gFOBT, stored and transported at room temperature, represents a suitable method of faecal sample collection for amplicon-based microbiome biomarkers in developing countries and suggests a CRC-faecal microbiome association that is consistent between developed and developing countries.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632927

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While evidence indicates that Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) may promote colorectal carcinogenesis through its suppressive effect on T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity, the specific T-cell subsets involved remain uncertain. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We measured F. nucleatum DNA within tumor tissue by quantitative PCR on 933 cases (including 128 F. nucleatum-positive cases) among 4,465 incident colorectal carcinoma cases in two prospective cohorts. Multiplex immunofluorescence combined with digital image analysis and machine learning algorithms for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO (PTPRC isoform), and FOXP3 measured various T-cell subsets. We leveraged data on Bifidobacterium, microsatellite instability (MSI), tumor whole-exome sequencing, and M1/M2-type tumor-associated macrophages [TAM; by CD68, CD86, IRF5, MAF, and MRC1 (CD206) multimarker assay]. Using the 4,465 cancer cases and inverse probability weighting method to control for selection bias due to tissue availability, multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis assessed the association between F. nucleatum and T-cell subsets. RESULTS: The amount of F. nucleatum was inversely associated with tumor stromal CD3+ lymphocytes [multivariable OR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.28-0.79, for F. nucleatum-high vs. -negative category; P trend = 0.0004] and specifically stromal CD3+CD4+CD45RO+ cells (corresponding multivariable OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.85; P trend = 0.003). These relationships did not substantially differ by MSI status, neoantigen load, or exome-wide tumor mutational burden. F. nucleatum was not significantly associated with tumor intraepithelial T cells or with M1 or M2 TAMs. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of tissue F. nucleatum is associated with lower density of stromal memory helper T cells. Our findings provide evidence for the interactive pathogenic roles of microbiota and specific immune cells.

5.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 333-343, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574608

RESUMO

To address how the microbiome might modify the interaction between diet and cardiometabolic health, we analyzed longitudinal microbiome data from 307 male participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, together with long-term dietary information and measurements of biomarkers of glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and inflammation from blood samples. Here, we demonstrate that a healthy Mediterranean-style dietary pattern is associated with specific functional and taxonomic components of the gut microbiome, and that its protective associations with cardiometabolic health vary depending on microbial composition. In particular, the protective association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiometabolic disease risk was significantly stronger among participants with decreased abundance of Prevotella copri. Our findings advance the concept of precision nutrition and have the potential to inform more effective and precise dietary approaches for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease mediated through alterations in the gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbiota/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Dieta , Dieta Mediterrânea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevotella/genética , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação
6.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 321-332, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432175

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is shaped by diet and influences host metabolism; however, these links are complex and can be unique to each individual. We performed deep metagenomic sequencing of 1,203 gut microbiomes from 1,098 individuals enrolled in the Personalised Responses to Dietary Composition Trial (PREDICT 1) study, whose detailed long-term diet information, as well as hundreds of fasting and same-meal postprandial cardiometabolic blood marker measurements were available. We found many significant associations between microbes and specific nutrients, foods, food groups and general dietary indices, which were driven especially by the presence and diversity of healthy and plant-based foods. Microbial biomarkers of obesity were reproducible across external publicly available cohorts and in agreement with circulating blood metabolites that are indicators of cardiovascular disease risk. While some microbes, such as Prevotella copri and Blastocystis spp., were indicators of favorable postprandial glucose metabolism, overall microbiome composition was predictive for a large panel of cardiometabolic blood markers including fasting and postprandial glycemic, lipemic and inflammatory indices. The panel of intestinal species associated with healthy dietary habits overlapped with those associated with favorable cardiometabolic and postprandial markers, indicating that our large-scale resource can potentially stratify the gut microbiome into generalizable health levels in individuals without clinically manifest disease.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/genética , Obesidade/microbiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Blastocystis/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Criança , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Jejum/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Glucose/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/genética , Prevotella/genética , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação
7.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 17, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-throughput sequencing provides a powerful window into the structural and functional profiling of microbial communities, but it is unable to characterize only the viable portion of microbial communities at scale. There is as yet not one best solution to this problem. Previous studies have established viability assessments using propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment coupled with downstream molecular profiling (e.g., qPCR or sequencing). While these studies have met with moderate success, most of them focused on the resulting "viable" communities without systematic evaluations of the technique. Here, we present our work to rigorously benchmark "PMA-seq" (PMA treatment followed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) for viability assessment in synthetic and realistic microbial communities. RESULTS: PMA-seq was able to successfully reconstruct simple synthetic communities comprising viable/heat-killed Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sanguinis. However, in realistically complex communities (computer screens, computer mice, soil, and human saliva) with E. coli spike-in controls, PMA-seq did not accurately quantify viability (even relative to variability in amplicon sequencing), with its performance largely affected by community properties such as initial biomass, sample types, and compositional diversity. We then applied this technique to environmental swabs from the Boston subway system. Several taxa differed significantly after PMA treatment, while not all microorganisms responded consistently. To elucidate the "PMA-responsive" microbes, we compared our results with previous PMA-based studies and found that PMA responsiveness varied widely when microbes were sourced from different ecosystems but were reproducible within similar environments across studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of PMA-seq exploring its quantitative potential in synthetic and complex microbial communities, where the technique was effective for semi-quantitative purposes in simple synthetic communities but provided only qualitative assessments in realistically complex community samples. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Azidas , Escherichia coli/genética , Viabilidade Microbiana/genética , Microbiota , Propídio/análogos & derivados , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Streptococcus sanguis/genética , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Camundongos , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Streptococcus sanguis/isolamento & purificação
8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(7)2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483311

