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1.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the optimum diameter threshold for solid nodules to define positive results at baseline screening low-dose CT (LDCT) and to compare two-dimensional and volumetric measurement of lung nodules for the diagnosis of lung cancers. METHODS: We included consecutive participants from the Korean Lung Cancer Screening project between 2017 and 2018. The average transverse diameter and effective diameter (diameter of a sphere with the same volume) of lung nodules were measured by semi-automated segmentation. Diagnostic performances for lung cancers diagnosed within 1 year after LDCT were evaluated using area under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUCs), sensitivities, and specificities, with diameter thresholds for solid nodules ranging from 6 to 10 mm. The reduction of unnecessary follow-up LDCTs and the diagnostic delay of lung cancers were estimated for each threshold. RESULTS: Fifty-two lung cancers were diagnosed among 10,424 (10,141 men; median age 62 years) participants within 1 year after LDCT. Average transverse (0.980) and effective diameters (0.981) showed similar AUCs (p = .739). Elevating the average transverse diameter threshold from 6 to 9 mm resulted in a significantly increased specificity (91.7 to 96.7%, p < .001), a modest reduction in sensitivity (96.2 to 94.2%, p = .317), a 60.2% estimated reduction of unnecessary follow-up LDCTs, and a diagnostic delay in 1.9% of lung cancers. Elevating the threshold to 10 mm led to a significant reduction in sensitivity (86.5%, p = .025). CONCLUSIONS: Elevating the diameter threshold for solid nodules from 6 to 9 mm may lead to a substantial reduction in unnecessary follow-up LDCTs with a small proportion of diagnostic delay of lung cancers. KEY POINTS: • Elevation of the diameter threshold for solid nodules from 6 to 9 mm can substantially reduce unnecessary follow-up LDCTs with a small proportion of diagnostic delay of lung cancers. • The average transverse and effective diameters of lung nodules showed similar performances for the prediction of a lung cancer diagnosis.

2.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(1): 155-161, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Meteorin-like protein (METRNL) (also known as IL-41), recently identified as a myokine, is released in response to muscle contraction. It improves the skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through exerting a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect. However, no independent studies have been published to verify the effects of METRNL on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and THP-1 human monocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The levels of NFκB and IκB phosphorylation as well as the expression of adhesion molecules were assessed by Western blotting analysis. Cell adhesion assay demonstrated the interactions between HUVEC and THP-1 â€‹cells. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the levels of TNFα and MCP-1 in culture medium. RESULTS: Treatment with METRNL suppressed the secretion of TNFα and MCP-1 as well as NFκB and IκB phosphorylation and inflammatory markers in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated HUVECs and THP-1 â€‹cells. Furthermore, treatment with METRNL ameliorated LPS-induced attachment of THP-1 monocytes to HUVECs via inhibition of adhesion molecule expression and apoptosis. Treatment of HUVEC and THP-1 â€‹cells with METRNL enhanced AMPK phosphorylation and PPARδ expression in a dose-dependent manner. Small interference (si) RNA-mediated suppression of AMPK or PPARδ restored all these changes. CONCLUSIONS: It has therefore been shown that METRNL ameliorates inflammatory responses through AMPK and PPARδ-dependent pathways in LPS-treated HUVEC. In sum, the current study may suggest the suppressive potential of METRNL against endothelial inflammation.

