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1.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp202019090901, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the prevalence of burnout and depressive symptoms among North American psychiatrists, determined demographic and practice characteristics that increase the risk for these symptoms, and assessed the correlation between burnout and depression. METHODS: A total of 2,084 North American psychiatrists participated in an online survey, completed the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and provided demographic data and practice information. Linear regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with higher burnout and depression scores. RESULTS: Participants' mean OLBI score was 40.4 (SD=7.9) and mean PHQ-9 score was 5.1 (SD=4.9). A total of 78% (N=1,625) of participants had an OLBI score ≥35, suggestive of high levels of burnout, and 16.1% (N=336) of participants had PHQ-9 scores ≥10, suggesting a diagnosis of major depression. Presence of depressive symptoms, female gender, inability to control one's schedule, and work setting were significantly associated with higher OLBI scores. Burnout, female gender, resident or early-career stage, and nonacademic setting practice were significantly associated with higher PHQ-9 scores. A total of 98% of psychiatrists who had PHQ-9 scores ≥10 also had OLBI scores >35. Suicidal ideation was not significantly associated with burnout in a partially adjusted linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatrists experience burnout and depression at a substantial rate. This study advances the understanding of factors that increase the risk for burnout and depression among psychiatrists and has implications for the development of targeted interventions to reduce the high rates of burnout and depression among psychiatrists. These findings have significance for future work aimed at workforce retention and improving quality of care for psychiatric patients.

2.
Sleep ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239161

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We analyzed data from a practice-based randomized controlled trial within 20 primary care practices located in greater New York City, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh to determine whether persistent or worsening sleep disturbance plays a role in the outcomes of depression and suicidal ideation at 1 year in older adults with depression. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 599 adults aged 60 years and older meeting criteria for major depression or clinically significant minor depression. Longitudinal analysis via growth curve mixture modeling was carried out to classify patients as having worsening, persistent, or improving sleep over 1 year. RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up, compared with patients with improving sleep, those with worsening sleep were more likely to have a diagnosis of major depression (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 28.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.15 to 67.34), a diagnosis of clinically significant minor depression (aOR = 11.88, 95% CI 5.67 to 24.89), and suicidal ideation (aOR = 1.10, 1.005 to 1.199), and were half as likely to achieve remission (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.57). Patients with persistent sleep disturbance showed similar but attenuated results. CONCLUSIONS: Older primary care patients with depression who exhibit worsening or persistent sleep disturbance were at increased risk for persistent depression and suicidal ideation 1 year later. The pattern of sleep disturbance over time may be an important signal for exploration by primary care physicians of depression and suicidal ideation among older adults with depression.

3.
J Crit Care ; 57: 5-12, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the predictive value of a single abnormal shock index reading (SI ≥0.9; heart rate/systolic blood pressure [SBP]) for mortality, and association between cumulative abnormal SI exposure and mortality/morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cohort comprised of adult patients with an intensive care unit (ICU) stay ≥24-h (years 2010-2018). SI ≥0.9 exposure was evaluated via cumulative minutes or time-weighted average; SBP ≤100-mmHg was analyzed. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, acute kidney injury (AKI), and myocardial injury. RESULTS: 18,197 patients from 82 hospitals were analyzed. Any single SI ≥0.9 within the ICU predicted mortality with 90.8% sensitivity and 36.8% specificity. Every 0.1-unit increase in maximum-SI during the first 24-h increased the odds of mortality by 4.8% [95%CI; 2.6-7.0%; p < .001]. Every 4-h exposure to SI ≥0.9 increased the odds of death by 5.8% [95%CI; 4.6-7.0%; p < .001], AKI by 4.3% [95%CI; 3.7-4.9%; p < .001] and myocardial injury by 2.1% [95%CI; 1.2-3.1%; p < .001]. ≥2-h exposure to SBP ≤100-mmHg was significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A single SI reading ≥0.9 is a poor predictor of mortality; cumulative SI exposure is associated with greater risk of mortality/morbidity. The associations with in-hospital mortality were comparable for SI ≥0.9 or SBP ≤100-mmHg exposure. Dynamic interactions between hemodynamic variables need further evaluation among critically ill patients.

