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2.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 307-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820706

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10- 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10- 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10- 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
4.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510241

RESUMO

To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10-8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917119

RESUMO

Background: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. Methods: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 904-919, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727690

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have successfully identified thousands of genetic variants for many complex diseases; however, these variants explain only a small fraction of the heritability. Recently, genetic association studies that leverage external transcriptome data have received much attention and shown promise for discovering novel variants. One such approach, PrediXcan, is to use predicted gene expression through genetic regulation. However, there are limitations in this approach. The predicted gene expression may be biased, resulting from regularized regression applied to moderately sample-sized reference studies. Further, some variants can individually influence disease risk through alternative functional mechanisms besides expression. Thus, testing only the association of predicted gene expression as proposed in PrediXcan will potentially lose power. To tackle these challenges, we consider a unified mixed effects model that formulates the association of intermediate phenotypes such as imputed gene expression through fixed effects, while allowing residual effects of individual variants to be random. We consider a set-based score testing framework, MiST (mixed effects score test), and propose two data-driven combination approaches to jointly test for the fixed and random effects. We establish the asymptotic distributions, which enable rapid calculation of p values for genome-wide analyses, and provide p values for fixed and random effects separately to enhance interpretability over GWASs. Extensive simulations demonstrate that our approaches are more powerful than existing ones. We apply our approach to a large-scale GWAS of colorectal cancer and identify two genes, POU5F1B and ATF1, which would have otherwise been missed by PrediXcan, after adjusting for all known loci.

7.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196233, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694444

RESUMO

Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, intracellular reactions involved in nucleotide synthesis and methylation, likely increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, results have been inconsistent. To explore whether this inconsistency could be explained by intertumoral heterogeneity, we evaluated a comprehensive panel of one-carbon metabolism biomarkers and some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to the risk of molecular subtypes of CRC defined by mutations in the KRAS and BRAF oncogenes. This nested case-control study included 488 CRC cases and 947 matched controls from two population-based cohorts in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. We analyzed 14 biomarkers and 17 SNPs in prediagnostic blood and determined KRAS and BRAF mutation status in tumor tissue. In a multivariate network analysis, no variable displayed a strong association with the risk of specific CRC subtypes. A non-synonymous SNP in the CTH gene, rs1021737, had a stronger association compared with other variables. In subsequent univariate analyses, participants with variant rs1021737 genotype had a decreased risk of KRAS-mutated CRC (OR per allele = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.50, 1.05), and an increased risk of BRAF-mutated CRC (OR per allele = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.30), with weak evidence for heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity = 0.01). This subtype-specific SNP association was not replicated in a case-case analysis of 533 CRC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (P = 0.85). In conclusion, we found no support for clear subtype-specific roles of one-carbon metabolism biomarkers and SNPs in CRC development, making differences in CRC molecular subtype distributions an unlikely explanation for the varying results on the role of one-carbon metabolism in CRC development across previous studies. Further investigation of the CTH gene in colorectal carcinogenesis with regards to KRAS and BRAF mutations or other molecular characteristics of the tumor may be warranted.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Cistationina gama-Liase/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Carbono/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 620-635, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625024

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and functional genomics approaches implicate enhancer disruption in islet dysfunction and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. We applied genetic fine-mapping and functional (epi)genomic approaches to a T2D- and proinsulin-associated 15q22.2 locus to identify a most likely causal variant, determine its direction of effect, and elucidate plausible target genes. Fine-mapping and conditional analyses of proinsulin levels of 8,635 non-diabetic individuals from the METSIM study support a single association signal represented by a cluster of 16 strongly associated (p < 10-17) variants in high linkage disequilibrium (r2 > 0.8) with the GWAS index SNP rs7172432. These variants reside in an evolutionarily and functionally conserved islet and ß cell stretch or super enhancer; the most strongly associated variant (rs7163757, p = 3 × 10-19) overlaps a conserved islet open chromatin site. DNA sequence containing the rs7163757 risk allele displayed 2-fold higher enhancer activity than the non-risk allele in reporter assays (p < 0.01) and was differentially bound by ß cell nuclear extract proteins. Transcription factor NFAT specifically potentiated risk-allele enhancer activity and altered patterns of nuclear protein binding to the risk allele in vitro, suggesting that it could be a factor mediating risk-allele effects. Finally, the rs7163757 proinsulin-raising and T2D risk allele (C) was associated with increased expression of C2CD4B, and possibly C2CD4A, both of which were induced by inflammatory cytokines, in human islets. Together, these data suggest that rs7163757 contributes to genetic risk of islet dysfunction and T2D by increasing NFAT-mediated islet enhancer activity and modulating C2CD4B, and possibly C2CD4A, expression in (patho)physiologic states.

