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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11825, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083671

RESUMO

Matching the antenna's impedance to the RF-front-end of a wireless communications system is challenging as the impedance varies with its surround environment. Autonomously matching the antenna to the RF-front-end is therefore essential to optimize power transfer and thereby maintain the antenna's radiation efficiency. This paper presents a theoretical technique for automatically tuning an LC impedance matching network that compensates antenna mismatch presented to the RF-front-end. The proposed technique converges to a matching point without the need of complex mathematical modelling of the system comprising of non-linear control elements. Digital circuitry is used to implement the required matching circuit. Reliable convergence is achieved within the tuning range of the LC-network using control-loops that can independently control the LC impedance. An algorithm based on the proposed technique was used to verify its effectiveness with various antenna loads. Mismatch error of the technique is less than 0.2%. The technique enables speedy convergence (< 5 µs) and is highly accurate for autonomous adaptive antenna matching networks.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10218, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986311

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of a study on developing an effective technique to increase the performance characteristics of antenna arrays for sub-THz integrated circuit applications. This is essential to compensate the limited power available from sub-THz sources. Although conventional array structures can provide a solution to enhance the radiation-gain performance however in the case of small-sized array structures the radiation properties can be adversely affected by mutual coupling that exists between the radiating elements. It is demonstrated here the effectiveness of using SIW technology to suppress surface wave propagations and near field mutual coupling effects. Prototype of 2 × 3 antenna arrays were designed and constructed on a polyimide dielectric substrate with thickness of 125 µm for operation across 0.19-0.20 THz. The dimensions of the array were 20 × 13.5 × 0.125 mm3. Metallization of the antenna was coated with 500 nm layer of Graphene. With the proposed technique the isolation between the radiating elements was improved on average by 22.5 dB compared to a reference array antenna with no SIW isolation. The performance of the array was enhanced by transforming the patch to exhibit metamaterial characteristics. This was achieved by embedding the patch antennas in the array with sub-wavelength slots. Compared to the reference array the metamaterial inspired structure exhibits improvement in isolation, radiation gain and efficiency on average by 28 dB, 6.3 dBi, and 34%, respectively. These results show the viability of proposed approach in developing antenna arrays for application in sub-THz integrated circuits.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7472, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811233

RESUMO

The paper demonstrates an effective technique to significantly enhance the bandwidth and radiation gain of an otherwise narrowband composite right/left-handed transmission-line (CRLH-TL) antenna using a non-Foster impedance matching circuit (NF-IMC) without affecting the antenna's stability. This is achieved by using the negative reactance of the NF-IMC to counteract the input capacitance of the antenna. Series capacitance of the CRLH-TL unit-cell is created by etching a dielectric spiral slot inside a rectangular microstrip patch that is grounded through a spiraled microstrip inductance. The overall size of the antenna, including the NF-IMC at its lowest operating frequency is 0.335λ0 × 0.137λ0 × 0.003λ0, where λ0 is the free-space wavelength at 1.4 GHz. The performance of the antenna was verified through actual measurements. The stable bandwidth of the antenna for |S11|≤ - 18 dB is greater than 1 GHz (1.4-2.45 GHz), which is significantly wider than the CRLH-TL antenna without the proposed impedance matching circuit. In addition, with the proposed technique the measured radiation gain and efficiency of the antenna are increased on average by 3.2 dBi and 31.5% over the operating frequency band.

4.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808116

RESUMO

Polycarbonate-carbon nanotube (PC-CNT) conductive composites containing CNT concentration covering 0.25-4.5 wt.% were prepared by melt blending extrusion. The alternating current (AC) conductivity of the composites has been investigated. The percolation threshold of the PC-CNT composites was theoretically determined using the classical theory of percolation followed by numerical analysis, quantifying the conductivity of PC-CNT at the critical volume CNT concentration. Different theoretical models like Bueche, McCullough and Mamunya have been applied to predict the AC conductivity of the composites using a hyperparameter optimization method. Through multiple series of the hyperparameter optimization process, it was found that McCullough and Mamunya theoretical models for electrical conductivity fit remarkably with our experimental results; the degree of chain branching and the aspect ratio are estimated to be 0.91 and 167 according to these models. The development of a new model based on a modified Sohi model is in good agreement with our data, with a coefficient of determination R2=0.922 for an optimized design model. The conductivity is correlated to the electromagnetic absorption (EM) index showing a fine fit with Steffen-Boltzmann (SB) model, indicating the ultimate CNTs volume concentration for microwave absorption at the studied frequency range.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17508, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060761