4.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(5): 846-853, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residual kidney function (RKF) is thought to exert beneficial effects through clearance of uremic toxins. However, the level of native kidney function where clearance becomes negligible is not known. METHODS: We aimed to assess whether levels of nonurea solutes differed among patients with 'clinically negligible' RKF compared with those with no RKF. The hemodialysis study excluded patients with urinary urea clearance >1.5 mL/min, below which RKF was considered to be 'clinically negligible'. We measured eight nonurea solutes from 1280 patients participating in this study and calculated the relative difference in solute levels among patients with and without RKF based on measured urinary urea clearance. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 57 years and 57% were female. At baseline, 34% of the included participants had clinically negligible RKF (mean 0.7 ± 0.4 mL/min) and 66% had no RKF. Seven of the eight nonurea solute levels measured were significantly lower in patients with RKF than in those without RKF, ranging from -24% [95% confidence interval (CI) -31 to -16] for hippurate, -7% (-14 to -1) for trimethylamine-N-oxide and -4% (-6 to -1) for asymmetric dimethylarginine. The effect of RKF on plasma levels was comparable or more pronounced than that achieved with a 31% higher dialysis dose (spKt/Vurea 1.7 versus 1.3). Preserved RKF at 1-year follow-up was associated with a lower risk of cardiac death and first cardiovascular event. CONCLUSIONS: Even at very low levels, RKF is not 'negligible', as it continues to provide nonurea solute clearance. Management of patients with RKF should consider these differences.

6.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 57(3): 556-565, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576712

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Stability of preferences for life-sustaining treatment may vary depending on personal characteristics. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the stability of preferences for end-of-life treatment over 12 years and whether advance directives and medical conditions were associated with change in preferences for end-of-life treatment. DESIGN: Mailed survey of older physicians. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study of medical students in the graduating classes from 1948 to 1964 at Johns Hopkins University. Eight hundred ninety eight physicians who completed the life-sustaining treatment questionnaire anytime in 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2011 (mean age 68.2 years at baseline). Preferences for life-sustaining treatment were assessed using a checklist questionnaire in response to a standard "brain injury" scenario and considered as a package using the latent class transition model. RESULTS: End-of-life preferences grouped into three classes: most aggressive (wanting most interventions; 14% of physicians), least aggressive (declining most interventions; 61%), and an intermediate class (declining most interventions except intravenous fluids and antibiotics; 25%). Physicians without an advance directive were more likely to desire more treatment and were less likely to transition out the most aggressive class. Transition probabilities from class to class did not vary over time. Persons with cancer expressed preference for the least aggressive treatment, whereas persons with cardiovascular disease and depression had preferences for more aggressive treatment. CONCLUSION: Transitions in end-of-life preferences and the factors influencing change and stability suggest that periodic reassessment for planning end-of-life care is needed.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Diretivas Antecipadas , Preferência do Paciente , Médicos , Assistência Terminal , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Crit Care ; 46: 129-133, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370964

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Community factors may play a role in determining individual risk for sepsis, as well as sepsis-related morbidity and mortality. We sought to define the relationship between community socioeconomic status and mortality due to sepsis in an urban locale. METHODS: Using community statistical areas of Baltimore City, we dichotomized neighborhoods at median household income, and compared distribution of outcomes of interest within the two income categories. We performed multivariable regression analyses to determine the relationship between socioeconomic variables and sepsis-attributable mortality. RESULTS: The collective median household income was $38,660 (IQR $32,530, 54,480), family poverty rate was 28.4% (IQR 13.5, 38.8%), and rate of death from sepsis was 3.1 per 10,000 persons (IQR 2.60, 4.10). Lower household income communities demonstrated higher rates of death from sepsis (3.65 (IQR 2.78, 4.40)) than higher household income communities (2.80 (IQR 2.05, 3.55)) (p = .02). In regression models, household income (ß = -8.42, p = .006) and percentage of poverty in communities (ß = 2.71, p = .01) demonstrated associations with sepsis-attributable mortality. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that socioeconomic variables play significant role in sepsis-attributable mortality. Such confirmation of regional disparities in mortality due to sepsis warrants further consideration, as well as integration, for future national sepsis policies.


