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1.
Gastroenterology ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A genome-wide significant association between anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) IgG titers and Toll-like receptor (TLR1/6/10) locus on 4p14 was demonstrated for individuals of European ancestry, but not uniformly replicated. We re-investigate this association in an updated genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis for low gastric cancer incidence populations, address potential causes of cohort heterogeneity and explore functional implications of genetic variation at the TLR1/6/10 locus. METHODS: The dichotomous GWAS (25% individuals exhibiting highest anti-H. pylori IgG titers versus remaining 75%) included a discovery and replication sample of respectively n=15,685 and n=9,676, all of European ancestry. Longitudinal analysis of serological data was performed on H. pylori-eradicated subjects (n=132) and patients under surveillance for premalignant gastric lesions (n=107). TLR1/6/10 surface expression, TLR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and cytokine levels were measured in leukocyte subsets of healthy subjects (n=26) genotyped for TLR1/6/10 variants. RESULTS: The association of the TLR1/6/10 locus with anti-H. pylori IgG titers (rs12233670; ß=-0.267 SE±0.034; P=4.42x10-15) presented with high heterogeneity and failed replication. Anti-H. pylori IgG titers declined within 2-4 years following eradication treatment (P=0.004), and decreased over time in patients with premalignant gastric lesions (P<0.001). Variation at the TLR1/6/10 locus affected TLR1-mediated cytokine production and TLR1-surface expression on monocytes (P=0.016) and neutrophils (P=0.030), but not mRNA levels. CONCLUSION: The association between anti-H. pylori IgG titers and TLR1/6/10 locus was not replicated across cohorts, possibly due to dependency of anti-H. pylori IgG titers on therapy, clearance and antibody decay. H. pylori-mediated immune cell activation is partly mediated via TLR1 signaling, which in turn is affected by genetic variation.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7173, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887389

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels, a complex trait and major risk factor for incident gout, are correlated with cardiometabolic traits via incompletely understood mechanisms. DNA methylation in whole blood captures genetic and environmental influences and is assessed in transethnic meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of serum urate (discovery, n = 12,474, replication, n = 5522). The 100 replicated, epigenome-wide significant (p < 1.1E-7) CpGs explain 11.6% of the serum urate variance. At SLC2A9, the serum urate locus with the largest effect in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), five CpGs are associated with SLC2A9 gene expression. Four CpGs at SLC2A9 have significant causal effects on serum urate levels and/or gout, and two of these partly mediate the effects of urate-associated GWAS variants. In other genes, including SLC7A11 and PHGDH, 17 urate-associated CpGs are associated with conditions defining metabolic syndrome, suggesting that these CpGs may represent a blood DNA methylation signature of cardiometabolic risk factors. This study demonstrates that EWAS can provide new insights into GWAS loci and the correlation of serum urate with other complex traits.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788810

RESUMO

Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) is a biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of future cardiovascular events. Identifying associations between gene expression levels and cIMT may provide insight to atherosclerosis etiology. Here, we use two approaches to identify associations between mRNA levels and cIMT: differential gene expression analysis in whole blood and S-PrediXcan. We used microarrays to measure genome-wide whole blood mRNA levels of 5647 European individuals from four studies. We examined the association of mRNA levels with cIMT adjusted for various potential confounders. Significant associations were tested for replication in three studies totaling 3943 participants. Next, we applied S-PrediXcan to summary statistics from a cIMT genome-wide association study of 71 128 individuals to estimate the association between genetically determined mRNA levels and cIMT and replicated these analyses using S-PrediXcan on an independent genome-wide association study on cIMT that included 22 179 individuals from the UK Biobank. mRNA levels of TNFAIP3, CEBPD, and METRNL were inversely associated with cIMT, but these associations were not significant in the replication analysis. S-PrediXcan identified associations between cIMT and genetically determined mRNA levels for 36 genes, of which six were significant in the replication analysis, including TLN2, which had not been previously reported for cIMT. There was weak correlation between our results using differential gene expression analysis and S-PrediXcan. Differential expression analysis and S-PrediXcan represent complementary approaches for the discovery of associations between phenotypes and gene expression. Using these approaches, we prioritize TNFAIP3, CEBPD, METRNL, and TLN2 as new candidate genes whose differential expression might modulate cIMT.