RESUMO

Perturbation of natural microbial communities by antimicrobials, such as triclosan, can result in selection for antibiotic tolerance, which is of particular concern when pathogens are present. Members of the genus Pseudomonas are found in many natural microbial communities and frequently demonstrate increased abundance following triclosan exposure. The pathogen and well-studied model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits high triclosan tolerance; however, it is unknown if all Pseudomonas species share this trait or if there are susceptible strains. We characterized the triclosan tolerance phenotypes of diverse Pseudomonas isolates obtained from triclosan-exposed built environments and identified both tolerant and sensitive strains. High tolerance is associated with carriage of the enoyl-acyl carrier reductase (ENR) isozyme gene fabV, compared to the lesser protective effects of efflux or presence of ENRs. Given its unique importance, we examined fabV distribution throughout Pseudomonas species using large-scale phylogenomic analyses. We find fabV presence or absence is largely invariant at the species level but demonstrates multiple gain and loss events in its evolutionary history. We further provide evidence of its presence on mobile genetic elements. Our results demonstrate the surprising variability in triclosan tolerance in Pseudomonas and confirm fabV to be a useful indicator for high triclosan tolerance in Pseudomonas These findings provide a framework for better monitoring of Pseudomonas in triclosan-exposed environments and interpreting effects on species and gene composition.IMPORTANCE Closely related species are typically assumed to demonstrate similar phenotypes driven by underlying conserved genotypes. When monitoring for the effect of antimicrobials on the types of species that may be selected for, this assumption may prove to be incorrect, and identification of additional genetic markers may be necessary. We isolated several phylogenetically diverse members of Pseudomonas from indoor environments and tested their phenotypic tolerance toward the commonly used antimicrobial triclosan. Although Pseudomonas isolates are broadly regarded to be highly triclosan tolerant, we demonstrate the presence of both triclosan-tolerant and -susceptible strains, separated by a difference in tolerance of nearly 3 orders of magnitude. Bioinformatic and experimental investigation demonstrated that the presence of the gene fabV was associated with high tolerance. We demonstrate that fabV is not evenly distributed in all Pseudomonas species and that its presence could be a useful predictor of high triclosan tolerance suitable for antimicrobial monitoring efforts involving triclosan.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Pseudomonas/genética , Triclosan/farmacologia , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Hepatology ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283299

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Among those with NAFLD, up to 30% will develop progressive steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis, which can ultimately lead to cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease, and death. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of NAFLD-cirrhosis, it often goes undiagnosed, and delayed diagnoses of cirrhosis contribute to substantially increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is vitally important to develop non-invasive screening tools to accurately identify NAFLD-cirrhosis before potentially life-threatening complications arise.

