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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify coinhibitory immune pathways important in the brain, we hypothesized that comparison of T cells in lesions from patients with MS with tumor-infiltrating T cells (TILs) from patients with glioblastoma multiforme may reveal novel targets for immunotherapy. METHODS: We collected fresh surgical resections and matched blood from patients with glioblastoma, blood and unmatched postmortem CNS tissue from patients with MS, and blood from healthy donors. The expression of TIGIT, CD226, and their shared ligand CD155 as well as PD-1 and PDL1 was assessed by both immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. RESULTS: We found that TIGIT was highly expressed on glioblastoma-infiltrating T cells, but was near-absent from MS lesions. Conversely, lymphocytic expression of PD-1/PD-L1 was comparable between the 2 diseases. Moreover, TIGIT was significantly upregulated in circulating lymphocytes of patients with glioblastoma compared with healthy controls, suggesting recirculation of TILs. Expression of CD226 was also increased in glioblastoma, but this costimulatory receptor was expressed alongside TIGIT in the majority of tumor-infiltrating T cells, suggesting functional counteraction. CONCLUSIONS: The opposite patterns of TIGIT expression in the CNS between MS and glioblastoma reflects the divergent features of the immune response in these 2 CNS diseases. These data raise the possibility that anti-TIGIT therapy may be beneficial for patients with glioblastoma.

2.
World Neurosurg ; 138: 137-140, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germinomas are rare intracranial lesions, with medulla germinomas being reported in only approximately 20 cases to date. These tumors are extremely sensitive to radiotherapy, and knowledge of them can allow for accurate diagnosis as well as significantly impact treatment and prognosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a case of medullary germinoma and review the cases previously reported in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: A few imaging characteristics are noted in multiple cases, such as cystic components, enhancement, and absence of hydrocephalus. These features can provide clues to diagnosis of this rare entity.

3.
Cancer ; 126(12): 2811-2820, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience is limited for primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma that arises from the dura mater, which is denoted with the term primary dural lymphoma (PDL). This study was aimed at determining the relative incidence, presentation, and outcomes of PDL. METHODS: The institutional databases of the Divisions of Neuro-Oncology at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Yale School of Medicine were retrospectively searched for patients with primary CNS lymphoma. Patients with pathologically confirmed dural lymphoma and no evidence of primary cerebral or systemic involvement were identified. Clinical data, diagnostic findings, treatments, and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients with PDL were identified, and they represented 6.3% of the individuals with primary CNS lymphomas (20 of 316). Histopathological examination of PDL revealed the following underlying subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (10 of 20 patients), marginal zone lymphoma (6 of 20), follicular lymphoma (2 of 20), undefined B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (1 of 20), and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (1 of 20). On imaging, all tumors appeared as extra-axial masses with avid contrast enhancement and mostly mimicked meningioma. The median apparent diffusion coefficient value was 667 ± 26 mm2 /s. Cerebrospinal fluid analyses and symptoms were nonspecific, and the diagnosis rested on tissue analysis. Therapeutic approaches included surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The median overall survival was not reached after 5 years. Three patients were deceased at database closure because of tumor progression. The extent of tumor resection correlated positively with overall survival (P = .044). CONCLUSIONS: PDL is a rare variant of primary CNS lymphoma that can be radiographically mistaken for meningioma. The outcome is excellent with multimodality treatment, and aggressive surgery may convey a survival advantage in select cases.