4.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA121316664, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. MGP (matrix Gla protein) is implicated in vascular calcification in animal models, and circulating levels of the uncarboxylated, inactive form of MGP (ucMGP) are associated with cardiovascular disease-related and all-cause mortality in human studies. However, the role of MGP in arterial stiffness is uncertain. Approach and Results: We examined the association of ucMGP levels with vascular calcification, arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and incident heart failure in community-dwelling adults from the Framingham Heart Study. To further investigate the link between MGP and arterial stiffness, we compared aortic PWV in age- and sex-matched young (4-month-old) and aged (10-month-old) wild-type and Mgp+/- mice. Among 7066 adults, we observed significant associations between higher levels of ucMGP and measures of arterial stiffness, including higher PWV and pulse pressure. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated an association between higher ucMGP levels and future increases in systolic blood pressure and incident heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Aortic PWV was increased in older, but not young, female Mgp+/- mice compared with wild-type mice, and this augmentation in PWV was associated with increased aortic elastin fiber fragmentation and collagen accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: This translational study demonstrates an association between ucMGP levels and arterial stiffness and future heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in a large observational study, findings that are substantiated by experimental studies showing that mice with Mgp heterozygosity develop arterial stiffness. Taken together, these complementary study designs suggest a potential role of therapeutically targeting MGP in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e021245, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482708

RESUMO

Background Biological mechanisms underlying the association of a healthy diet with chronic diseases remain unclear. Targeted proteomics may facilitate the understanding of mechanisms linking diet to chronic diseases. Methods and Results We examined 6360 participants (mean age 50 years; 54% women) in the Framingham Heart Study. The associations between diet and 71 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related proteins were examined using 3 diet quality scores: the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the modified Mediterranean-style Diet Score, and the modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score. A mediation analysis was conducted to examine which proteins mediated the associations of diet with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. Thirty of the 71 proteins were associated with at least 1 diet quality score (P<0.0007) after adjustment for multiple covariates in all study participants and confirmed by an internal validation analysis. Gene ontology analysis identified inflammation-related pathways such as regulation of cell killing and neuroinflammatory response (Bonferroni corrected P<0.05). During a median follow-up of 13 years, we documented 512 deaths and 488 incident CVD events. Higher diet quality scores were associated with lower risk of CVD (P≤0.03) and mortality (P≤0.004). After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, 4 proteins (B2M [beta-2-microglobulin], GDF15 [growth differentiation factor 15], sICAM1 [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1], and UCMGP [uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein]) mediated the association between at least 1 diet quality score and all-cause mortality (median proportion of mediation ranged from 8.6% to 25.9%). We also observed that GDF15 mediated the association of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index with CVD (median proportion of mediation: 8.6%). Conclusions Diet quality is associated with new-onset CVD and mortality and with circulating CVD-related proteins. Several proteins appear to mediate the association of diet with these outcomes.

6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469519

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies suggest an association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer incidence/mortality, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these associations are unclear. We aimed to examine biomarkers previously associated with CVD and study their association with incident cancer and cancer-related death in a prospective cohort study. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a proteomic platform to measure 71 cardiovascular biomarkers among 5,032 participants in the Framingham Heart Study who were free of cancer at baseline. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox models to examine the association of circulating protein biomarkers with risk of cancer incidence and mortality. To account for multiple testing, we set a 2-sided false discovery rate (FDR Q-value) <0.05.Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15; also known as macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 [MIC1])) was associated with increased risk of incident cancer (hazards ratio [HR] per 1 standard deviation increment 1.31, 95% CI 1.17-1.47), incident gastrointestinal cancer (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.37-2.50), incident colorectal cancer (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.29-2.91) and cancer-related death (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.72-2.70). Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SFD1) showed an inverse association with cancer-related death (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65-0.86). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) showed an association with colorectal cancer (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.00), and granulin (GRN) was associated with hematologic cancer (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30-1.99). Other circulating biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation, metabolism, and fibrosis showed suggestive associations with future cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSION: We observed several significant associations between circulating CVD biomarkers and cancer, supporting the idea that shared biological pathways underlie both diseases. Further investigations of specific mechanisms that lead to both CVD and cancer are warranted. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: In our prospective cohort study, baseline levels of biomarkers previously associated with CVD were found to be associated with future development of cancer. In particular, GDF15 was associated with increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, including gastrointestinal and colorectal cancers; SDF1 was inversely associated with cancer-related death, and FGF23 and GRN were associated with increased risk of colorectal and hematologic cancers, respectively. Other biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation, metabolism, and fibrosis showed suggestive associations. These results suggest potential shared biological pathways that underlie both development of cancer and CVD.