Assuntos
Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Classe Social , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Baltimore , Cidades , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Análise Multivariada , Pobreza , Análise de Regressão , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
8.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(6): 1015-1020, 2018 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29192806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study A) assessed whether levels of alcohol-related disciplinary actions on college campuses changed among MD college students after the 2011 Maryland (MD) state alcohol tax increase from 6% to 9%, and B) determined which school-level factors impacted the magnitude of changes detected. METHOD: A quasi-experimental interrupted time series (ITS) analysis of panel data containing alcohol-related disciplinary actions on 33 MD college campuses in years 2006-2013. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine whether there was a statistically significant difference in counts of alcohol-related disciplinary actions comparing time before and after the tax increase. RESULTS: The ITS anaysis showed an insignificant relationship between alcohol-related disciplinary actions and tax implementation (ß = -.27; p =.257) but indicated that alcohol-related disciplinary actions decreased significantly over the time under study (ß = -.05; p =.022). DISCUSSION: Alcohol related disciplinary actions did decrease over time in the years of study, and this relationship was correlated with several school-level characteristics, including school price, school funding type, types of degrees awarded, and specialty. School price may serve as a proxy mediator or confounder of the effect of time on disciplinary actions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Impostos/tendências , Universidades/tendências , Humanos , Maryland
9.
Patient Educ Couns ; 101(4): 665-671, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to describe peer communication in meetings with depressed elders, associate their relationship with working alliance and depression and assess congruence of communication with training. METHODS: Three peers with a history of depression, in recovery, received 20h of training in peer mentoring for depression as part of an 8-week pilot program for 23 depressed older adults. Each peer-client meeting was recorded; a sample of 69 recorded meetings were chosen across the program period and coded with the Roter Interaction Analysis System, a validated medical interaction analysis system. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine peer talk during meetings in relation to working alliance and client depression. RESULTS: Peers used a variety of skills congruent with their training including client-centered talk, positive rapport building and emotional responsiveness that remained consistent or increased over time. Client-centered communication and positive rapport were associated with increased working alliance and decreased depressive symptoms (all p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Trained peer mentors can use communication behaviors useful to older adults with depression. Specifically, client-centered talk may be important to include in peer training. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Peer mentors can be a valuable resource in providing depression counseling to older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comunicação , Depressão/terapia , Mentores , Grupo Associado , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aconselhamento , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Gravação em Fita
10.
Lung ; 195(6): 693-698, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28914352

RESUMO

This study aims to determine the impact of physical activity on asthma symptom reporting among children living in an inner city. Among 147 children aged 5-12 years with physician-diagnosed asthma, we assessed asthma symptoms using twice-daily diaries and physical activity using the physical activity questionnaire for children during three 8-day periods (baseline, 3 and 6 months). Linear, logistic, and quasi-poisson regression models were used to determine the association between physical activity and asthma symptoms; adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, caregiver's education, asthma severity, medication use, and season. A 1-unit increase in PAQ score was significantly associated with reporting more nocturnal symptoms [risk ratio (RR): 1.03; 95% CI 1.00-1.06], daytime symptoms (RR: 1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.09), being bothered by asthma (RR: 1.05; 95% CI 1.00-1.09), and trouble breathing (RR: 1.05; 95% CI 1.00-1.10). Level of physical activity should be taken into account in clinical management of asthma and epidemiological studies of asthma symptom burden.