RESUMO

This paper presents two methods for the efficient evaluation of the power balance in circular metasurface (MTS) antennas implementing arbitrary modulated surface impedances on a grounded dielectric slab. Both methods assume the surface current in the homogenized MTS to be known. The first technique relies on the surface current expansion with Fourier-Bessel basis functions (FBBF) and proceeds by integration of the Poynting vector on a closed surface. The second method is based on the evaluation of the residue of the electric field spectrum at the surface-wave (SW) pole, and is demonstrated by using a current expansion in Gaussian ring basis functions (GRBF). The surface current expansions can be directly obtained either by analyzing the antenna with a Method of Moments (MoM) tool for homogenized MTSs based on FBBF or GRBF, or derived by a projection process. From there, the power contributions, namely the total power delivered by the feed, the radiated power, the SW power, and the Ohmic power losses in the dielectric are computed. Several efficiency metrics are presented and discussed: tapering efficiency, conversion efficiency, loss factor, and diffraction factor. Since the MTS apertures at hand are leaky-wave (LW) antennas, the designer must find a compromise between the aperture efficiency and the conversion efficiency. This requires accurate and fast computational techniques for the efficiency. The present paper demonstrates for the first time that the efficiency of MTS antenna devices can be accurately evaluated in a few minutes. The compromise that should be made during the design process between the tapering efficiency and the conversion efficiency is highlighted. The impact on the efficiency of isotropic versus anisotropic MTS, uniform versus non-uniform modulation index, is analyzed. An excellent agreement is obtained between both approaches, commercial software, and experimental data.

6.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(8)2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824164

RESUMO

Electronic devices that transmit, distribute, or utilize electrical energy create electromagnetic interference (EMI) that can lead to malfunctioning and degradation of electronic devices. EMI shielding materials block the unwanted electromagnetic waves from reaching the target material. EMI issues can be solved by using a new family of building blocks constituted of polymer and nanofillers. The electromagnetic absorption index of this material is calculated by measuring the "S-parameters". In this article, we investigated the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in the EMI shielding field by developing a new system based on a multilayer perceptron neural network designed to predict the electromagnetic absorption of polycarbonate-carbon nanotubes composites films. The proposed system included 15 different multilayer perception (MLP) networks; each network was specialized to predict the absorption value of a specific category sample. The selection of appropriate networks was done automatically, using an independent block. Optimization of the hyper-parameters using hold-out validation was required to ensure the best results. To evaluate the performance of our system, we calculated the similarity error, precision accuracy, and calculation time. The results obtained over our database showed clearly that the system provided a very good result with an average accuracy of 99.7997%, with an overall average calculation time of 0.01295 s. The composite based on polycarbonate-5 wt.% carbon nanotube was found to be the ultimate absorber over microwave range according to Rozanov formalism.

7.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(9)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858924

RESUMO

The current research reports the preparation of a microwave absorber containing CoFe2O4/NiFe2O4/Carbon fiber (H/S/CF) coated with polypyrrole polymer (PPy@H/S/CF) through sol-gel and in-situ polymerization processes. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and a vector network analyzer (VNA) are utilized to evaluate the features of the prepared composite. The microstructure analysis results revealed carbon fibers well decorated with submicron-size particles having hard/soft magnetic phases and thoroughly coated with polymer. The paraffin-based microwave absorber sample filled with 45 wt.% of PPy@H/S/CF has simultaneously both magnetic and dielectric losses in the 8.2-12.4 GHz frequency range. The absorber is used in a Salisbury screen configuration aiming at reducing the radar cross-section of objects. A minimum reflection loss of -55 dB at 10.6 GHz frequency with 5 GHz bandwidth is obtained for the sample with a 2 mm thickness. Different mechanisms, such as interfacial polarization, ferromagnetic resonance, and electron hopping, are the main factors for achieving such an appropriate microwave absorption. These results suggest that the PPy@H/S/CF composite is an ideal candidate for microwave absorption applications requiring high performance and low thickness.

8.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(5)2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370145

RESUMO

Initially inspired by the work of Richard Feynman in 1959 during his famous talk "There is plenty of room at the bottom", nanoscience and nanotechnology have moved during the 2000s from laboratory developments to daily life applications [...].

9.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450701

RESUMO

Electronic systems and telecommunication devices based on low-power microwaves, ranging from 2 to 40 GHz, have massively developed in the last decades. Their extensive use has contributed to the emergence of diverse electromagnetic interference (EMI) phenomena. Consequently, EMI shielding has become a ubiquitous necessity and, in certain countries, a legal requirement. Broadband absorption is considered the only convincing EMI shielding solution when the complete disappearance of the unwanted microwave is required. In this study, a new type of microwave absorber materials (MAMs) based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) decorated with zero-valent Fe@γ-Fe2O3 and Fe/Co/Ni carbon-protected alloy nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using the Pechini sol-gel method. Synthetic parameters were varied to determine their influence on the deposited NPs size and spatial distribution. The deposited superparamagnetic nanoparticles were found to induce a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) absorption process in all cases. Furthermore, a direct relationship between the nanocomposites' natural FMR frequency and their composition-dependent saturation magnetization (Ms) was established. Finally, the microwave absorption efficiency (0.4 MHz to 20 GHz) of these new materials was found to range from 60% to 100%, depending on the nature of the metallic particles grafted onto rGO.