5.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 389, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial myxomas are generally considered benign neoplasms. The majority of tumors are sporadic and less than 10% are associated with an autosomal dominant condition known as the Carney complex, which is most often caused by germline mutation in the gene PRKAR1A. Whether this gene plays a role in the development of sporadic myxomas has been an area of debate, although recent studies have suggested that some fraction of sporadic tumors also carry mutations in PRKARIA. Extra-cardiac complications of atrial myxoma include dissemination of tumor to the brain; however, the dissemination of viable invasive tumor cells is exceedingly rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We present here a 48-year-old white woman who developed multiple intracranial hemorrhagic lesions secondary to tumor embolism that progressed to 'false' aneurysm formation and invasion through the vascular wall into brain parenchyma 7 months after resection of an atrial myxoma. Whole exome sequencing of her tumor revealed multiple mutations in PRKAR1A not found in her germline deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), suggesting that the myxoma in this patient was sporadic. CONCLUSIONS: Our patient illustrates that mutations in PRKAR1A may be found in sporadic lesions. Whether the presence of this mutation affects the clinical behavior of sporadic tumors and increases risk for metastasis is not clear. Regardless, the protein kinase A pathway which is regulated by PRKAR1A represents a possible target for treatment in patients with metastatic cardiac myxomas harboring mutations in the PRKARIA gene.

7.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 32(6): 907-916, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577604

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Median survival after the diagnosis of brain metastases has historically been on the order of months. With the recent development of immune checkpoint inhibitors, intracranial activity and durable responses have been observed in brain metastases on multiple phase 2 clinical trials, which have primarily been conducted in patients with melanoma. Immune-related adverse events related to checkpoint inhibitor therapy of brain metastasis can present unique challenges for the clinician and underscore the need for a multidisciplinary team in the care of these patients. The goal of this review is to address the current knowledge, limitations of understanding, and future directions in research regarding immune therapy trials and neurologic toxicities based on retrospective, prospective, and case studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Immune therapy has the potential to exacerbate symptomatic edema and increase the risk of radiation necrosis in previously irradiated lesions. Neurologic toxicities will likely increase in prevalence as more patients with brain metastatic disease are eligible for immune therapy. SUMMARY: An improved understanding and heightened awareness of the unique neurologic toxicities that impact this patient group is vital for mitigating treatment-related morbidity and mortality.

8.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent large-cohort sequencing studies have investigated the genomic landscape of meningiomas, identifying somatic coding alterations in NF2, SMARCB1, SMARCE1, TRAF7, KLF4, POLR2A, BAP1, and members of the PI3K and Hedgehog signaling pathways. Initial associations between clinical features and genomic subgroups have been described, including location, grade, and histology. However, further investigation using an expanded collection of samples is needed to confirm previous findings, as well as elucidate relationships not evident in smaller discovery cohorts. METHODS: Targeted sequencing of established meningioma driver genes was performed on a multiinstitution cohort of 3016 meningiomas for classification into mutually exclusive subgroups. Relevant clinical information was collected for all available cases and correlated with genomic subgroup. Nominal variables were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests, while ordinal and continuous variables were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and 1-way ANOVA tests, respectively. Machine-learning approaches were used to predict genomic subgroup based on noninvasive clinical features. RESULTS: Genomic subgroups were strongly associated with tumor locations, including correlation of HH tumors with midline location, and non-NF2 tumors in anterior skull base regions. NF2 meningiomas were significantly enriched in male patients, while KLF4 and POLR2A mutations were associated with female sex. Among histologies, the results confirmed previously identified relationships, and observed enrichment of microcystic features among "mutation unknown" samples. Additionally, KLF4-mutant meningiomas were associated with larger peritumoral brain edema, while SMARCB1 cases exhibited elevated Ki-67 index. Machine-learning methods revealed that observable, noninvasive patient features were largely predictive of each tumor's underlying driver mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Using a rigorous and comprehensive approach, this study expands previously described correlations between genomic drivers and clinical features, enhancing our understanding of meningioma pathogenesis, and laying further groundwork for the use of targeted therapies. Importantly, the authors found that noninvasive patient variables exhibited a moderate predictive value of underlying genomic subgroup, which could improve with additional training data. With continued development, this framework may enable selection of appropriate precision medications without the need for invasive sampling procedures.