8.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003258, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies in up to 2500 T2D individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 1590 T2D individuals of African ancestry with or without exclusion of prevalent cardiovascular disease, for CAC measured by cardiac computed tomography, and 3608 individuals of EA and 838 individuals of African ancestry with T2D for cIMT measured by ultrasonography within the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. RESULTS: We replicated 2 loci (rs9369640 and rs9349379 near PHACTR1 and rs10757278 near CDKN2B) for CAC and one locus for cIMT (rs7412 and rs445925 near APOE-APOC1) that were previously reported in the general EA populations. We identified one novel CAC locus (rs8000449 near CSNK1A1L/LINC00547/POSTN at 13q13.3) at P=2.0×10-8 in EA. No additional loci were identified with the meta-analyses of EA and African ancestry. The expression quantitative trait loci analysis with nearby expressed genes derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project pinpoints POSTN, encoding a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, as the potential candidate gene at this locus. In addition, we found significant associations (P<3.1×10-4) for 3 previously reported coronary artery disease loci for these subclinical atherosclerotic phenotypes (rs2891168 near CDKN2B-AS1 and rs11170820 near FLJ12825 for CAC, and rs7412 near APOE for cIMT). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide potential biological mechanisms that could link CAC and cIMT to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with T2D.

9.
Chest ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few clinically useful circulating biomarkers of lung function and lung disease. We hypothesized that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of circulating proteins in conjunction with GWAS of pulmonary traits represents a clinically relevant approach to identifying causal proteins and therapeutically useful insights into mechanisms related to lung function and disease. STUDY QUESTION: Can an integrative genomic strategy using GWAS of plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) levels in conjunction with GWAS of lung function traits identify putatively causal relations of sRAGE to lung function? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma sRAGE levels were measured in 6,861 Framingham Heart Study participants and GWAS of sRAGE was conducted to identify protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL), including cis-pQTL variants at the sRAGE protein-coding gene locus (AGER). We integrated sRAGE pQTL variants with variants from GWAS of lung traits. Colocalization of sRAGE pQTL variants with lung trait GWAS variants was conducted, and Mendelian randomization was performed using sRAGE cis-pQTL variants to infer causality of sRAGE for pulmonary traits. Cross-sectional and longitudinal protein-trait association analyses were conducted for sRAGE in relation to lung traits. RESULTS: Colocalization identified shared genetic signals for sRAGE with lung traits. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested protective causal relations of sRAGE to several pulmonary traits. Protein-trait association analyses demonstrated higher sRAGE levels to be cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with preserved lung function. INTERPRETATION: sRAGE is produced by type I alveolar cells, and it acts as a decoy receptor to block the inflammatory cascade. Our integrative genomics approach provides evidence for sRAGE as a causal and protective biomarker of lung function, and the pattern of associations is suggestive of a protective role of sRAGE against restrictive lung physiology. We speculate that targeting the AGER/sRAGE axis may be therapeutically beneficial for the treatment and prevention of inflammation-related lung disease.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(14): e020215, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219465