10.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(7)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315239

RESUMO

This paper compares two laser-assisted processes developed by the authors for the fabrication of microwave devices based on nanowire arrays loaded inside porous alumina templates. Pros and cons of each process are discussed in terms of accuracy, reproducibility and ease of fabrication. A comparison with lithography technique is also provided. The efficiency of the laser-assisted process is demonstrated through the realization of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) based devices. A Nanowired SIW line is firstly presented. It operates between 8.5 and 17 GHz, corresponding to the first and second cut-off frequency of the waveguide, respectively. Next, a Nanowired SIW isolator is demonstrated. It shows a nonreciprocal isolation of 12 dB (corresponding to 4.4 dB/cm), observed in absence of a DC magnetic field, and achieved through an adequate positioning of ferromagnetic nanowires inside the waveguide cavity.

11.
Nanotechnology ; 27(23): 235301, 2016 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27138863

RESUMO

An experimental process for the fabrication of microwave devices made of nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric template is presented. A pulse laser process is used to produce a patterned surface mask on alumina templates, defining precisely the wire growing areas during electroplating. This technique makes it possible to finely position multiple nanowire arrays in the template, as well as produce large areas and complex structures, combining transmission line sections with various nanowire heights. The efficiency of this process is demonstrated through the realisation of a microstrip electromagnetic band-gap filter and a substrate-integrated waveguide.

12.
Nanotechnology ; 25(14): 145303, 2014 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24633069

RESUMO

We describe a method for continuous colloidal pattern replication using contact photolithography. Cr-on-quartz masks are fabricated using colloidal nanosphere lithography and subsequently used as photolithography stamps. Hexagonal pattern arrangements with different dimensions (980, 620 and 480 nm, using colloidal particles with these respective diameters) have been studied. When the mask and the imaged resist layer were in intimate contact, a high fidelity pattern replica was obtained after photolithographic exposure and processing. In turn, the presence of an air gap in between was found to affect the projected image on the photoresist layer, with a strong dependence on the mask feature size and height of the air gap. Pattern replication, inversion and hybridization were achieved for the 980 nm period mask; no hybridization for the 620 nm one; and only pattern replication for the 480 nm one. These results are interpreted in the framework of a 'Talbot-Fabry-Perot' effect. Numerical simulations corroborate the experimental findings, providing insight into the processes involved and highlighting the important parameters affecting the exposure pattern. This approach allows complex subwavelength patterning and is relevant for three-dimensional layer-by-layer printing.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 23(28): 285708, 2012 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22728662

RESUMO

Lenses are by far the most simple tools for visualization. Although they are intrinsically limited in resolution, recent efforts have aimed at focusing visible light in micro-scale lenses with subwavelength resolution, triggering an intense interest in further improving and understanding their performances. Herein, we report on a distinctive library of wavelength-scale solid immersion lenses facilitated the self-assembly of polystyrene colloidal particles. The thermally activated structural changes in polystyrene colloidal spheres directly impact the optical performance of the obtained lenses. Similar melting dynamics is observed for spheres of various size spheres at different temperatures. This allows precise control of the contact angle spanning a broad range from 180° to <20°. The fabricated lenses display deviations from the ray optics, allowing us to resolve features as small as 180 nm using a simple microscopy setup. We succeed in proper self-assembly of the colloidal lenses that enables large-area optical nanoscopy through simple and reliable experimental protocols. The limitations and the artifacts of the present technique are discussed.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Lentes , Microscopia/instrumentação , Poliestirenos/química , Temperatura
14.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 33(3): 199-205, 2012 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22184052

RESUMO

A polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer bearing a photocleavable junction between the blocks is used to form nanoporous thin films with carboxylic acid functions homogeneously distributed on the pore walls. The presence of the carboxylic acid groups is evidenced by fluorescence spectroscopy after their reaction with a diazomethane functionalized fluorescent dye. In addition, the initial light-responsive thin film, acting as a photoresist, can be easily patterned to selectively generate porosity in predetermined areas. In that way, fluorescent patterns can be obtained as evidenced by fluorescent microscopy.


Assuntos
Nanoporos/ultraestrutura , Fotólise , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Poliestirenos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 47(9): 2544-6, 2011 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21225046

RESUMO

The reduction of graphite oxide (GO) in the presence of reactive poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), under mild biphasic conditions, directly affords graphene grafted with PMMA. The resulting nanocomposite shows excellent electrical conductivities resulting from the optimal dispersion and exfoliation of graphene in the polymer matrix.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 46(19): 3330-2, 2010 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20386796

RESUMO

In this communication, we prepared carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified by poly(vinyl alcohol) that are used as co-stabilizers for the dispersion polymerization of methyl methacrylate. Poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres with CNTs selectively located at their surface are formed. This specific localization is a way to enhance the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Microesferas , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
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