3.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243843

RESUMO

We aimed to develop a deep-learning algorithm detecting 10 common abnormalities (DLAD-10) on chest radiographs and to evaluate its impact in diagnostic accuracy, timeliness of reporting, and workflow efficacy.DLAD-10 was trained with 146 717 radiographs from 108 053 patients using a ResNet34-based neural network with lesion-specific channels for 10 common radiologic abnormalities (pneumothorax, mediastinal widening, pneumoperitoneum, nodule/mass, consolidation, pleural effusion, linear atelectasis, fibrosis, calcification, and cardiomegaly). For external validation, the performance of DLAD-10 on a same-day CT-confirmed dataset (normal:abnormal, 53:147) and an open-source dataset (PadChest; normal:abnormal, 339:334) was compared to that of three radiologists. Separate simulated reading tests were conducted on another dataset adjusted to real-world disease prevalence in the emergency department, consisting of four critical, 52 urgent, and 146 non-urgent cases. Six radiologists participated in the simulated reading sessions with and without DLAD-10.DLAD-10 exhibited areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) of 0.895-1.00 in the CT-confirmed dataset and 0.913-0.997 in the PadChest dataset. DLAD-10 correctly classified significantly more critical abnormalities (95.0% [57/60]) than pooled radiologists (84.4% [152/180]; p=0.01). In simulated reading tests for emergency department patients, pooled readers detected significantly more critical (70.8% [17/24] versus 29.2% [7/24]; p=0.006) and urgent (82.7% [258/312] versus 78.2% [244/312]; p=0.04) abnormalities when aided by DLAD-10. DLAD-10 assistance shortened the mean time-to-report critical and urgent radiographs (640.5±466.3 versus 3371.0±1352.5 s and 1840.3±1141.1 versus 2127.1±1468.2, respectively; p-values<0.01) and reduced the mean interpretation time (20.5±22.8 versus 23.5±23.7 s; p<0.001).DLAD-10 showed excellent performance, improving radiologists' performance and shortening the reporting time for critical and urgent cases.

4.
Korean J Radiol ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236542

RESUMO

Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) is one of the essential diagnostic procedures for pulmonary lesions. Its role is increasing in the era of CT screening for lung cancer and precision medicine. The Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology developed the first evidence-based clinical guideline for PTNB in Korea by adapting pre-existing guidelines. The guideline provides 39 recommendations for the following four main domains of 12 key questions: the indications for PTNB, pre-procedural evaluation, procedural technique of PTNB and its accuracy, and management of post-biopsy complications. We hope that these recommendations can improve the diagnostic accuracy and safety of PTNB in clinical practice and promote standardization of the procedure nationwide.

5.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the degree of variability in computer-assisted interpretation of low-dose chest CTs (LDCTs) among radiologists in a nationwide lung cancer screening (LCS) program, through comparison with a retrospective interpretation from a central laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive baseline LDCTs (n = 3353) from a nationwide LCS program were investigated. In the institutional reading, 20 radiologists in 14 institutions interpreted LDCTs using computer-aided detection and semi-automated segmentation systems for lung nodules. In the retrospective central review, a single radiologist re-interpreted all LDCTs using the same system, recording any non-calcified nodules ≥ 3 mm without arbitrary rejection of semi-automated segmentation to minimize the intervention of radiologist's discretion. Positive results (requiring additional follow-up LDCTs or diagnostic procedures) were initially classified by the lung CT screening reporting and data system (Lung-RADS) during the interpretation, while the classifications based on the volumetric criteria from the Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening trial (NELSON) were retrospectively applied. Variabilities in positive rates were assessed with coefficients of variation (CVs). RESULTS: In the institutional reading, positive rates by the Lung-RADS ranged from 7.5 to 43.3%, and those by the NELSON ranged from 11.4 to 45.0% across radiologists. The central review exhibited higher positive rates by Lung-RADS (20.0% vs. 27.3%; p < .001) and the NELSON (23.1% vs. 37.0%; p < .001), and lower inter-institution variability (CV, 0.30 vs. 0.12, p = .003 by Lung-RADS; CV, 0.25 vs. 0.12, p = .014 by the NELSON) compared to the institutional reading. CONCLUSION: Considerable inter-institution variability in the interpretation of LCS results is caused by different usage of the computer-assisted system. KEY POINTS: • Considerable variability existed in the interpretation of screening LDCT among radiologists partly from the different usage of the computerized system. • A retrospective reading of low-dose chest CTs in the central laboratory resulted in reduced variability but an increased positive rate.