10.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 301, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of healthcare- and community-associated infections and can be difficult to treat due to antimicrobial resistance. About 30% of individuals carry S. aureus asymptomatically in their nares, a risk factor for later infection, and interactions with other species in the nasal microbiome likely modulate its carriage. It is thus important to identify ecological or functional genetic elements within the maternal or infant nasal microbiomes that influence S. aureus acquisition and retention in early life. RESULTS: We recruited 36 mother-infant pairs and profiled a subset of monthly longitudinal nasal samples from the first year after birth using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The infant nasal microbiome is highly variable, particularly within the first 2 months. It is weakly influenced by maternal nasal microbiome composition, but primarily shaped by developmental and external factors, such as daycare. Infants display distinctive patterns of S. aureus carriage, positively associated with Acinetobacter species, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, and Veillonella species and inversely associated with maternal Dolosigranulum pigrum. Furthermore, we identify a gene family, likely acting as a taxonomic marker for an unclassified species, that is significantly anti-correlated with S. aureus in infants and mothers. In gene content-based strain profiling, infant S. aureus strains are more similar to maternal strains. CONCLUSIONS: This improved understanding of S. aureus colonization is an important first step toward the development of novel, ecological therapies for controlling S. aureus carriage.

11.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217332

RESUMO

Many bacteria resist invasive DNA by incorporating sequences into CRISPR loci, which enable sequence-specific degradation. CRISPR systems have been well studied from isolate genomes, but culture-independent metagenomics provide a new window into their diversity. We profiled CRISPR loci and cas genes in the body-wide human microbiome using 2,355 metagenomes, yielding functional and taxonomic profiles for 2.9 million spacers by aligning the spacer content to each sample's metagenome and corresponding gene families. Spacer and repeat profiles agree qualitatively with those from isolate genomes but expand their diversity by approximately 13-fold, with the highest spacer load present in the oral microbiome. The taxonomy of spacer sequences parallels that of their source community, with functional targets enriched for viral elements. When coupled with cas gene systems, CRISPR-Cas subtypes are highly site and taxon specific. Our analysis provides a comprehensive collection of natural CRISPR-cas loci and targets in the human microbiome.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the gut microbiota in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) relative to controls and to test the hypothesis that butyrate-producing bacteria are less abundant in the gastrointestinal tracts of people with ALS (PALS). Methods: We conducted a case-control study at Massachusetts General Hospital to compare the gut microbiota in people with ALS to that in controls. Metagenomic shotgun sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from stool samples of 66 people with ALS (PALS), 61 healthy controls (HC), and 12 neurodegenerative controls (NDC). Taxonomic metagenomic profiles were analyzed for shifts in the microbial community structure between the comparator groups using per-feature univariate and multivariate association tests. Results: The relative abundance of the dominant butyrate-producing bacteria Eubacterium rectale and Roseburia intestinalis was significantly lower in ALS patients compared to HC. Adjustment for age, sex, and constipation did not materially change the results. The total abundance of 8 dominant species capable of producing butyrate was also significantly lower in ALS compared to HC (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The levels of several butyrate-producing bacteria, which are important for gut integrity and regulation of inflammation, were lower in people with ALS compared to controls. These findings lend support to the inference that the gut microbiota could be a risk factor for ALS. Further investigations are warranted, preferably earlier in the disease with corresponding dietary collection and a longitudinal design.

13.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 71, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791981

