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1.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic endonasal approaches pose the potential risk of olfactory loss. Loss of olfaction and potentially taste can be permanent and greatly affect patients' quality of life. Treatments for olfactory loss have had limited success. Omega-3 supplementation may be a therapeutic option with its effect on wound healing and nerve regeneration. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on olfaction in patients treated with omega-3 supplementation following endoscopic skull base tumor resection. METHODS: In this multi-institutional, prospective, randomized controlled trial, 110 patients with sellar or parasellar tumors undergoing endoscopic resection were randomized to nasal saline irrigations or nasal saline irrigations plus omega-3 supplementation. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered preoperatively and at 6 wk, 3 mo, and 6 mo postoperatively. RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients completed all 6 mo of follow-up (41 control arm, 46 omega-3 arm). At 6 wk postoperatively, 25% of patients in both groups experienced a clinically significant loss in olfaction. At 3 and 6 mo, patients receiving omega-3 demonstrated significantly less persistent olfactory loss compared to patients without supplementation (P = .02 and P = .01, respectively). After controlling for multiple confounding variables, omega-3 supplementation was found to be protective against olfactory loss (odds ratio [OR] 0.05, 95% CI 0.003-0.81, P = .03). Tumor functionality was a significant independent predictor for olfactory loss (OR 32.7, 95% CI 1.15-929.5, P = .04). CONCLUSION: Omega-3 supplementation appears to be protective for the olfactory system during the healing period in patients who undergo endoscopic resection of sellar and parasellar masses.

3.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(1): 114-120, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to characterize changes in hemodynamics, pain, and anxiety during office-based endoscopic sinus procedures performed under local anesthesia. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of adults undergoing in-office endoscopic sinus procedures under local anesthesia. Patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System class 1 or 2 were included. Anesthesia was administered by topical 4% lidocaine/oxymetazoline and submucosal injection of 1% lidocaine/1:200,000 epinephrine. Vital signs and pain were measured at baseline, postinjection, and 5-minute intervals throughout the procedure. Anxiety levels were scored using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors significantly associated with changes in each hemodynamic metric. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were studied. This cohort was 52% male, mean age of 57.8 ± 14.4 years, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) median of 2. Mean procedure duration was 25.0 ± 10.3 minutes. Mean maximal increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 24.6 ± 17.8 mmHg from baseline. Mean maximal heart rate increase was 22.8 ± 10.8 beats per minute (bpm) from baseline. In multivariate regression analysis, when accounting for patient age, cardiac comorbidity, CCI, and ASA, older age was significantly associated with an increase of >20 mmHg in SBP (p = 0.043). Mean pain score during procedures was 1.5 ± 1.3 with a mean maximum of 4.0 ± 2.6. STAI anxiety scores did not change significantly from preprocedure to postprocedure (32.8 ± 11.6 to 31.0 ± 12.6, p = 0.46). No medical complications occurred. CONCLUSION: Although patients appear to tolerate office procedures well, providers should recognize the potential for significant fluctuations in blood pressure during the procedure, especially in older patients.

4.
Head Neck ; 42(2): 281-288, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of malignancies involving the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF). METHODS: Fifty-seven patients who underwent curative surgery for malignant tumor involving PPF were reviewed. RESULTS: The rates for three-year local control (LC), five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and five-year overall survival (OS) were 55.4%, 34.5%, and 52.7%, respectively. Perineural invasion (PNI) of the maxillary nerve with facial numbness (symptomatic V2 PNI) (P = .04) and cranial involvement (P = .03) were predictors for poor OS. Symptomatic V2 PNI was also a significant predictor for poor LC (P = .05) and DFS (P = .03). Within the subgroup analysis of patients with pathologically confirmed V2 PNI, asymptomatic V2 PNI patients had significantly better LC (71.2% vs 31.8%, P = .05) and DFS (43.8% vs 17.3%, P = .05) compared to symptomatic patients. CONCLUSION: Malignant tumors involving the PPF have diverse pathologies and a poor prognosis. Symptomatic V2 PNI may be an independent poor prognostic factor.