Assuntos
Asma/complicações , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas , Fatores de Tempo , População Urbana , Capacidade Vital
11.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 3: 2333721417722328, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28808668

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether physician preferences for end-of-life care were associated with variation in health care spending. Method: We studied 737 physicians who completed the life-sustaining treatment questionnaire in 1999 and were linked to end-of-life care data for the years 1999 to 2009 from Medicare-eligible beneficiaries from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care (in hospital-related regions [HRRs]). Using latent class analysis to group physician preferences for end-of-life treatment into most, intermediate, and least aggressive categories, we examined how physician preferences were associated with health care spending over a 7-year period. Results: When all HRRs in the nation were arrayed in quartiles by spending, the prevalence of study physicians who preferred aggressive end-of-life care was greater in the highest spending HRRs. The mean area-level intensive care unit charges per patient were estimated to be US$1,595 higher in the last 6 months of life and US$657 higher during the hospitalization in which death occurred for physicians who preferred the most aggressive treatment at the end of life, when compared with average spending. Conclusions: Physician preference for aggressive end-of-life care was correlated with area-level spending in the last 6 months of life. Policy measures intended to minimize geographic variation in health care spending should incorporate physician preferences and style.

12.
Kidney Int ; 92(6): 1484-1492, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739139

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in hemodialysis patients, is not fully explained by traditional risk factors. To help define non-traditional risk factors, we determined the association of predialysis total p-cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, phenylacetylglutamine, and hippurate with cardiac death, sudden cardiac death, and first cardiovascular event in the 1,273 participants of the HEMO Study. The results were adjusted for potential demographic, clinical, and laboratory confounders. The mean age of the patients was 58 years, 63% were Black and 42% were male. Overall, there was no association between the solutes and outcomes. However, in sub-group analyses, among patients with lower serum albumin (under 3.6 g/dl), a twofold higher p-cresol sulfate was significantly associated with a 12% higher risk of cardiac death (hazard ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.27) and 22% higher risk of sudden cardiac death (1.22, 1.06-1.41). Similar trends were also noted with indoxyl sulfate. Trial interventions did not modify the association between these solutes and outcomes. Routine clinical and lab data explained less than 22% of the variability in solute levels. Thus, in prevalent hemodialysis patients participating in a large U.S. hemodialysis trial, uremic solutes p-cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, hippurate, and phenylacetylglutamine were not associated with cardiovascular outcomes. However, there were trends of toxicity among patients with lower serum albumin.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Cresóis/sangue , Indicã/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Glutamina/análogos & derivados , Glutamina/sangue , Hipuratos/sangue , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/análise , Uremia/sangue , Uremia/complicações
13.
BMC Nephrol ; 18(1): 216, 2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients starting dialysis often have substantial residual kidney function. Incremental hemodialysis provides a hemodialysis prescription that supplements patients' residual kidney function while maintaining total (residual + dialysis) urea clearance (standard Kt/Vurea) targets. We describe our experience with incremental hemodialysis in patients using NxStage System One for home hemodialysis. CASE PRESENTATION: From 2011 to 2015, we initiated 5 incident hemodialysis patients on an incremental home hemodialysis regimen. The biochemical parameters of all patients remained stable on the incremental hemodialysis regimen and they consistently achieved standard Kt/Vurea targets. Of the two patients with follow-up >6 months, residual kidney function was preserved for ≥2 years. Importantly, the patients were able to transition to home hemodialysis without automatically requiring 5 sessions per week at the outset and gradually increased the number of treatments and/or dialysate volume as the residual kidney function declined. CONCLUSIONS: An incremental home hemodialysis regimen can be safely prescribed and may improve acceptability of home hemodialysis. Reducing hemodialysis frequency by even one treatment per week can reduce the number of fistula or graft cannulations or catheter connections by >100 per year, an important consideration for patient well-being, access longevity, and access-related infections. The incremental hemodialysis approach, supported by national guidelines, can be considered for all home hemodialysis patients with residual kidney function.


Assuntos
Hemodiálise no Domicílio/métodos , Rim/fisiologia , Soluções para Diálise/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Semin Dial ; 30(3): 241-245, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28264139

RESUMO

The association of residual kidney function (RKF) with improved outcomes in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients is now widely recognized. RKF provides substantial volume and solute clearance even after dialysis initiation. In particular, RKF provides clearance of nonurea solutes, many of which are potential uremic toxins and not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis. The presence of RKF provides a distinct advantage to incident dialysis patients and is an opportunity for nephrologists to individualize dialysis treatments tailored to their patients' unique solute, volume, and quality of life needs. The benefits of RKF present the opportunity to personalize the management of uremia.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Diálise Renal , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico
15.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 77: 174-177, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28242082