6.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a preoperative CT-based deep learning model for the prediction of visceral pleural invasion (VPI) in early-stage lung cancer. METHODS: In this retrospective study, dataset 1 (for training, tuning, and internal validation) included 676 patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinomas resected between 2009 and 2015. Dataset 2 (for temporal validation) included 141 patients with clinical stage I adenocarcinomas resected between 2017 and 2018. A CT-based deep learning model was developed for the prediction of VPI and validated in terms of discrimination and calibration. An observer performance study and a multivariable regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the model was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.67-0.84), which was comparable to those of board-certified radiologists (AUC, 0.73-0.79; all p > 0.05). The model had a higher standardized partial AUC for a specificity range of 90 to 100% than the radiologists (all p < 0.05). The high sensitivity cutoff (0.245) yielded a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 31.2%, and the high specificity cutoff (0.448) resulted in a sensitivity of 47.9% and a specificity of 86.0%. Two of the three radiologists provided highly sensitive (93.8% and 97.9%) but not specific (48.4% and 40.9%) diagnoses. The model showed good calibration (p > 0.05), and its output was an independent predictor for VPI (adjusted odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The deep learning model demonstrated a radiologist-level performance. The model could achieve either highly sensitive or highly specific diagnoses depending on clinical needs. KEY POINTS: • The preoperative CT-based deep learning model demonstrated an expert-level diagnostic performance for the presence of visceral pleural invasion in early-stage lung cancer. • Radiologists had a tendency toward highly sensitive, but not specific diagnoses for the visceral pleural invasion.

7.
Radiology ; 297(3): 687-696, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960729

RESUMO

Background The performance of a deep learning algorithm for lung cancer detection on chest radiographs in a health screening population is unknown. Purpose To validate a commercially available deep learning algorithm for lung cancer detection on chest radiographs in a health screening population. Materials and Methods Out-of-sample testing of a deep learning algorithm was retrospectively performed using chest radiographs from individuals undergoing a comprehensive medical check-up between July 2008 and December 2008 (validation test). To evaluate the algorithm performance for visible lung cancer detection, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and diagnostic measures, including sensitivity and false-positive rate (FPR), were calculated. The algorithm performance was compared with that of radiologists using the McNemar test and the Moskowitz method. Additionally, the deep learning algorithm was applied to a screening cohort undergoing chest radiography between January 2008 and December 2012, and its performances were calculated. Results In a validation test comprising 10 285 radiographs from 10 202 individuals (mean age, 54 years ± 11 [standard deviation]; 5857 men) with 10 radiographs of visible lung cancers, the algorithm's AUC was 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1), and it showed comparable sensitivity (90% [nine of 10 radiographs]) to that of the radiologists (60% [six of 10 radiographs]; P = .25) with a higher FPR (3.1% [319 of 10 275 radiographs] vs 0.3% [26 of 10 275 radiographs]; P < .001). In the screening cohort of 100 525 chest radiographs from 50 070 individuals (mean age, 53 years ± 11; 28 090 men) with 47 radiographs of visible lung cancers, the algorithm's AUC was 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 0.99), and its sensitivity and FPR were 83% (39 of 47 radiographs) and 3% (2999 of 100 478 radiographs), respectively. Conclusion A deep learning algorithm detected lung cancers on chest radiographs with a performance comparable to that of radiologists, which will be helpful for radiologists in healthy populations with a low prevalence of lung cancer. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Armato in this issue.

8.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Performance of deep learning-based automated detection (DLAD) algorithms in systematic screening for active pulmonary tuberculosis is unknown. We aimed to validate DLAD algorithm for detection of active pulmonary tuberculosis and any radiologically identifiable relevant abnormality on chest radiographs (CRs) in this setting. METHODS: We performed out-of-sample testing of a pre-trained DLAD algorithm, using CRs from 19.686 asymptomatic individuals (ages, 21.3 ± 1.9 years) as part of systematic screening for tuberculosis between January 2013 and July 2018. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for diagnosis of tuberculosis and any relevant abnormalities were measured. Accuracy measures including sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs) were calculated at pre-defined operating thresholds (high sensitivity threshold, 0.16; high specificity threshold, 0.46). RESULTS: All five CRs from four individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis were correctly classified as having abnormal findings by DLAD with specificities of 0.959 and 0.997, PPVs of 0.006 and 0.068, and NPVs of both 1.000 at high sensitivity and high specificity thresholds, respectively. With high specificity thresholds, DLAD showed comparable diagnostic measures with the pooled radiologists (p values > 0.05). For the radiologically identifiable relevant abnormality (n = 28), DLAD showed an AUC value of 0.967 (95% confidence interval, 0.938-0.996) with sensitivities of 0.821 and 0.679, specificities of 0.960 and 0.997, PPVs of 0.028 and 0.257, and NPVs of both 0.999 at high sensitivity and high specificity thresholds, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In systematic screening for tuberculosis in a low-prevalence setting, DLAD algorithm demonstrated excellent diagnostic performance, comparable with the radiologists in the detection of active pulmonary tuberculosis. KEY POINTS: • Deep learning-based automated detection algorithm detected all chest radiographs with active pulmonary tuberculosis with high specificities and negative predictive values in systematic screening. • Deep learning-based automated detection algorithm had comparable diagnostic measures with the radiologists for detection of active pulmonary tuberculosis on chest radiographs. • For the detection of radiologically identifiable relevant abnormalities on chest radiographs, deep learning-based automated detection algorithm showed excellent diagnostic performance in systematic screening.