5.
FEBS Lett ; 594(1): 189-198, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369681

RESUMO

The C-type lectin receptor Clec4f has been identified as a specific surface marker for Kupffer cells, although its ortholog is absent in humans and its biological function remains elusive. Here, we report the crystal structure of a truncated mouse trimeric Clec4f. The orientation between the carbohydrate-recognition domain of Clec4f and its neck region differs from other C-type lectins, resulting in an observed distance of 45 Å between the glycan-binding sites within the Clec4f trimer. Interestingly, the trimeric coiled-coil interface within its heptad neck region contains multiple polyglutamine interactions instead of the predominantly hydrophobic leucine zipper found in other C-type lectin receptors. The Clec4f trimeric structure displays unique features regarding its assembly and ligand recognition, shedding light on the evolution and diversity of the C-type lectin family.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2617, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798577

RESUMO

Objective: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a multi-organ vasculitic syndrome typically associated with neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and aggressive tissue inflammation. Manifestations in head and neck (H&N) GPA include septal perforations, saddle-nose deformities, bony erosions of the orbital and sinus walls, middle ear damage and epiglottitis, indicative of bone, cartilage, and connective tissue destruction. Whether H&N-centric lesions engage disease pathways distinctive from the ischemic tissue damage in the lungs, kidneys, skin, and peripheral nerves is unknown. We have compared inflammatory responses triggered by neutrophilic NETs in patients with H&N GPA and systemic GPA (sGPA). Methods: Neutrophils and monocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of patients with H&N GPA, sGPA, and age/gender matched healthy individuals. Neutrophil NETosis was induced. NETs were isolated and cocultured with monocytes. Gene induction was quantified by RT-PCR, protein upregulation by flow cytometry. Tissue invasiveness of monocytes was measured in a 3D collagen matrix system. Expression of MMP-9 in tissue-residing macrophages was assessed by immunohistochemistry in tissue biopsies. Results: Neutrophils from H&N GPA patients showed more intense NETosis with higher frequencies of netting neutrophils (P < 0.001) and release of higher amounts of NETs (P < 0.001). Isolated NETs from H&N GPA functioned as an inducer of danger-associated molecular patterns in monocytes; specifically, alarmin S100A9. NET-induced upregulation of monocyte S100A9 required recognition of DNA. S100A9 release resulted in the induction of metalloproteinases, including MMP-9, and enabled monocytes to invade into extracellular matrix. Anti-MMP-9 treatment attenuated the tissue invasiveness of monocytes primed with NETs from H&N GPA patients. MMP-9-producing macrophages dominated the tissue infiltrates in naso-sinal biopsies from H&N GPA patients. Conclusion: Distinct disease patterns in GPA are associated with differences in NET formation and NET content. H&N GPA patients with midline cartilaginous and bony lesions are highly efficient in generating NETs. H&N GPA neutrophils trigger the induction of the alarmin S100A9, followed by production of MMP-9, endowing monocytes with tissue-invasive capabilities.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814025

RESUMO

A 2-yr-old patient with a giant craniopharyngioma presented with seizures and panhypopituitarism. The lesion was initially approached at an outside institution with a transfrontal cyst fenestration, but progressive growth occurred later. Multiple management options were considered; we recommended an endoscopic endonasal approach with the goal of maximal safe resection. Virtual reality simulation and 3-dimensional printing were employed to evaluate whether the absence of pneumatization of the sinuses and the overall size of the nasal cavity could preclude effective surgical access. Our lab results suggested the binostril approach was feasible. A wide surgical exposure was performed from planum sphenoidale to clivus and from orbit to orbit. After removing the large calcified tumor portion, we found an accurate plane of dissection between tumor capsule, hypothalami, and visual pathways. By the end of resection, arterial bleeding was encountered secondary to an avulsion of the posterior communicating artery from the posterior cerebral artery. An angled aneurysm clip was placed with a single-shaft applier to secure the site of injury without narrowing the parent artery. Immediate and delayed magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography angiography studies showed gross total resection, no stroke, and no pseudoaneurysm formation. On postoperative day 9, patient developed neurological decline and pneumocephalus secondary to necrotic nasoseptal flap. Two endonasal repairs with a lateral nasal wall flap were attempted with no success. A temporoparietal fascia flap was then harvested and transposed from the temporal to the pterygopalatine fossa to successfully repair the skull base defect. The patient has made an extraordinary recovery with no neurological sequalae. The patient's parents provided consent for the procedure and use of intraoperative photos and videos for academic purposes. Institutional Review Board approval was not required.