9.
Cancer Discov ; 8(6): 730-749, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510987

RESUMO

To understand the genetic drivers of immune recognition and evasion in colorectal cancer, we analyzed 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumor samples, including 179 classified as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high). This set includes The Cancer Genome Atlas colorectal cancer cohort of 592 samples, completed and analyzed here. MSI-high, a hypermutated, immunogenic subtype of colorectal cancer, had a high rate of significantly mutated genes in important immune-modulating pathways and in the antigen presentation machinery, including biallelic losses of B2M and HLA genes due to copy-number alterations and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. WNT/ß-catenin signaling genes were significantly mutated in all colorectal cancer subtypes, and activated WNT/ß-catenin signaling was correlated with the absence of T-cell infiltration. This large-scale genomic analysis of colorectal cancer demonstrates that MSI-high cases frequently undergo an immunoediting process that provides them with genetic events allowing immune escape despite high mutational load and frequent lymphocytic infiltration and, furthermore, that colorectal cancer tumors have genetic and methylation events associated with activated WNT signaling and T-cell exclusion.Significance: This multi-omic analysis of 1,211 colorectal cancer primary tumors reveals that it should be possible to better monitor resistance in the 15% of cases that respond to immune blockade therapy and also to use WNT signaling inhibitors to reverse immune exclusion in the 85% of cases that currently do not. Cancer Discov; 8(6); 730-49. ©2018 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 663.

10.
Gastroenterology ; 154(8): 2152-2164.e19, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guidelines for initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are based on family history but do not consider lifestyle, environmental, or genetic risk factors. We developed models to determine risk of CRC, based on lifestyle and environmental factors and genetic variants, and to identify an optimal age to begin screening. METHODS: We collected data from 9748 CRC cases and 10,590 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, from 1992 through 2005. Half of the participants were used to develop the risk determination model and the other half were used to evaluate the discriminatory accuracy (validation set). Models of CRC risk were created based on family history, 19 lifestyle and environmental factors (E-score), and 63 CRC-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies (G-score). We evaluated the discriminatory accuracy of the models by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values, adjusting for study, age, and endoscopy history for the validation set. We used the models to project the 10-year absolute risk of CRC for a given risk profile and recommend ages to begin screening in comparison to CRC risk for an average individual at 50 years of age, using external population incidence rates for non-Hispanic whites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program registry. RESULTS: In our models, E-score and G-score each determined risk of CRC with greater accuracy than family history. A model that combined both scores and family history estimated CRC risk with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.64) for men and 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.63) for women; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values based on only family history ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 and those based only E-score or G-score ranged from 0.59 to 0.60. Although screening is recommended to begin at age 50 years for individuals with no family history of CRC, starting ages calculated based on combined E-score and G-score differed by 12 years for men and 14 for women, for individuals with the highest vs the lowest 10% of risk. CONCLUSIONS: We used data from 2 large international consortia to develop CRC risk calculation models that included genetic and environmental factors along with family history. These determine risk of CRC and starting ages for screening with greater accuracy than the family history only model, which is based on the current screening guideline. These scoring systems might serve as a first step toward developing individualized CRC prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Modelos Biológicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(9): 1664-1674, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481666

RESUMO

Comprehensive metabolite profiling captures many highly heritable traits, including amino acid levels, which are potentially sensitive biomarkers for disease pathogenesis. To better understand the contribution of genetic variation to amino acid levels, we performed single variant and gene-based tests of association between nine serum amino acids (alanine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine) and 16.6 million genotyped and imputed variants in 8545 non-diabetic Finnish men from the METabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study with replication in Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966). We identified five novel loci associated with amino acid levels (P = < 5×10-8): LOC157273/PPP1R3B with glycine (rs9987289, P = 2.3×10-26); ZFHX3 (chr16:73326579, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.42%, P = 3.6×10-9), LIPC (rs10468017, P = 1.5×10-8), and WWOX (rs9937914, P = 3.8×10-8) with alanine; and TRIB1 with tyrosine (rs28601761, P = 8×10-9). Gene-based tests identified two novel genes harboring missense variants of MAF <1% that show aggregate association with amino acid levels: PYCR1 with glycine (Pgene = 1.5×10-6) and BCAT2 with valine (Pgene = 7.4×10-7); neither gene was implicated by single variant association tests. These findings are among the first applications of gene-based tests to identify new loci for amino acid levels. In addition to the seven novel gene associations, we identified five independent signals at established amino acid loci, including two rare variant signals at GLDC (rs138640017, MAF=0.95%, Pconditional = 5.8×10-40) with glycine levels and HAL (rs141635447, MAF = 0.46%, Pconditional = 9.4×10-11) with histidine levels. Examination of all single variant association results in our data revealed a strong inverse relationship between effect size and MAF (Ptrend<0.001). These novel signals provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms of amino acid metabolism and potentially, their perturbations in disease.