RESUMO

The biological importance and varied metabolic capabilities of specific microbial strains have long been established in the scientific community. Strains have, in the past, been largely defined and characterized based on microbial isolates. However, the emergence of new technologies and techniques has enabled assessments of their ecology and phenotypes within microbial communities and the human microbiome. While it is now more obvious how pathogenic strain variants are detrimental to human health, the consequences of subtle genetic variation in the microbiome have only recently been exposed. Here, we review the operational definitions of strains (e.g., genetic and structural variants) as they can now be identified from microbial communities using different high-throughput, often culture-independent techniques. We summarize the distribution and diversity of strains across the human body and their emerging links to health maintenance, disease risk and progression, and biochemical responses to perturbations, such as diet or drugs. We list methods for identifying, quantifying, and tracking strains, utilizing high-throughput sequencing along with other molecular and "culturomics" technologies. Finally, we discuss implications of population studies in bridging experimental gaps and leading to a better understanding of the health effects of strains in the human microbiome.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Firmicutes bacteria produce metabolites that maintain the intestinal barrier and mucosal immunity. Firmicutes are reduced in the intestinal microbiota of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). In a phase 1b trial of patients with UC, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of SER-287, an oral formulation of Firmicutes spores, and the effects of vancomycin preconditioning on expansion (engraftment) of SER-287 species in the colon. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind trial of SER-287 in 58 adults with active mild-to-moderate UC (modified Mayo scores 4-10, endoscopic subscores ≥1). Participants received 6 days of preconditioning with oral vancomycin (125 mg, 4 times daily) or placebo followed by 8 weeks of oral SER-287 or placebo. Patients were randomly assigned (2:3:3:3) to groups that received placebo followed by either placebo or SER-287 once weekly, or vancomycin followed by SER-287 once weekly, or SER-287 once daily. Clinical end points included safety and clinical remission (modified Mayo score ≤2; endoscopic subscores 0 or 1). Microbiome end points included SER-287 engraftment (dose species detected in stool after but not before SER-287 administration). Engraftment of SER-287 and changes in microbiome composition and associated metabolites were measured by analyses of stool specimens collected at baseline, after preconditioning, and during and 4 weeks after administration of SER-287 or placebo. RESULTS: Proportions of patients with adverse events did not differ significantly among groups. A higher proportion of patients in the vancomycin/SER-287 daily group (40%) achieved clinical remission at week 8 than patients in the placebo/placebo group (0%), placebo/SER-287 weekly group (13.3%), or vancomycin/SER-287 weekly group (17.7%) (P = .024 for vancomycin/SER-287 daily vs placebo/placebo). By day 7, higher numbers of SER-287 dose species were detected in stool samples from all SER-287 groups compared with the placebo group (P < .05), but this difference was not maintained beyond day 7 in the placebo/SER-287 weekly group. In the vancomycin groups, a greater number of dose species were detected in stool collected on day 10 and all subsequent time points through 4 weeks post dosing compared with the placebo group (P < .05). A higher number of SER-287 dose species were detected in stool samples on days 7 and 10 from subjects who received daily vs weekly SER-287 doses (P < .05). Changes in fecal microbiome composition and metabolites were associated with both vancomycin/SER-287 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this small phase 1b trial of limited duration, the safety and tolerability of SER-287 were similar to placebo. SER-287 after vancomycin was significantly more effective than placebo for induction of remission in patients with active mild to moderate UC. Engraftment of dose species was facilitated by vancomycin preconditioning and daily dosing of SER-287. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02618187.

15.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 138, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eubacterium rectale is one of the most prevalent human gut bacteria, but its diversity and population genetics are not well understood because large-scale whole-genome investigations of this microbe have not been carried out. RESULTS: Here, we leverage metagenomic assembly followed by a reference-based binning strategy to screen over 6500 gut metagenomes spanning geography and lifestyle and reconstruct over 1300 E. rectale high-quality genomes from metagenomes. We extend previous results of biogeographic stratification, identifying a new subspecies predominantly found in African individuals and showing that closely related non-human primates do not harbor E. rectale. Comparison of pairwise genetic and geographic distances between subspecies suggests that isolation by distance and co-dispersal with human populations might have contributed to shaping the contemporary population structure of E. rectale. We confirm that a relatively recently diverged E. rectale subspecies specific to Europe consistently lacks motility operons and that it is immotile in vitro, probably due to ancestral genetic loss. The same subspecies exhibits expansion of its carbohydrate metabolism gene repertoire including the acquisition of a genomic island strongly enriched in glycosyltransferase genes involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new insights into the population structure and ecology of E. rectale and shows that shotgun metagenomes can enable population genomics studies of microbiota members at a resolution and scale previously attainable only by extensive isolate sequencing.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2500, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427907