8.
Cell Stem Cell ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839569

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. Mortality in CF patients is mostly due to respiratory sequelae. Challenges with gene delivery have limited attempts to treat CF using in vivo gene therapy, and low correction levels have hindered ex vivo gene therapy efforts. We have used Cas9 and adeno-associated virus 6 to correct the ΔF508 mutation in readily accessible upper-airway basal stem cells (UABCs) obtained from CF patients. On average, we achieved 30%-50% allelic correction in UABCs and bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) from 10 CF patients and observed 20%-50% CFTR function relative to non-CF controls in differentiated epithelia. Furthermore, we successfully embedded the corrected UABCs on an FDA-approved porcine small intestinal submucosal membrane (pSIS), and they retained differentiation capacity. This study supports further development of genetically corrected autologous airway stem cell transplant as a treatment for CF.

9.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Research surrounding outcome differences for patients with recurrent acute rhinosinusitis (RARS) is scarce. This investigation explored quality of life (QOL) and sinonasal attributes in patients during acute episodes (AEs) and in-between AEs of RARS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective outcomes research. METHODS: Data from patients with RARS were collected from two academic institutions between 2009 and 2017 using prospective and retrospective methodology. During clinical presentation, subjects were classified as with or without an AEs using guideline definitions of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS). Between-group differences in 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) survey and Lund-Kennedy (LK) endoscopy scores were assessed. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-three clinical visits from 202 patients were included. Visits during an AE (168/423, 40%) were associated with significantly worse SNOT-22 total scores compared to between AEs (255/423, 60%; median = 53.0 [interquartile range (IQR) = 24.0] vs. 34.0 [IQR = 29.5]) and all SNOT-22 subdomain scores (all P < .001). LK scores were available for 167 visits, with 56 (34%) completed during an AE. Compared to visits without an AE, endoscopy findings associated with an AE were less frequently normal (LK score = 0, 45% vs. 62%, P = .031) with worse median LK scores (2.0 [IQR = 4.0] vs. 0.0 [IQR = 2.0], P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: AEs are associated with significantly worse QOL and mildly worse endoscopic findings. Almost half of visits during AEs had negative endoscopy, identifying a disparity between patient symptoms and objective findings and calling into question alternative or concomitant diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria for ABRS or AEs in RARS do not require objective confirmation of inflammation, presenting a conundrum for clinicians. The potential for overdiagnosis of ABRS and AEs should be considered when determining the risk/benefit ratio of treatments for RARS. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2c Laryngoscope, 2019.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to determine whether the infiltration of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in addition to topical application of 1:1000 epinephrine significantly improves surgical field grading scale score over topical 1:1000 epinephrine alone. METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled study was performed of 40 patients undergoing bilateral endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive infiltration with 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine on 1 side of the nasal cavity vs plain saline on the other side in preparation for ESS. Both groups received topical application of 1:1000 epinephrine. Surgical videos were recorded and Wormald surgical field grading scale was assigned by 2 blinded reviewers. The number of extra 1:1000 epinephrine pledgets used during the surgery, estimated blood loss, and surgical duration were also recorded. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in Wormald surgical field grading scale, number of extra pledgets used, or estimated blood loss between the nasal cavity side infiltrated with 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in comparison to infiltration with saline. The side infiltrated with 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a reduced operative time compared to the side infiltrated with saline (p = 0.002). There were no differences in postoperative bleeding from questionnaire completed by patient at the first postoperative visit. CONCLUSION: Addition of infiltration of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 to topical application of epinephrine 1:1000 for preparation of ESS does not significantly improve surgical field of view compared to topical epinephrine alone.