9.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the CT interpretation before and after the implementation of a computerized system for lung nodule detection and measurements in a nationwide lung cancer screening program. METHODS: Our screening program started in April 2017, with 14 participating institutions. Initially, all CTs were interpreted using interpretation systems in each institution and manual nodule measurement (conventional system). A cloud-based CT interpretation system, equipped with semi-automated measurement and CAD (computer-aided detection) for lung nodules (cloud-based system), was implemented during the project. Positive rates and performances for lung cancer diagnosis based on the Lung-RADS version 1.0 were compared between the conventional and cloud-based systems. RESULTS: A total of 1821 (M:F = 1782:39, mean age 62.7 years, 16 confirmed lung cancers) and 4666 participants (M:F = 4560:106, mean age 62.8 years, 31 confirmed lung cancers) were included in the conventional and cloud-based systems, respectively. Significantly more nodules were detected in the cloud-based system (0.76 vs. 1.07 nodule/participant, p < .001). Positive rate did not differ significantly between the two systems (9.9% vs. 11.0%, p = .211), while their variability across institutions was significantly lower in the cloud-based system (coefficients of variability, 0.519 vs. 0.311, p = .018). The Lung-RADS-based sensitivity (93.8% vs. 93.5%, p = .979) and specificity (90.9% vs. 89.6%, p = .132) did not differ significantly between the two systems. CONCLUSION: Implementation of CAD and semi-automated measurement for lung nodules in a nationwide lung cancer screening program resulted in increased number of detected nodules and reduced variability in positive rates across institutions. KEY POINTS: • Computer-aided CT reading detected more lung nodules than radiologists alone in lung cancer screening. • Positive rate in lung cancer screening did not change with computer-aided reading. • Computer-aided CT reading reduced inter-institutional variability in lung cancer screening.