RESUMO

Microbial genomes are available at an ever-increasing pace, as cultivation and sequencing become cheaper and obtaining metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) becomes more effective. Phylogenetic placement methods to contextualize hundreds of thousands of genomes must thus be efficiently scalable and sensitive from closely related strains to divergent phyla. We present PhyloPhlAn 3.0, an accurate, rapid, and easy-to-use method for large-scale microbial genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis at multiple levels of resolution. PhyloPhlAn 3.0 can assign genomes from isolate sequencing or MAGs to species-level genome bins built from >230,000 publically available sequences. For individual clades of interest, it reconstructs strain-level phylogenies from among the closest species using clade-specific maximally informative markers. At the other extreme of resolution, it scales to large phylogenies comprising >17,000 microbial species. Examples including Staphylococcus aureus isolates, gut metagenomes, and meta-analyses demonstrate the ability of PhyloPhlAn 3.0 to support genomic and metagenomic analyses.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Metagenômica/métodos , Filogenia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Microbiano , Metagenoma
18.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(4): 585-600.e4, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240601

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but causal alterations preceding CRC have not been elucidated. To prospectively assess microbiome changes prior to colorectal neoplasia, we investigated samples from 100 Lynch syndrome patients using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of colon biopsies, coupled with metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing of feces. Colectomy and CRC history represented the largest effects on microbiome profiles. A subset of Clostridiaceae were depleted in stool corresponding with baseline adenomas, while Desulfovibrio was enriched both in stool and in mucosal biopsies. A classifier leveraging stool metatranscriptomes resulted in modest power to predict interval development of preneoplastic colonic adenoma. Predictive transcripts corresponded with a shift in flagellin contributors and oxidative metabolic microenvironment, potentially factors in local CRC pathogenesis. This suggests that the effectiveness of prospective microbiome monitoring for adenomas may be limited but supports the potential causality of these consistent, early microbial changes in colonic neoplasia.

19.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(3): 486-497, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959971

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with alterations in gut microbial abundances and lumenal metabolite concentrations, but the effects of specific metabolites on the gut microbiota in health and disease remain largely unknown. Here, we analysed the influences of metabolites that are differentially abundant in IBD on the growth and physiology of gut bacteria that are also differentially abundant in IBD. We found that N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), a class of endogenously produced signalling lipids elevated in the stool of IBD patients and a T-cell transfer model of colitis, stimulated growth of species over-represented in IBD and inhibited that of species depleted in IBD in vitro. Using metagenomic sequencing, we recapitulated the effects of NAEs in complex microbial communities ex vivo, with Proteobacteria blooming and Bacteroidetes declining in the presence of NAEs. Metatranscriptomic analysis of the same communities identified components of the respiratory chain as important for the metabolism of NAEs, and this was verified using a mutant deficient for respiratory complex I. In this study, we identified NAEs as a class of metabolites that are elevated in IBD and have the potential to shift gut microbiota towards an IBD-like composition.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etanolaminas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Masculino , Metagenoma , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1313-1325, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sulfur-metabolizing microbes, which convert dietary sources of sulfur into genotoxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S), have been associated with development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We identified a dietary pattern associated with sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool and then investigated its association with risk of incident CRC using data from a large prospective study of men. METHODS: We collected data from 51,529 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study since 1986 to determine the association between sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool and risk of CRC over 26 years of follow-up. First, in a subcohort of 307 healthy men, we profiled serial stool metagenomes and metatranscriptomes and assessed diet using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires to identify food groups associated with 43 bacterial species involved in sulfur metabolism. We used these data to develop a sulfur microbial dietary score. We then used Cox proportional hazards modeling to evaluate adherence to this pattern among eligible individuals (n = 48,246) from 1986 through 2012 with risk for incident CRC. RESULTS: Foods associated with higher sulfur microbial diet scores included increased consumption of processed meats and low-calorie drinks and lower consumption of vegetables and legumes. Increased sulfur microbial diet scores were associated with risk of distal colon and rectal cancers, after adjusting for other risk factors (multivariable relative risk, highest vs lowest quartile, 1.43; 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.81; P-trend = .002). In contrast, sulfur microbial diet scores were not associated with risk of proximal colon cancer (multivariable relative risk 0.86; 95% CI 0.65-1.14; P-trend = .31). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we found that long-term adherence to a dietary pattern associated with sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool was associated with an increased risk of distal CRC. Further studies are needed to determine how sulfur-metabolizing bacteria might contribute to CRC pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Idoso , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Enxofre/metabolismo
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