11.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of cryoablation of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) for treatment of chronic rhinitis. METHODS: This was a prospective single-arm trial of 98 adult patients at six U.S. centers with chronic allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. PNN cryoablation was performed in-office under local anesthesia using a handheld device. Patients discontinued use of intranasal ipratropium 3 days prior to treatment and throughout the study period. Reflective Total Nasal Symptom Score (rTNSS) was measured at pretreatment baseline and posttreatment at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months. The Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) was completed at pretreatment and 3 months posttreatment. Adverse effects and postprocedure medication usage were recorded. RESULTS: Ninety-eight procedures (100%) were successfully completed. rTNSS significantly improved over pretreatment baseline (6.1 ± 1.9) at 1 month (2.9 ± 1.9, P < 0.001), 3 months (3.0 ± 2.3, P < 0.001), 6 months (3.0 ± 2.1, P < 0.001), and 9 months (3.0 ± 2.4, P < 0.001) postprocedure. Nasal congestion and rhinorrhea subscores improved significantly at all time points (P < 0.001). Both allergic and nonallergic rhinitis subcohorts showed improvement (P < 0.001), with a comparable degree of improvement between groups. RQLQ significantly improved over pretreatment baseline (3.0 ± 1.0) at 3 months (1.5 ± 1.0, P < 0.001), and all RQLQ subdomains demonstrated improvement. Of 54 patients using intranasal medication at baseline, 19 (35.2%) were able to discontinue use. Twenty-nine adverse effects were reported, including headache, epistaxis, and sinusitis. CONCLUSION: Cryoablation of the PNN for chronic rhinitis is safe and can result in relief of nasal symptoms and improvements in quality of life. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2019.

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(21): 11418-11429, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598698

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus ArlRS is a key two-component regulatory system necessary for adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. The response regulator ArlR consists of a C-terminal DNA-binding effector domain and an N-terminal receiver domain that is phosphorylated by ArlS, the cognate transmembrane sensor histidine kinase. We demonstrate that the receiver domain of ArlR adopts the canonical α5ß5 response regulator assembly, which dimerizes upon activation, using beryllium trifluoride as an aspartate phosphorylation mimic. Activated ArlR recognizes a 20-bp imperfect inverted repeat sequence in the ica operon, which is involved in intercellular adhesion polysaccharide production. Crystal structures of the inactive and activated forms reveal that activation induces a significant conformational change in the ß4-α4 and ß5-α5-connecting loops, in which the α4 and α5 helices constitute the homodimerization interface. Crystal structures of the DNA-binding ArlR effector domain indicate that it is able to dimerize via a non-canonical ß1-ß2 hairpin domain swapping, raising the possibility of a new mechanism for signal transduction from the receiver domain to effector domain. Taken together, the current study provides structural insights into the activation of ArlR and its recognition, adding to the diversity of response regulation mechanisms that may inspire novel antimicrobial strategies specifically targeting Staphylococcus.

13.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 721-724, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405415

RESUMO

Despite the incorporation of anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP) drugs in our trauma triage criteria, it is unclear whether trauma team activation (TTA) impacts outcomes in geriatric patients on ACAP drugs sustaining falls. We hypothesized that TTA in this cohort was associated with improved outcomes. The hospital electronic database was queried to identify normotensive, awake patients aged ≥65 years on ACAP agent from 2014 to 2018 presenting to the emergency department after falls. The outcome was in-hospital mortality. The association between TTA and mortality was examined using logistic regression analysis and 1:1 propensity score matching analysis. In this study, 4540 patients on ACAP drugs were analyzed, with TTA occurring in 500 (11%). TTA occurred in younger but more severely injured patients with lower Glasgow Coma Score. Logistic regression revealed that TTA was not associated with mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals], 2.04 [0.89-4.25]). The 1:1 propensity score analysis revealed similar mortality for the matched groups (non-TTA, 1.6% vs TTA, 2.2%, P = 0.64). In the elderly patients on ACAP agents, the current triage criteria resulted in the appropriate use of TTA for more severely injured patients. The lack of outcome benefit suggests that ACAP drug use as a criterion for TTA should be re-evaluated.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triagem/métodos
14.
J Clin Neurosci ; 67: 244-248, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279699