RESUMO

Background Obesity may be associated with a range of cardiometabolic manifestations. We hypothesized that proteomic profiling may provide insights into the biological pathways that contribute to various obesity-associated cardiometabolic traits. We sought to identify proteomic signatures of obesity and examine overlap with related cardiometabolic traits, including abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and adipose depots. Methods and Results We measured 71 circulating cardiovascular disease protein biomarkers in 6981 participants (54% women; mean age, 49 years). We examined the associations of obesity, computed tomography measures of adiposity, cardiometabolic traits, and incident metabolic syndrome with biomarkers using multivariable regression models. Of the 71 biomarkers examined, 45 were significantly associated with obesity, of which 32 were positively associated and 13 were negatively associated with obesity (false discovery rate q<0.05 for all). There was significant overlap of biomarker profiles of obesity and cardiometabolic traits, but 23 biomarkers, including melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15), and lipoprotein(a) (LPA) were unique to metabolic traits only. Using hierarchical clustering, we found that the protein biomarkers clustered along 3 main trait axes: adipose, metabolic, and lipid traits. In longitudinal analyses, 6 biomarkers were significantly associated with incident metabolic syndrome: apolipoprotein B (apoB), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), plasma kallikrein (KLKB1), complement C2 (C2), fibrinogen (FBN), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP); false discovery rate q<0.05 for all. Conclusions We found that the proteomic architecture of obesity overlaps considerably with associated cardiometabolic traits, implying shared pathways. Despite overlap, hierarchical clustering of proteomic profiles identified 3 distinct clusters of cardiometabolic traits: adipose, metabolic, and lipid. Further exploration of these novel protein targets and associated pathways may provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the progression from obesity to cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Fenótipo , Proteômica , Adiposidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
11.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(11): 1143-1155, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091768

RESUMO

Common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an index of subclinical atherosclerosis that is associated with ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD). We undertook a cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of measures of cIMT in 6400 individuals. Mendelian randomization analysis was applied to investigate the potential causal role of DNA methylation in the link between atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors and cIMT or clinical cardiovascular disease. The CpG site cg05575921 was associated with cIMT (beta = -0.0264, p value = 3.5 × 10-8) in the discovery panel and was replicated in replication panel (beta = -0.07, p value = 0.005). This CpG is located at chr5:81649347 in the intron 3 of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene (AHRR). Our results indicate that DNA methylation at cg05575921 might be in the pathway between smoking, cIMT and stroke. Moreover, in a region-based analysis, 34 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified of which a DMR upstream of ALOX12 showed the strongest association with cIMT (p value = 1.4 × 10-13). In conclusion, our study suggests that DNA methylation may play a role in the link between cardiovascular risk factors, cIMT and clinical cardiovascular disease.

12.
J Nutr ; 151(9): 2574-2582, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have a complex relation. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between alcohol consumption, fasting plasma proteins, and CVD risk. METHODS: We performed cross-sectional association analyses of alcohol consumption with 71 CVD-related plasma proteins, and also performed prospective association analyses of alcohol consumption and protein concentrations with 3 CVD risk factors (obesity, hypertension, and diabetes) in 6745 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants (mean age 49 y; 53% women). RESULTS: A unit increase in log10 transformed alcohol consumption (g/d) was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26; P = 0.007), and decreased risks of obesity (HR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.91; P = 4.6 × 10-4) and diabetes (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.80; P = 5.1 × 10-6) in a median of 13-y (interquartile = 7, 14) of follow-up. We identified 43 alcohol-associated proteins in a discovery sample (n = 4348, false discovery rate <0.05) and 20 of them were significant (P <0.05/43) in an independent validation sample (n = 2397). Eighteen of the 20 proteins were inversely associated with alcohol consumption. Four of the 20 proteins demonstrated 3-way associations, as expected, with alcohol consumption and CVD risk factors. For example, a greater concentration of APOA1 was associated with higher alcohol consumption (P = 1.2 × 10-65), and it was also associated with a lower risk of diabetes (P = 8.5 × 10-6). However, several others showed unexpected 3-way associations. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 20 alcohol-associated proteins in 6745 FHS samples. These alcohol-associated proteins demonstrated complex relations with the 3 CVD risk factors. Future studies with integration of more proteomic markers and larger sample size are warranted to unravel the complex relation between alcohol consumption and CVD risk.

13.
medRxiv ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851187

RESUMO

Severe COVID-19 is characterised by immunopathology and epithelial injury. Proteomic studies have identified circulating proteins that are biomarkers of severe COVID-19, but cannot distinguish correlation from causation. To address this, we performed Mendelian randomisation (MR) to identify proteins that mediate severe COVID-19. Using protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) data from the SCALLOP consortium, involving meta-analysis of up to 26,494 individuals, and COVID-19 genome-wide association data from the Host Genetics Initiative, we performed MR for 157 COVID-19 severity protein biomarkers. We identified significant MR results for five proteins: FAS, TNFRSF10A, CCL2, EPHB4 and LGALS9. Further evaluation of these candidates using sensitivity analyses and colocalization testing provided strong evidence to implicate the apoptosis-associated cytokine receptor FAS as a causal mediator of severe COVID-19. This effect was specific to severe disease. Using RNA-seq data from 4,778 individuals, we demonstrate that the pQTL at the FAS locus results from genetically influenced alternate splicing causing skipping of exon 6. We show that the risk allele for very severe COVID-19 increases the proportion of transcripts lacking exon 6, and thereby increases soluble FAS. Soluble FAS acts as a decoy receptor for FAS-ligand, inhibiting apoptosis induced through membrane-bound FAS. In summary, we demonstrate a novel genetic mechanism that contributes to risk of severe of COVID-19, highlighting a pathway that may be a promising therapeutic target.