9.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653819

RESUMO

Pediatric midline tumors are devastating high-grade lesions with a dismal prognosis and no curative surgical options. Here, the authors report the clinical presentation, surgical management, whole-exome sequencing (WES), and clonality analysis of a patient with a radically resected H3K27M-mutant pineal parenchymal tumor (PPT) and spine metastases consistent with PPT of intermediate differentiation (PPTID). They identified somatic mutations in H3F3A (H3K27M), FGFR1, and NF1 both in the original PPT and in the PPTID metastases. They also found 12q amplification containing CDK4/MDM2 and chromosome 17 loss of heterozygosity overlapping with NF1 that resulted in biallelic NF1 loss. They noted a hypermutated phenotype with increased C>T transitions within the PPTID metastases and 2p amplification overlapping with the MYCN locus. Clonality analysis detected three founder clones maintained during progression and metastasis. Tumor clones present within the PPTID metastases but not the pineal midline tumor harbored mutations in APC and TIMP2.While the majority of H3K27M mutations are found in pediatric midline gliomas, it is increasingly recognized that this mutation is present in a wider range of lesions with a varied morphological appearance. The present case appears to be the first description of H3K27M mutation in PPTID. Somatic mutations in H3F3A, FGFR1, and NF1 have been suggested to be driver mutations in pediatric midline gliomas. Their clonality and presence in over 80% of tumor cells in our patient's PPTID are consistent with similarly crucial roles in early tumorigenesis, with progression mediated by copy number variations and chromosomal aberrations involving known oncogenes and tumor suppressors. The roles of APC and TIMP2 mutations in progression and metastasis remain to be investigated.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371348

RESUMO

Glioblastomas are highly aggressive, infiltrative, and genetically heterogeneous primary brain tumors that arise de novo or secondarily progress over time from low-grade tumors. Along with well-established signature mutational profiles, emerging research suggests that the epigenetic tumor landscape plays an important role in gliomagenesis via transcriptional regulation, DNA methylation, and histone modifications. The pursuit of targeted therapeutic approaches, based not only on expression profiles but also on somatic mutations, is fundamental to the effort of improving survival in patients with glioblastoma. Here, we describe a missense DNMT3A p.P904S mutation in an IDH1-mutant glioblastoma. Although never previously reported in gliomas, this mutation is predicted to be pathogenic and has been reported in several other malignancies. Our report suggests that elucidating epigenetic control is important to understanding glioblastoma biology and may likely unveil targets potentially important to glioblastoma treatment in an effort to improve survival.

11.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-11, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intracranial epidermoid tumors are slow-growing, histologically benign tumors of epithelial cellular origin that can be symptomatic because of their size and mass effect. Neurosurgical resection, while the treatment of choice, can be quite challenging due to locations where these lesions commonly occur and their association with critical neurovascular structures. As such, subtotal resection (STR) rather than gross-total resection (GTR) can often be performed, rendering residual and recurrent tumor potentially problematic. The authors present a case of a 28-year-old man who underwent STR followed by aggressive repeat resection for regrowth, and they report the results of the largest meta-analysis to date of epidermoid tumors to compare recurrence rates for STR and GTR. METHODS: The authors conducted a systemic review of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Collaboration following the PRISMA guidelines. They then conducted a proportional meta-analysis to compare the pooled recurrence rates between STR and GTR in the included studies. The authors developed fixed- and mixed-effect models to estimate the pooled proportions of recurrence among patients undergoing STR or GTR. They also investigated the relationship between recurrence rate and follow-up time in the previous studies using linear regression and natural cubic spline models. RESULTS: Overall, 27 studies with 691 patients met the inclusion criteria; of these, 293 (42%) underwent STR and 398 (58%) received GTR. The average recurrence rate for all procedures was 11%. The proportional meta-analysis showed that the pooled recurrence rate after STR (21%) was 7 times greater than the rate after GTR (3%). The average recurrence rate for studies with longer follow-up durations (≥ 4.4 years) (17.4%) was significantly higher than the average recurrence rate for studies with shorter follow-up durations (< 4.4 years) (5.7%). The cutoff point of 4.4 years was selected based on the significant relationship between the recurrence rate of both STR and GTR and follow-up durations in the included studies (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: STR is associated with a significantly higher rate of epidermoid tumor recurrence compared to GTR. Attempts at GTR should be made during the initial surgery with efforts to optimize success. Surgical expertise, as well as the use of adjuncts, such as intraoperative MRI and neuromonitoring, may increase the likelihood of completing a safe GTR and decreasing the long-term risk of recurrence. The most common surgical complications were transient cranial nerve palsies, occurring equally in STR and GTR cases when reported. In all postoperative epidermoid tumor cases, but particularly following STR, close follow-up with serial MRI, even years after surgery, is recommended.