RESUMO

Chronic subdural haematomas are common neurosurgical conditions, especially in the elderly patients, with straightforward surgical treatments. However, infrequently, tumours are misdiagnosed as subdural haematoma on initial brain CT scans and are only discovered intraoperatively. In this case series, we presented 3 different patients who were initially thought to have subdural haematoma but later found to be tumour mimics of different histological origin. A literature review and discussion of recently published tumour mimics of subdural haematoma was also performed. It is recommended that in patients with suggestive oncological or haematological history, or unusual characteristics on the plain CT brain, a high level of suspicion of tumour mimics needs to be maintained. A full workup with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is important to distinguish from subdural haematoma, as the treatment paradigms and prognoses are vastly different.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma Subdural Crônico/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Hematoma Subdural Crônico/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 9(S3): S145-S365, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic skull-base surgery (ESBS) is employed in the management of diverse skull-base pathologies. Paralleling the increased utilization of ESBS, the literature in this field has expanded rapidly. However, the rarity of these diseases, the inherent challenges of surgical studies, and the continued learning curve in ESBS have resulted in significant variability in the quality of the literature. To consolidate and critically appraise the available literature, experts in skull-base surgery have produced the International Consensus Statement on Endoscopic Skull-Base Surgery (ICAR:ESBS). METHODS: Using previously described methodology, topics spanning the breadth of ESBS were identified and assigned a literature review, evidence-based review or evidence-based review with recommendations format. Subsequently, each topic was written and then reviewed by skull-base surgeons in both neurosurgery and otolaryngology. Following this iterative review process, the ICAR:ESBS document was synthesized and reviewed by all authors for consensus. RESULTS: The ICAR:ESBS document addresses the role of ESBS in primary cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea, intradural tumors, benign skull-base and orbital pathology, sinonasal malignancies, and clival lesions. Additionally, specific challenges in ESBS including endoscopic reconstruction and complication management were evaluated. CONCLUSION: A critical review of the literature in ESBS demonstrates at least the equivalency of ESBS with alternative approaches in pathologies such as CSF rhinorrhea and pituitary adenoma as well as improved reconstructive techniques in reducing CSF leaks. Evidence-based recommendations are limited in other pathologies and these significant knowledge gaps call upon the skull-base community to embrace these opportunities and collaboratively address these shortcomings.

17.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-12, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches constitute an essential technique for the resection of skull base tumors in adults. However, in the pediatric population, sellar and suprasellar lesions have historically been treated by craniotomy. Transnasal endoscopic approaches are less invasive and thus may be preferable to craniotomy, especially in children. In this case series, the authors present their institutional experience with transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches for pediatric skull base tumors. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed pediatric patients (age ≤ 18 years) who had undergone transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches for either biopsy or resection of sellar or suprasellar lesions between 2007 and 2016. All operations were performed jointly by a team of pediatric neurosurgeons and skull base otolaryngologists, except for 8 cases performed by one neurosurgeon. RESULTS: The series included 42 patients between 4 and 18 years old (average 12.5 years) who underwent 51 operations. Headache (45%), visual symptoms (69%), and symptoms related to hormonal abnormalities (71%) were the predominant presenting symptoms. Improvement in preoperative symptoms was seen in 92% of cases. Most patients had craniopharyngiomas (n = 16), followed by pituitary adenomas (n = 12), Rathke cleft cysts (n = 4), germinomas (n = 4), chordomas (n = 2), and other lesion subtypes (n = 4). Lesions ranged from 0.3 to 6.2 cm (median 2.5 cm) in their greatest dimension. Gross-total resection was primarily performed (63% of cases), with 5 subsequent recurrences. Nasoseptal flaps were used in 47% of cases, fat grafts in 37%, and lumbar drains in 47%. CSF space was entered intraoperatively in 15 cases, and postoperative CSF was observed only in lesions with suprasellar extension. There were 8 cases of new hormonal deficits and 3 cases of new cranial nerve deficits. Length of hospital stay ranged from 1 to 61 days (median 5 days). Patients were clinically followed up for a median of 46 months (range 1-120 months), accompanied by a median radiological follow-up period of 45 months (range 3.8-120 months). Most patients (76%) were offered adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-institution report of the transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach, the authors demonstrated that this technique is generally safe and effective for different types of pediatric skull base lesions. Favorable effects of surgery were sustained during a follow-up period of 4 years. Further refinement in technology will allow for more widespread use in the pediatric population.