13.
Sci Data ; 4: 170179, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29257133

RESUMO

To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1-5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced individuals, and, to increase power, most were tested in larger numbers of individuals (>80% of low-frequency coding variants in ~82 K Europeans via the exome chip, and ~90% of low-frequency non-coding variants in ~44 K Europeans via genotype imputation). The variants, genotypes, and association statistics from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variação Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos
14.
PLoS Genet ; 13(10): e1007079, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084231

RESUMO

Lipid and lipoprotein subclasses are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, yet the genetic contributions to variability in subclass traits are not fully understood. We conducted single-variant and gene-based association tests between 15.1M variants from genome-wide and exome array and imputed genotypes and 72 lipid and lipoprotein traits in 8,372 Finns. After accounting for 885 variants at 157 previously identified lipid loci, we identified five novel signals near established loci at HIF3A, ADAMTS3, PLTP, LCAT, and LIPG. Four of the signals were identified with a low-frequency (0.005

Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Lipoproteínas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Triglicerídeos/genética , HDL-Colesterol/genética , Exoma/genética , Finlândia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(9): 1427-1435, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637796

RESUMO

Background: Many cancers share specific genetic risk factors, including both rare high-penetrance mutations and common SNPs identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, little is known about the overall shared heritability across cancers. Quantifying the extent to which two distinct cancers share genetic origin will give insights to shared biological mechanisms underlying cancer and inform design for future genetic association studies.Methods: In this study, we estimated the pair-wise genetic correlation between six cancer types (breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate) using cancer-specific GWAS summary statistics data based on 66,958 case and 70,665 control subjects of European ancestry. We also estimated genetic correlations between cancers and 14 noncancer diseases and traits.Results: After adjusting for 15 pair-wise genetic correlation tests between cancers, we found significant (P < 0.003) genetic correlations between pancreatic and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.55, P = 0.003), lung and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.31, P = 0.001). We also found suggestive genetic correlations between lung and breast cancer (rg = 0.27, P = 0.009), and colorectal and breast cancer (rg = 0.22, P = 0.01). In contrast, we found no evidence that prostate cancer shared an appreciable proportion of heritability with other cancers. After adjusting for 84 tests studying genetic correlations between cancer types and other traits (Bonferroni-corrected P value: 0.0006), only the genetic correlation between lung cancer and smoking remained significant (rg = 0.41, P = 1.03 × 10-6). We also observed nominally significant genetic correlations between body mass index and all cancers except ovarian cancer.Conclusions: Our results highlight novel genetic correlations and lend support to previous observational studies that have observed links between cancers and risk factors.Impact: This study demonstrates modest genetic correlations between cancers; in particular, breast, colorectal, and lung cancer share some degree of genetic basis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1427-35. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
16.
Nat Genet ; 48(10): 1151-1161, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618447

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, there is limited knowledge on specific causal genes and pathways. To better understand the genetics of blood pressure, we genotyped 242,296 rare, low-frequency and common genetic variants in up to 192,763 individuals and used ∼155,063 samples for independent replication. We identified 30 new blood pressure- or hypertension-associated genetic regions in the general population, including 3 rare missense variants in RBM47, COL21A1 and RRAS with larger effects (>1.5 mm Hg/allele) than common variants. Multiple rare nonsense and missense variant associations were found in A2ML1, and a low-frequency nonsense variant in ENPEP was identified. Our data extend the spectrum of allelic variation underlying blood pressure traits and hypertension, provide new insights into the pathophysiology of hypertension and indicate new targets for clinical intervention.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Variação Genética , Hipertensão/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos
17.
Nature ; 536(7614): 41-47, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27398621