RESUMO

Medicare spending is projected to increase over the next decade, including for substance use disorders (SUD). Our objective was to determine whether SUDs are associated with higher six-year Medicare costs (1999-2004) among participants in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. Medicare claims data for the years 1999-2004 from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services were linked to four waves of data from the Baltimore ECA cohort collected between 1981 and 2005 (n=566). A generalized linear model with a log link and gamma distribution was used to examine direct Medicare costs associated with SUD status. Medicare recipients with no history of SUD had mean six-year costs of $42,576. Those with a history of SUD based on both Baltimore ECA and Medicare data, or based on Medicare claims data alone, had significantly higher costs ($98,754 and $64,876, respectively). A history of SUD based solely on Baltimore ECA data alone had lower average costs ($25,491). Findings indicate that Medicare costs differ by source of SUD diagnosis when comparing treatment versus survey data. This may have future implications for projecting Medicare costs among SUD individuals as healthcare coverage expands under the Affordable Care Act.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Medicare/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Baltimore , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos
16.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 70(1): 48-58, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28089476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are putative uremic toxins that may exert toxicity by a number of mechanisms, including impaired nitric oxide synthesis and generation of reactive oxygen species. The study goal was to determine the association between these metabolites and cardiovascular outcomes in hemodialysis patients. STUDY DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 1,276 prevalent hemodialysis patients with available samples 3 to 6 months after randomization. PREDICTOR: ADMA and SDMA measured in stored specimens. OUTCOMES: Cardiac death, sudden cardiac death, first cardiovascular event, and any-cause death. Association with predictors analyzed using Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders (including demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbid conditions, albumin level, and residual kidney function). RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 57±14 (SD) years, 63% were black, and 57% were women. Mean ADMA (0.9±0.2µmol/L) and SDMA levels (4.3±1.4µmol/L) were moderately correlated (r=0.418). Higher dialysis dose or longer session length were not associated with lower predialysis ADMA or SDMA concentrations. In fully adjusted models, each doubling of ADMA level was associated with higher risk (HR per 2-fold higher concentration; 95% CI) of cardiac death (1.83; 1.29-2.58), sudden cardiac death (1.79; 1.19-2.69), first cardiovascular event (1.50; 1.20-1.87), and any-cause death (1.44; 1.13-1.83). Compared to the lowest ADMA quintile (<0.745 µmol/L), the highest ADMA quintile (≥1.07µmol/L) was associated with higher risk (HR; 95% CI) of cardiac death (2.10; 1.44-3.05), sudden cardiac death (2.06; 1.46-2.90), first cardiovascular event (1.75; 1.35-2.27), and any-cause death (1.56; 1.21-2.00). SDMA level was associated with higher risk for cardiac death (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03-1.92), but this was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for ADMA level (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.86-1.68). LIMITATIONS: Single time-point measurement of ADMA and SDMA. CONCLUSIONS: ADMA and, to a lesser extent, SDMA levels are associated with cardiovascular outcomes in hemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Arginina/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(1): 321-331, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436853

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease causes over 50% of the deaths in dialysis patients, and the risk of death is higher in white than in black patients. The underlying mechanisms for these findings are unknown. We determined the association of the proatherogenic metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) with cardiovascular outcomes in hemodialysis patients and assessed whether this association differs by race. We measured TMAO in stored serum samples obtained 3-6 months after randomization from a total of 1232 white and black patients of the Hemodialysis Study, and analyzed the association of TMAO with cardiovascular outcomes using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders (demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, albumin, and residual kidney function). Mean age of the patients was 58 years; 35% of patients were white. TMAO concentration did not differ between whites and blacks. In whites, 2-fold higher TMAO associated with higher risk (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]) of cardiac death (1.45 [1.24 to 1.69]), sudden cardiac death [1.70 (1.34 to 2.15)], first cardiovascular event (1.15 [1.01 to 1.32]), and any-cause death (1.22 [1.09 to 1.36]). In blacks, the association was nonlinear and significant only for cardiac death among patients with TMAO concentrations below the median (1.58 [1.03 to 2.44]). Compared with blacks in the same quintile, whites in the highest quintile for TMAO (≥135 µM) had a 4-fold higher risk of cardiac or sudden cardiac death and a 2-fold higher risk of any-cause death. We conclude that TMAO concentration associates with cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients but the effects differ by race.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Metilaminas/sangue , Diálise Renal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Community Ment Health J ; 53(1): 102-106, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27380210