15.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 45, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a noninvasive measure of coronary atherosclerosis, the proximal pathophysiology underlying most cases of myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to identify expression signatures of early MI and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). In this study, we conducted paired-end RNA sequencing on whole blood collected from 198 FHS participants (55 with a history of early MI, 72 with high CAC without prior MI, and 71 controls free of elevated CAC levels or history of MI). We applied DESeq2 to identify coding-genes and long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) differentially expressed in MI and high CAC, respectively, compared with the control. RESULTS: On average, 150 million paired-end reads were obtained for each sample. At the false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.1, we found 68 coding genes and 2 lincRNAs that were differentially expressed in early MI versus controls. Among them, 60 coding genes were detectable and thus tested in an independent RNA-Seq data of 807 individuals from the Rotterdam Study, and 8 genes were supported by p value and direction of the effect. Immune response, lipid metabolic process, and interferon regulatory factor were enriched in these 68 genes. By contrast, only 3 coding genes and 1 lincRNA were differentially expressed in high CAC versus controls. APOD, encoding a component of high-density lipoprotein, was significantly downregulated in both early MI (FDR = 0.007) and high CAC (FDR = 0.01) compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: We identified transcriptomic signatures of early MI that include differentially expressed protein-coding genes and lincRNAs, suggesting important roles for protein-coding genes and lincRNAs in the pathogenesis of MI.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103157, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors that influence kidney traits have been understudied for low frequency and ancestry-specific variants. METHODS: We combined whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 23,732 participants from 10 NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program multi-ethnic studies to identify novel loci for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Participants included European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestries. We applied linear mixed models using a genetic relationship matrix estimated from the WGS data and adjusted for age, sex, study, and ethnicity. FINDINGS: When testing single variants, we identified three novel loci driven by low frequency variants more commonly observed in non-European ancestry (PRKAA2, rs180996919, minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.04%, P = 6.1 × 10-11; METTL8, rs116951054, MAF 0.09%, P = 4.5 × 10-9; and MATK, rs539182790, MAF 0.05%, P = 3.4 × 10-9). We also replicated two known loci for common variants (rs2461702, MAF=0.49, P = 1.2 × 10-9, nearest gene GATM, and rs71147340, MAF=0.34, P = 3.3 × 10-9, CDK12). Testing aggregated variants within a gene identified the MAF gene. A statistical approach based on local ancestry helped to identify replication samples for ancestry-specific variants. INTERPRETATION: This study highlights challenges in studying variants influencing kidney traits that are low frequency in populations and more common in non-European ancestry.


Assuntos
Genômica , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Medicina de Precisão , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex respiratory condition caused by environmental and genetic factors. Although lower concentrations of the anti-inflammatory protein sRAGE have been associated with asthma in humans and mouse models, it is uncertain whether sRAGE plays a causal role in asthma. OBJECTIVE: We designed a two-stage study of sRAGE in relation to asthma with i) association analysis in FHS participants and ii) causal inference testing using MR. METHODS: We measured plasma levels of sRAGE and performed cross-sectional analysis to examine the association between plasma sRAGE concentration and asthma status in 6,546 FHS participants. We then used sRAGE pQTLs derived from a GWAS of plasma sRAGE levels in ∼7,000 FHS participants with UK Biobank asthma GWAS in MR to consider sRAGE as a putatively causal protein for asthma. We also performed replication MR using an externally-derived sRAGE pQTL from the INTERVAL study. Last, we conducted colocalization using cis-pQTL variants at the AGER locus with variants from the UK Biobank asthma GWAS. RESULTS: Association analysis revealed that each 1 SD increment in sRAGE concentration was associated with a 14% lower odds of asthma in FHS participants (95% CI 0.76-0.96). MR identified sRAGE as putatively causal for and protective against asthma based on self-reported (OR [per 1 SE increment in inverse rank-normalized sRAGE]=0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.99; p=0.005) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.99; p=0.011). CONCLUSION: Through this genomic approach, we identified sRAGE as a putatively causal, biologically important, and protective protein in relation to asthma. Functional studies in cell/animal models are needed to confirm our findings.