10.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(10): 1150-1160, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience of implementing a deep learning-based computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the interpretation of chest X-ray radiographs (CXR) of suspected coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients and investigate the diagnostic performance of CXR interpretation with CAD assistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, initial CXR of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were investigated. A commercialized deep learning-based CAD system that can identify various abnormalities on CXR was implemented for the interpretation of CXR in daily practice. The diagnostic performance of radiologists with CAD assistance were evaluated based on two different reference standards: 1) real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) results for COVID-19 and 2) pulmonary abnormality suggesting pneumonia on chest CT. The turnaround times (TATs) of radiology reports for CXR and rRT-PCR results were also evaluated. RESULTS: Among 332 patients (male:female, 173:159; mean age, 57 years) with available rRT-PCR results, 16 patients (4.8%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. Using CXR, radiologists with CAD assistance identified rRT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients with sensitivity and specificity of 68.8% and 66.7%, respectively. Among 119 patients (male:female, 75:44; mean age, 69 years) with available chest CTs, radiologists assisted by CAD reported pneumonia on CXR with a sensitivity of 81.5% and a specificity of 72.3%. The TATs of CXR reports were significantly shorter than those of rRT-PCR results (median 51 vs. 507 minutes; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Radiologists with CAD assistance could identify patients with rRT-PCR-positive COVID-19 or pneumonia on CXR with a reasonably acceptable performance. In patients suspected with COVID-19, CXR had much faster TATs than rRT-PCRs.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado Profundo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
11.
Eur Radiol ; 30(12): 6902-6912, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the calibration of a deep learning (DL) model in a diagnostic cohort and to improve model's calibration through recalibration procedures. METHODS: Chest radiographs (CRs) from 1135 consecutive patients (M:F = 582:553; mean age, 52.6 years) who visited our emergency department were included. A commercialized DL model was utilized to identify abnormal CRs, with a continuous probability score for each CR. After evaluation of the model calibration, eight different methods were used to recalibrate the original model based on the probability score. The original model outputs were recalibrated using 681 randomly sampled CRs and validated using the remaining 454 CRs. The Brier score for overall performance, average and maximum calibration error, absolute Spiegelhalter's Z for calibration, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for discrimination were evaluated in 1000-times repeated, randomly split datasets. RESULTS: The original model tended to overestimate the likelihood for the presence of abnormalities, exhibiting average and maximum calibration error of 0.069 and 0.179, respectively; an absolute Spiegelhalter's Z value of 2.349; and an AUROC of 0.949. After recalibration, significant improvements in the average (range, 0.015-0.036) and maximum (range, 0.057-0.172) calibration errors were observed in eight and five methods, respectively. Significant improvement in absolute Spiegelhalter's Z (range, 0.809-4.439) was observed in only one method (the recalibration constant). Discriminations were preserved in six methods (AUROC, 0.909-0.949). CONCLUSION: The calibration of DL algorithm can be augmented through simple recalibration procedures. Improved calibration may enhance the interpretability and credibility of the model for users. KEY POINTS: • A deep learning model tended to overestimate the likelihood of the presence of abnormalities in chest radiographs. • Simple recalibration of the deep learning model using output scores could improve the calibration of model while maintaining discrimination. • Improved calibration of a deep learning model may enhance the interpretability and the credibility of the model for users.

12.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(5): 511-525, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323497

RESUMO

Chest X-ray radiography and computed tomography, the two mainstay modalities in thoracic radiology, are under active investigation with deep learning technology, which has shown promising performance in various tasks, including detection, classification, segmentation, and image synthesis, outperforming conventional methods and suggesting its potential for clinical implementation. However, the implementation of deep learning in daily clinical practice is in its infancy and facing several challenges, such as its limited ability to explain the output results, uncertain benefits regarding patient outcomes, and incomplete integration in daily workflow. In this review article, we will introduce the potential clinical applications of deep learning technology in thoracic radiology and discuss several challenges for its implementation in daily clinical practice.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Eur Radiol ; 30(7): 3660-3671, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pneumothorax is the most common and potentially life-threatening complication arising from percutaneous lung biopsy. We evaluated the performance of a deep learning algorithm for detection of post-biopsy pneumothorax in chest radiographs (CRs), in consecutive cohorts reflecting actual clinical situation. METHODS: We retrospectively included post-biopsy CRs of 1757 consecutive patients (1055 men, 702 women; mean age of 65.1 years) undergoing percutaneous lung biopsies from three institutions. A commercially available deep learning algorithm analyzed each CR to identify pneumothorax. We compared the performance of the algorithm with that of radiology reports made in the actual clinical practice. We also conducted a reader study, in which the performance of the algorithm was compared with those of four radiologists. Performances of the algorithm and radiologists were evaluated by area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs), sensitivity, and specificity, with reference standards defined by thoracic radiologists. RESULTS: Pneumothorax occurred in 17.5% (308/1757) of cases, out of which 16.6% (51/308) required catheter drainage. The AUROC, sensitivity, and specificity of the algorithm were 0.937, 70.5%, and 97.7%, respectively, for identification of pneumothorax. The algorithm exhibited higher sensitivity (70.2% vs. 55.5%, p < 0.001) and lower specificity (97.7% vs. 99.8%, p < 0.001), compared with those of radiology reports. In the reader study, the algorithm exhibited lower sensitivity (77.3% vs. 81.8-97.7%) and higher specificity (97.6% vs. 81.7-96.0%) than the radiologists. CONCLUSION: The deep learning algorithm appropriately identified pneumothorax in post-biopsy CRs in consecutive diagnostic cohorts. It may assist in accurate and timely diagnosis of post-biopsy pneumothorax in clinical practice. KEY POINTS: • A deep learning algorithm can identify chest radiographs with post-biopsy pneumothorax in multicenter consecutive cohorts reflecting actual clinical situation. • The deep learning algorithm has a potential role as a surveillance tool for accurate and timely diagnosis of post-biopsy pneumothorax.