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of common traits, including the number, frequency, and effect sizes of inherited variants that contribute to individual risk, has been long debated. Genome-wide association studies have identified scores of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes, but in aggregate, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of this disease. Here, to test the hypothesis that lower-frequency variants explain much of the remainder, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia performed whole-genome sequencing in 2,657 European individuals with and without diabetes, and exome sequencing in 12,940 individuals from five ancestry groups. To increase statistical power, we expanded the sample size via genotyping and imputation in a further 111,548 subjects. Variants associated with type 2 diabetes after sequencing were overwhelmingly common and most fell within regions previously identified by genome-wide association studies. Comprehensive enumeration of sequence variation is necessary to identify functional alleles that provide important clues to disease pathophysiology, but large-scale sequencing does not support the idea that lower-frequency variants have a major role in predisposition to type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Alelos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Exoma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Tamanho da Amostra
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(1): 174-87, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27392076

RESUMO

Autosomal-dominant tubulo-interstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) encompasses a group of disorders characterized by renal tubular and interstitial abnormalities, leading to slow progressive loss of kidney function requiring dialysis and kidney transplantation. Mutations in UMOD, MUC1, and REN are responsible for many, but not all, cases of ADTKD. We report on two families with ADTKD and congenital anemia accompanied by either intrauterine growth retardation or neutropenia. Ultrasound and kidney biopsy revealed small dysplastic kidneys with cysts and tubular atrophy with secondary glomerular sclerosis, respectively. Exclusion of known ADTKD genes coupled with linkage analysis, whole-exome sequencing, and targeted re-sequencing identified heterozygous missense variants in SEC61A1-c.553A>G (p.Thr185Ala) and c.200T>G (p.Val67Gly)-both affecting functionally important and conserved residues in SEC61. Both transiently expressed SEC6A1A variants are delocalized to the Golgi, a finding confirmed in a renal biopsy from an affected individual. Suppression or CRISPR-mediated deletions of sec61al2 in zebrafish embryos induced convolution defects of the pronephric tubules but not the pronephric ducts, consistent with the tubular atrophy observed in the affected individuals. Human mRNA encoding either of the two pathogenic alleles failed to rescue this phenotype as opposed to a complete rescue by human wild-type mRNA. Taken together, these findings provide a mechanism by which mutations in SEC61A1 lead to an autosomal-dominant syndromic form of progressive chronic kidney disease. We highlight protein translocation defects across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, the principal role of the SEC61 complex, as a contributory pathogenic mechanism for ADTKD.


Assuntos
Anemia/genética , Heterozigoto , Nefropatias/genética , Mutação , Canais de Translocação SEC/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Biópsia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Genes Dominantes , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Neutropenia/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Canais de Translocação SEC/química , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11764, 2016 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27353450

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from the combined effects of genetic and environmental factors on multiple tissues over time. Of the >100 variants associated with T2D and related traits in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), >90% occur in non-coding regions, suggesting a strong regulatory component to T2D risk. Here to understand how T2D status, metabolic traits and genetic variation influence gene expression, we analyse skeletal muscle biopsies from 271 well-phenotyped Finnish participants with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to newly diagnosed T2D. We perform high-depth strand-specific mRNA-sequencing and dense genotyping. Computational integration of these data with epigenome data, including ATAC-seq on skeletal muscle, and transcriptome data across diverse tissues reveals that the tissue-specific genetic regulatory architecture of skeletal muscle is highly enriched in muscle stretch/super enhancers, including some that overlap T2D GWAS variants. In one such example, T2D risk alleles residing in a muscle stretch/super enhancer are linked to increased expression and alternative splicing of muscle-specific isoforms of ANK1.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Alelos , Epigenômica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro , Análise de Sequência de RNA
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(10): 2070-2081, 2016 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26911676

RESUMO

To gain insight into potential regulatory mechanisms through which the effects of variants at four established type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility loci (CDKAL1, CDKN2A-B, IGF2BP2 and KCNQ1) are mediated, we undertook transancestral fine-mapping in 22 086 cases and 42 539 controls of East Asian, European, South Asian, African American and Mexican American descent. Through high-density imputation and conditional analyses, we identified seven distinct association signals at these four loci, each with allelic effects on T2D susceptibility that were homogenous across ancestry groups. By leveraging differences in the structure of linkage disequilibrium between diverse populations, and increased sample size, we localised the variants most likely to drive each distinct association signal. We demonstrated that integration of these genetic fine-mapping data with genomic annotation can highlight potential causal regulatory elements in T2D-relevant tissues. These analyses provide insight into the mechanisms through which T2D association signals are mediated, and suggest future routes to understanding the biology of specific disease susceptibility loci.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Afro-Americanos/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Canal de Potássio KCNQ1/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição/genética , tRNA Metiltransferases/genética
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