18.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to analyze the current rhinology workforce in the United States in terms of demographics, fellowship training, and regional distribution. METHODS: The American Rhinologic Society (ARS) member database was queried for workplace zip code, age, gender, and fellowship training of practicing U.S. rhinologists through 2017. The San Francisco Match data were examined for rhinology fellowships from 2006 through 2017. Each rhinologist was assigned to a specific hospital referral region (HRR) determined by the Dartmouth Healthcare Atlas to assess geographic distribution and market density. RESULTS: There were 296 ARS members self-identifying as rhinologists. Of those, 69.2% were fellowship-trained (FTR). The median age of FTRs and non-FTRs were 41 and 54 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Eighty percent of FTRs were male compared to 85.7% non-FTRs. Given the recent growth of rhinology fellowships, the number of FTRs is currently expanding at approximately 16% per year. HRRs with the most rhinologists were Los Angeles, Boston, and Manhattan, all with 14. Approximately 100 million people live in HRRs without a practicing rhinologist. A wide variation in rhinologist density was observed, ranging from 133,047 to 3,636,809 people per rhinologist, with a median of 747,864. CONCLUSION: There may be a need for rhinologists in select parts of the country. Whereas the ARS database is likely an underestimation of the growing workforce, under current training rates we could pass the ideal number of U.S. rhinologists within 5 years. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 2019.

19.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 9(8): 926-933, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact on quality of life (QoL) of bilateral inferior turbinate reduction (BITR) performed in the setting of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been a point of controversy. The aim of this study was to determine whether addition of BITR to ESS is associated with improved QoL when compared with ESS alone. METHODS: This study presented findings a multi-institutional, retrospective analysis of a prospective open cohort of patients electing ESS for failed medical management of CRS. QoL parameters were compared between patients who underwent ESS alone vs those who underwent ESS with BITR. RESULTS: A total of 571 patients with CRS who elected to undergo ESS were identified. Sixty-one of these patients also underwent concurrent BITR, whereas 510 patients underwent ESS without BITR. Mean length of follow-up was 15.1 months. Comparison between baseline and last postoperative QoL, olfaction, and endoscopic scores revealed significant improvement in both groups. Overall, BITR surgery was not significantly associated with clinically significant incremental improvement in QoL in either the polyp or non-polyp group. Nevertheless, statistically significant improvement was noted for the nasal congestion/blockage symptom in polyp patients (p = 0.006) and in primary surgery patients (p = 0.027) who underwent BITR. CONCLUSION: BITR in the setting of ESS for CRS is not associated with significant incremental improvement in overall QoL vs ESS alone. However, BITR in polyp and primary surgery patients undergoing ESS appears to offer a significant incremental improvement in nasal congestion/blockage symptoms compared with ESS alone. Future studies are warranted to better corroborate these findings.

20.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(2): 352-361, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a systematic method for anatomic mapping of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) tumors to standardize communication, facilitate surgical planning, and convey prognosis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Following Institutional Review Board approval, we performed a retrospective review of radiologic and angiographic data of patients with JNA presenting to the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mansoura University, from 2001 to 2017. All patients underwent angiography with embolization and had >1-year follow-up. Based on frequently involved anatomic sites and factors predictive of prognosis, the NSF-COR staging system (nose/nasopharynx, sinus, fossa-cranium, orbit, residual internal carotid artery supply) was developed to explicitly convey anatomic site of involvement and presence of residual vascularity. We validated the NSF-COR staging system against other systems with Pearson chi-square test based on risk factors and clinical outcomes of blood transfusion volume, recurrence, and JNA resectability. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients met inclusion criteria, where all primary cases (100%) demonstrated nose/nasopharynx involvement, followed by sinus (85.2%), natural fossae (85.2%), intracranial (26%), and orbital involvement (16.7%). These sites, with assessment of residual internal carotid artery vascular supply, were used to develop the NSF-COR anatomically based staging system. The components COR showed significant association with clinical outcomes of blood transfusion and recurrence. Contingency coefficients between the NSF-COR staging system and available staging systems showed significant correlations (P < .05) for prognosis. CONCLUSION: The NSF-COR staging system conveys a communicable anatomic map of JNA tumors that integrates residual vascularity of the tumor and demonstrates strong concordance with current staging systems to assess clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Angiofibroma/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo
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