18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100552, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150324

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) measures (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and albuminuria) are frequently assessed in clinical practice and improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet most major clinical guidelines do not have a standardized approach for incorporating these measures into CVD risk prediction. "CKD Patch" is a validated method to calibrate and improve the predicted risk from established equations according to CKD measures. Methods: Utilizing data from 4,143,535 adults from 35 datasets, we developed several "CKD Patches" incorporating eGFR and albuminuria, to enhance prediction of risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) by the Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) and CVD mortality by Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The risk enhancement by CKD Patch was determined by the deviation between individual CKD measures and the values expected from their traditional CVD risk factors and the hazard ratios for eGFR and albuminuria. We then validated this approach among 4,932,824 adults from 37 independent datasets, comparing the original PCE and SCORE equations (recalibrated in each dataset) to those with addition of CKD Patch. Findings: We confirmed the prediction improvement with the CKD Patch for CVD mortality beyond SCORE and ASCVD beyond PCE in validation datasets (Δc-statistic 0.027 [95% CI 0.018-0.036] and 0.010 [0.007-0.013] and categorical net reclassification improvement 0.080 [0.032-0.127] and 0.056 [0.044-0.067], respectively). The median (IQI) of the ratio of predicted risk for CVD mortality with CKD Patch vs. the original prediction with SCORE was 2.64 (1.89-3.40) in very high-risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 30-44 ml/min/1.73m2 with albuminuria ≥30 mg/g), 1.86 (1.48-2.44) in high-risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73m2 with albuminuria 30-299 mg/g), and 1.37 (1.14-1.69) in moderate risk CKD (e.g., eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73m2 with albuminuria 30-299 mg/g), indicating considerable risk underestimation in CKD with SCORE. The corresponding estimates for ASCVD with PCE were 1.55 (1.37-1.81), 1.24 (1.10-1.54), and 1.21 (0.98-1.46). Interpretation: The "CKD Patch" can be used to quantitatively enhance ASCVD and CVD mortality risk prediction equations recommended in major US and European guidelines according to CKD measures, when available. Funding: US National Kidney Foundation and the NIDDK.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0230035, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci associated with coronary artery disease, but most are common variants in non-coding regions that provide limited information on causal genes and etiology of the disease. To overcome the limited scope that common variants provide, we focused our investigation on low-frequency and rare sequence variations primarily residing in coding regions of the genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using samples of individuals of European ancestry from ten cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, both cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted to examine associations between genetic variants and myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality following these events. For prevalent events, a total of 27,349 participants of European ancestry, including 1831 prevalent MI cases and 2518 prevalent CHD cases were used. For incident cases, a total of 55,736 participants of European ancestry were included (3,031 incident MI cases and 5,425 incident CHD cases). There were 1,860 all-cause deaths among the 3,751 MI and CHD cases from six cohorts that contributed to the analysis of all-cause mortality. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed separately in each cohort and then meta-analyzed for each outcome. A low-frequency intronic variant (rs988583) in PLCL1 was significantly associated with prevalent MI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 2.27; P = 7.12 × 10-7). We conducted gene-based burden tests for genes with a cumulative minor allele count (cMAC) ≥ 5 and variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%. TMPRSS5 and LDLRAD1 were significantly associated with prevalent MI and CHD, respectively, and RC3H2 and ANGPTL4 were significantly associated with incident MI and CHD, respectively. No loci were significantly associated with all-cause mortality following a MI or CHD event. CONCLUSION: This study identified one known locus (ANGPTL4) and four new loci (PLCL1, RC3H2, TMPRSS5, and LDLRAD1) associated with cardiovascular disease risk that warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , /genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Nat Genet ; 52(12): 1314-1332, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230300

RESUMO

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10-8), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA5/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fosfolipase C beta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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