14.
Radiology ; 295(2): 448-455, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181731

RESUMO

Background It remains unclear whether 5 years of stability is sufficient to establish the benign behavior of subsolid nodules (SSNs) of the lung. There are no guidelines for the length of follow-up needed for these SSNs. Purpose To investigate the incidence of interval growth of pulmonary SSNs 6 mm or greater in diameter after 5 years of stability and their clinical outcome. Materials and Methods This retrospective study assessed SSNs 6 mm or greater that were stable for 5 years after detection (January 2002 to December 2018). The incidence of interval growth after 5 years of stability and the clinical and radiologic features of these SSNs were investigated. Clinical stage shifts of growing SSNs, presence of metastasis, and overall survival were assessed during the follow-up period. Subgroup analysis was performed in patients with nonenhanced thin-section (section thickness ≤1.5 mm) CT for interval growth after 5 years of stability. Results A total of 235 SSNs in 235 patients (mean age, 64 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; 132 women) were evaluated. There were 212 pure ground-glass nodules and 24 part-solid nodules. During follow-up (median, 112 months; range, 84-208 months), five of the 235 SSNs (2%; three primary ground-glass nodules and two part-solid nodules) showed interval growth. Three of these five growing SSNs were 10 mm or greater. Three of the five SSNs with interval growth had clinical stage shifts after growth (from Tis [in situ] to T1mi [minimally invasive] in one lesion; from T1mi to T1a in two lesions). There were no deaths or metastases from lung cancer during follow-up. Of 160 SSNs imaged with section thickness of 1.5 mm or less, two (1%) grew; both lesions were 10 mm or greater. Conclusion Only 2% of subsolid pulmonary nodules greater than or equal to 6 mm that had been stable for 5 years showed subsequent growth. At median follow-up of 9 years (after the initial 5-year period of stability), growth of those lung nodules had no clinical effect. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by Naidich and Azour in this issue.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/patologia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 214(3): 514-523, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to investigate the utility of FDG PET/CT for the preoperative staging of subsolid non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) with a solid portion size of 3 cm or smaller. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively enrolled 855 patients with pathologically proven NSCLCs manifesting as subsolid nodules with a solid portion of 3 cm or smaller on CT. We then compared the diagnostic performances of FDG PET/CT and chest CT for detecting lymph node (LN), intrathoracic, or distant metastases in patients who underwent preoperative chest CT and FDG PET/CT. After propensity score matching, we compared the diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT in the group who underwent both chest CT and FDG PET/CT with that of chest CT in patients who did not undergo FDG PET/CT. RESULTS. There were LN metastases in 25 of 765 patients (3.3%) who underwent surgical LN dissection or biopsy and intrathoracic or distant metastasis in two of 855 patients (0.2%). For LN staging, FDG PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 44.0%, specificity of 81.5%, positive predictive value of 9.6%, negative predictive value of 97.0%, and accuracy of 79.9%, which were lower than those of chest CT for accuracy (p < 0.0001). FDG PET/CT could not accurately detect any intrathoracic or distant metastasis. After propensity score matching, the diagnostic accuracy for LN staging of FDG PET/CT in the group who underwent both CT and FDG PET/CT was lower than that of chest CT in the group who did not undergo FDG PET/CT (p = 0.002), and the diagnostic accuracy for intrathoracic and distant metastases was not different (p > 0.999). CONCLUSION. FDG PET/CT has limited utility in preoperatively detecting LN or distant metastasis in patients with subsolid NSCLCs with a solid portion size of 3 cm or smaller.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/patologia , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Pontuação de Propensão , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Radiology ; 293(3): 573-580, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638490