12.
J Neurooncol ; 144(1): 107-115, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunodeficiency is a major risk factor for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), but data on the disease in immunocompromised hosts are scarce. We aimed to define clinical and imaging features and determine prognostic factors for immunodeficiency-associated PCNSL. METHODS: All PCNSL cases seen at Yale-New Haven Hospital between 2002 and 2017 were retrospectively screened for immunodeficiency. For patients with immunosuppression, biopsies were evaluated and clinical data were collected. Predictors of survival were identified using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test. p values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: 23 patients with immunodeficiencies were identified: eleven on immunosuppressants after solid organ transplantation, seven with human immunodeficiency virus infection, and five on immunosuppressive treatment due to various autoimmune disorders. PCNSL cases were largely Epstein-Barr-Virus positive (78%), histologically classified as diffuse large B cell lymphomas (87%), and showed peripheral contrast enhancement (81%) and corresponding heterogeneous diffusion-weighted imaging patterns (DWI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (71%). Median overall survival was 31 months. Age > 60 years at diagnosis (p < 0.01), peripheral enhancement of the mass on MRI (p = 0.04), heterogeneous DWI patterns (p = 0.04), and clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement (IgHR) (p = 0.03) were found to be negative prognostic markers. CONCLUSIONS: Immunodeficiency-associated PCNSL presents with similar clinical, pathological and imaging features. Age > 60 years, clonal IgHR, heterogeneous DWI pattern and peripheral enhancement on MRI may serve as predictors of less favorable outcome.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(40): 10142-10147, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224493

RESUMO

The primary stem cells of the cerebral cortex are the radial glial cells (RGCs), and disturbances in their operation lead to myriad brain disorders in all mammals from mice to humans. Here, we found in mice that maternal gestational obesity and hyperglycemia can impair the maturation of RGC fibers and delay cortical neurogenesis. To investigate potential mechanisms, we used optogenetic live-imaging approaches in embryonic cortical slices. We found that Ca2+ signaling regulates mitochondrial transport and is crucial for metabolic support in RGC fibers. Cyclic intracellular Ca2+ discharge from localized RGC fiber segments detains passing mitochondria and ensures their proper distribution and enrichment at specific sites such as endfeet. Impairment of mitochondrial function caused an acute loss of Ca2+ signaling, while hyperglycemia decreased Ca2+ activity and impaired mitochondrial transport, leading to degradation of the RGC scaffold. Our findings uncover a physiological mechanism indicating pathways by which gestational metabolic disturbances can interfere with brain development.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/embriologia , Neurogênese , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/patologia , Feminino , Hiperglicemia/genética , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Gravidez
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903892

RESUMO

Congenital hemangiomas are tumor-like vascular malformations with poorly understood pathogenesis. We report the case of a neonate with a massive congenital scalp hemangioma that required urgent neurosurgical removal on the second day of life because of concern for high-flow arteriovenous shunting. Exome sequencing identified a rare damaging de novo germline mutation in MYH9 (c.5308C>T, p.[Arg1770Cys]), encoding the MYH9 nonmuscle myosin IIA. MYH9 has a probability of loss-of-function intolerance (pLI) score of >0.99 and is highly intolerant to missense variation (z score = 5.59). The p.(Arg1770Cys) mutation substitutes an evolutionarily conserved amino acid in the protein's critical myosin tail domain and is predicted to be highly deleterious by SIFT, PolyPhen-2, MetaSVM, and CADD. MYH9 is a known regulator of cytokinesis, VEGF-regulated angiogenesis, and p53-dependent tumorigenesis. These findings reveal a novel association of germline de novo MYH9 mutation with congenital hemangioma.