RESUMO

We examined whether frequency of attendance at the B'More Clubhouse was associated with lower mental health care costs in the Medicaid database, and whether members in the B'More Clubhouse (n = 30) would have lower mental health care costs compared with a set of matched controls from the same claims database (n = 150). Participants who attended the Clubhouse 3 days or more per week had mean 1-year mental health care costs of US $5697, compared to $14,765 for those who attended less often. B'More Clubhouse members had significantly lower annual total mental health care costs than the matched comparison group ($10,391 vs. $15,511; p < 0.0001). Membership in the B'More Clubhouse is associated with a substantial beneficial influence on health care costs.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Adulto , Custos e Análise de Custo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Health Hum Serv Adm ; 39(1): 72-94, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27483975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many persons with depressive disorder are not treated and associated costs are not recorded. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To determine whether major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with higher medical cost among Medicare recipients. METHODS: Four waves of the Baltimore-Epidemiologic Catchment Area (Baltimore ECA) Study conducted between 1981 and 2004 were linked to Medicare claims data for the years 1999 to 2004 from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Generalized linear models specified with a gamma distribution and log link function were used to examine direct medical care costs associated with MDD. RESULTS: Medicare recipients with no history of MDD in either the ECA or CMS data had mean six-year medical costs of US $40,670, compared to $87,445 for Medicare recipients with MDD as recorded in CMS data and $43,583 for those with MDD as recorded in Baltimore-ECA data. Multivariable regressions found that compared to Medicare recipients with no history of depression, those with depression identified in the CMS data had significantly higher medical costs; about 1.87 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32 to 2.67) higher. Medicare recipients with a history of depression identified in the ECA data were no more likely to have higher costs than were Medicare recipients with no history of depression (relative ratio 1.33, 95% CI 0.87 to 2.02). DISCUSSION: Medicare recipients with a history of depression identified in claims data had significantly higher medical costs than recipients with no history of depression. However, no significant differences were found between Medicare recipients with depression in the community-based Baltimore ECA data and those with no history of depression. The results show that the source of diagnosis, in treatment versus survey data, produces differences in results as regards costs. LIMITATIONS: This study involved only Medicare recipients with claims data over the six years 1999 to 2004. Many of the ECA respondents were too young to qualify for Medicare. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICY: Depressive disorder involves substantial medical care costs. The findings provide information on the economic burden of depression, an important but often omitted dimension and perspective of the burden of mental illnesses.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/economia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/economia , Idoso , Baltimore , Área Programática de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Estados Unidos
20.
Crisis ; 37(2): 161-5, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27232430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is strongly associated with depression, but many without depression have thoughts of death. AIMS: To characterize persons who did not meet criteria for depressive illness but endorsed death ideation or suicidal ideation over the course of a 10-year follow-up. METHOD: Subjects included 753 participants of the Baltimore sample of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program, a population-based 10-year follow-up survey, who neither met criteria for major depressive disorder nor reported death or suicidal ideation in 1994. RESULTS: Persons with death ideation or suicidal ideation in 2004 were generally distressed as measured by the General Health Questionnaire. At baseline, both groups endorsed difficulty with concentration, feeling unhappy, and taking things hard. Functional problems such as social withdrawal were endorsed by both groups. Those with suicidal ideation had a longer lifetime history of social phobia. Persons with death ideation did not use more health services but sought help from persons in their social network. CONCLUSION: Thoughts of death are associated with distress even in persons who do not have depressive illness. This group of persons may have subclinical depressive symptoms that will not be detected by depression screening. Detection of these persons will require broadening our concept of persons at risk.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Morte , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Baltimore/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fobia Social/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
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