RESUMO

BackgroundThe performance of a deep learning (DL) algorithm should be validated in actual clinical situations, before its clinical implementation.PurposeTo evaluate the performance of a DL algorithm for identifying chest radiographs with clinically relevant abnormalities in the emergency department (ED) setting.Materials and MethodsThis single-center retrospective study included consecutive patients who visited the ED and underwent initial chest radiography between January 1 and March 31, 2017. Chest radiographs were analyzed with a commercially available DL algorithm. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated by determining the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity at predefined operating cutoffs (high-sensitivity and high-specificity cutoffs). The sensitivities and specificities of the algorithm were compared with those of the on-call radiology residents who interpreted the chest radiographs in the actual practice by using McNemar tests. If there were discordant findings between the algorithm and resident, the residents reinterpreted the chest radiographs by using the algorithm's output.ResultsA total of 1135 patients (mean age, 53 years ± 18; 582 men) were evaluated. In the identification of abnormal chest radiographs, the algorithm showed an AUC of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93, 0.96), a sensitivity of 88.7% (227 of 256 radiographs; 95% CI: 84.1%, 92.3%), and a specificity of 69.6% (612 of 879 radiographs; 95% CI: 66.5%, 72.7%) at the high-sensitivity cutoff and a sensitivity of 81.6% (209 of 256 radiographs; 95% CI: 76.3%, 86.2%) and specificity of 90.3% (794 of 879 radiographs; 95% CI: 88.2%, 92.2%) at the high-specificity cutoff. Radiology residents showed lower sensitivity (65.6% [168 of 256 radiographs; 95% CI: 59.5%, 71.4%], P < .001) and higher specificity (98.1% [862 of 879 radiographs; 95% CI: 96.9%, 98.9%], P < .001) compared with the algorithm. After reinterpretation of chest radiographs with use of the algorithm's outputs, the sensitivity of the residents improved (73.4% [188 of 256 radiographs; 95% CI: 68.0%, 78.8%], P = .003), whereas specificity was reduced (94.3% [829 of 879 radiographs; 95% CI: 92.8%, 95.8%], P < .001).ConclusionA deep learning algorithm used with emergency department chest radiographs showed diagnostic performance for identifying clinically relevant abnormalities and helped improve the sensitivity of radiology residents' evaluation.Published under a CC BY 4.0 license.Online supplemental material is available for this article.See also the editorial by Munera and Infante in this issue.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Radiografia Torácica , Adulto , Idoso , Competência Clínica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Korean J Radiol ; 20(5): 854-861, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters for differentiation of cysts from and solid masses in the anterior mediastinum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The development dataset included 18 patients from two institutions with pathologically-proven cysts (n = 6) and solid masses (n = 12) in the anterior mediastinum. We measured the maximum diameter, normalized T1 and T2 signal intensity (nT1 and nT2), normalized apparent diffusion coefficient (nADC), and relative enhancement ratio (RER) of each lesion. RERs were obtained by non-rigid registration and subtraction of precontrast and postcontrast T1-weighted images. Differentiation criteria between cysts and solid masses were identified based on receiver operating characteristics analysis. For validation, two separate datasets were utilized: 15 patients with 8 cysts and 7 solid masses from another institution (validation dataset 1); and 11 patients with clinically diagnosed cysts stable for more than two years (validation dataset 2). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated from the validation datasets. RESULTS: nT2, nADC, and RER significantly differed between cysts and solid masses (p = 0.032, 0.013, and < 0.001, respectively). The following criteria differentiated cysts from solid masses: RER < 26.1%; nADC > 0.63; nT2 > 0.39. In validation dataset 1, the sensitivity of the RER, nADC, and nT2 criteria was 87.5%, 100%, and 75.0%, and the specificity was 100%, 40.0%, and 57.4%, respectively. In validation dataset 2, the sensitivity of the RER, nADC, and nT2 criteria was 90.9%, 90.9%, and 72.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Quantitative MRI criteria using nT2, nADC, and particularly RER can assist differentiation of cysts from solid masses in the anterior mediastinum.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Cisto Mediastínico/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Mediastino/diagnóstico , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Cisto Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisto Mediastínico/patologia , Neoplasias do Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Mediastino/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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