Assuntos
Hemangioma/genética , Proteínas Motores Moleculares/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Hemangioma/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mutação com Perda de Função , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(5): e26969, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29380516

RESUMO

Efficacy of BRAF V600E targeted therapies in brain tumors harboring the mutation has been shown in several case reports and is currently being studied in larger clinical trials. Monotherapy with vemurafenib has been associated with significant side effects, including rashes, papillomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. Here we describe an adolescent female with anaplastic ganglioglioma and significant skin reaction to vemurafenib with subsequent tumor response and tolerance to the BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination of dabrafenib and trametinib without recurrence of previous reaction.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganglioglioma/tratamento farmacológico , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Feminino , Ganglioglioma/genética , Ganglioglioma/patologia , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Vemurafenib/administração & dosagem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720380

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The global rates and numbers of drug resistant TB are rising. With increasing globalization, the spread of drug-resistant strains of TB has become a mounting global public health concern. We present a case of a young man previously treated for multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB in India who presented with neurological symptoms and central nervous system TB in the United States. His case highlights unique diagnostic and treatment challenges that are likely to become more commonplace with the increase of patients infected with drug-resistant TB and complicated extrapulmonary disease.

18.
J Clin Invest ; 128(2): 607-624, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29251628

RESUMO

Macrophages are a source of both proinflammatory and restorative functions in damaged tissue through complex dynamic phenotypic changes. Here, we sought to determine whether monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) contribute to recovery after acute sterile brain injury. By profiling the transcriptional dynamics of MDMs in the murine brain after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we found robust phenotypic changes in the infiltrating MDMs over time and demonstrated that MDMs are essential for optimal hematoma clearance and neurological recovery. Next, we identified the mechanism by which the engulfment of erythrocytes with exposed phosphatidylserine directly modulated the phenotype of both murine and human MDMs. In mice, loss of receptor tyrosine kinases AXL and MERTK reduced efferocytosis of eryptotic erythrocytes and hematoma clearance, worsened neurological recovery, exacerbated iron deposition, and decreased alternative activation of macrophages after ICH. Patients with higher circulating soluble AXL had poor 1-year outcomes after ICH onset, suggesting that therapeutically augmenting efferocytosis may improve functional outcomes by both reducing tissue injury and promoting the development of reparative macrophage responses. Thus, our results identify the efferocytosis of eryptotic erythrocytes through AXL/MERTK as a critical mechanism modulating macrophage phenotype and contributing to recovery from ICH.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Eritrócitos/classificação , Macrófagos/citologia , Animais , Apoptose , Lesões Encefálicas , Eritrócitos/citologia , Hematoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fagocitose , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Resultado do Tratamento , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase/metabolismo
20.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(5): 680-691, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241829

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An animal model of late-onset Alzheimer's disease is needed to research what causes degeneration in the absence of dominant genetic insults and why the association cortex is particularly vulnerable to degeneration. METHODS: We studied the progression of tau and amyloid cortical pathology in the aging rhesus macaque using immunoelectron microscopy and biochemical assays. RESULTS: Aging macaques exhibited the same qualitative pattern and sequence of tau and amyloid cortical pathology as humans, reaching Braak stage III/IV. Pathology began in the young-adult entorhinal cortex with protein kinase A-phosphorylation of tau, progressing to fibrillation with paired helical filaments and mature tangles in oldest animals. Tau pathology in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex paralleled but lagged behind the entorhinal cortex, not afflicting the primary visual cortex. DISCUSSION: The aging rhesus macaque provides the long-sought animal model for exploring the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease and for testing preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Macaca mulatta , Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Córtex Entorrinal/patologia , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica/métodos , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Fosforilação , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
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