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1.
Radiology ; 294(3): 628-637, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990269

RESUMO

Background The decision to perform endovascular treatment (EVT) for stroke related to vertebrobasilar occlusion (VBO) remains controversial. Purpose To identify preprocedural predictors of good outcomes and to develop a model to aid patient selection for VBO. Materials and Methods For this retrospective study using a Korean multicenter registry, a predictive model for good outcomes (modified Rankin scale score, 0-2) was generated based on a derivation sample of patients with VBO (January 2011-February 2016). Preprocedural parameters, including onset-to-puncture time, infarct volume, occlusion type as a surrogate marker of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis-related occlusion or embolic occlusion (truncal-type occlusion vs branching site occlusion), and collateral status, were analyzed. Continuous variables were dichotomized based on receiver operating characteristic analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to generate a predictive model. The model was internally validated with the bootstrap method and was externally validated with a single-center sample (April 2016-December 2018). Results A predictive model was generated from 71 patients (mean age, 67 years ± 11 [standard deviation]; 41 [58%] men) and was externally validated in 32 patients (mean age, 72 years ± 13; 19 [59%] men). The composite of initial DW imaging volume of less than 10 mL (odds ratio [OR], 19.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0, 126.4; P = .002), onset-to-puncture time of less than 8 hours (OR, 8.7; 95% CI: 1.8, 42.0; P = .007), and branching-site occlusion (OR, 6.1; 95% CI: 1.5, 26.0; P = .01) could be used to predict good outcomes, with a median area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.86 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.77-0.95; bootstrap optimism-corrected C statistic, 0.837) in the derivation sample and 0.78 (IQR, 0.62-0.95) in the validation sample. Results failed to show an association between collateral status and outcome (P = .67). Conclusion When selecting patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion for endovascular treatment, the combination of onset-to-puncture time of less than 8 hours, initial infarct volume of less than 10 mL, and presence of branching-site occlusions is indicative of a good outcome. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 87(2): 233-245, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Otaplimastat is a neuroprotectant that inhibits matrix metalloprotease pathway, and reduces edema and intracerebral hemorrhage induced by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) in animal stroke models. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of otaplimastat in patients receiving rtPA. METHODS: This was a phase 2, 2-part, multicenter trial in stroke patients (19-80 years old) receiving rtPA. Intravenous otaplimastat was administered <30 minutes after rtPA. Stage 1 was a single-arm, open-label safety study in 11 patients. Otaplimastat 80 mg was administered twice daily for 3 days. Stage 2 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 69 patients, assigned (1:1:1) to otaplimastat 40 mg, otaplimastat 80 mg, or a placebo. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of parenchymal hematoma (PH) on day 1. Secondary endpoints included serious adverse events (SAEs), mortality, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) distribution at 90 days (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02787278). RESULTS: No safety issues were encountered in stage 1. The incidence of PH during stage 2 was comparable: 0 of 22 with the placebo, 0 of 22 with otaplimastat 40 mg, and 1 of 21 with the 80 mg dose. No differences in SAEs (13%, 17%, 14%) or death (8.3%, 4.2%, 4.8%) were observed among the 3 groups. Three adverse events (chills, muscle rigidity, hepatotoxicity) were judged to be related to otaplimastat. INTERPRETATION: Intravenous otaplimastat adjunctive therapy in patients receiving rtPA is feasible and generally safe. The functional efficacy of otaplimastat needs to be investigated with further large trials. ANN NEUROL 2020;87:233-245.

3.
Stroke ; 51(3): 931-937, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856691

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Although cilostazol has shown less hemorrhagic events than aspirin, only marginal difference was observed in hemorrhagic stroke events among patients at high risk for cerebral hemorrhage. To identify patients who would most benefit from cilostazol, this study analyzed interactions between treatment and subgroups of the PICASSO trial (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Asian Ischemic Stroke Patients With High Risk of Cerebral Hemorrhage). Methods- Ischemic stroke patients with a previous intracerebral hemorrhage or multiple microbleeds were randomized to treatment with cilostazol or aspirin and followed up for a mean 1.8 years. Efficacy, defined as the composite of any stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death, and safety, defined as the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke, were analyzed in the 2 groups. Interactions between treatment and age, sex, presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, index of high-risk cerebral hemorrhage, and white matter lesion burden were analyzed for primary and key secondary outcomes. Changes in vital signs and laboratory results were compared in the 2 groups. Results- Among all 1534 patients enrolled, a significant interaction between treatment group and index of high risk for cerebral hemorrhage on hemorrhagic stroke (P for interaction, 0.03) was observed. Hemorrhagic stroke was less frequent in the cilostazol than in the aspirin group in patients with multiple microbleeds (1 versus 13 events; hazard ratio, 0.08 [95% CI, 0.01-0.61]; P=0.01). A marginal interaction between treatment group and white matter change on any stroke (P for interaction, 0.08) was observed. Cilostazol reduced any stroke significantly in patients with mild (5 versus 16 events; hazard ratio, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.13-0.97]; P=0.04)-to-moderate (16 versus 32 events; hazard ratio, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.29-0.92]; P=0.03) white matter changes. Heart rate and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol level were significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the aspirin group at follow-up. Conclusions- Cilostazol may be more beneficial for ischemic stroke patients with multiple cerebral microbleeds and before white matter changes are extensive. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01013532.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(24): e013941, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826725

RESUMO

Background There is insufficient evidence on the effect of statins, particularly high-intensity statins, in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. We investigated the impact of statins on the outcomes in these patients, including those who might be vulnerable to statin therapy and those without clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Methods and Results A total of 2153 patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation were enrolled in the present nationwide, multicenter, cohort study. The primary composite end point was the occurrence of net adverse clinical and cerebral events (NACCE; death from any cause, stroke, acute coronary syndrome, or major bleeding) over a 3-year period based on statin intensity. NACCE rates were lower in patients receiving low- to moderate-intensity (adjusted hazard ratio 0.64; 95% CI: 0.52-0.78) and high-intensity statins (hazard ratio 0.51; 95% CI 0.40-0.66) than in those not receiving statin therapy. High-intensity statins were associated with a lower risk for NACCE than low- to moderate-intensity statins (hazard ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.59-0.96). Subgroup analyses showed that the differences in hazard ratio for 3-year NACCE favored statin use across all subgroups, including older patients, those with low cholesterol levels, patients receiving anticoagulants, and patients without clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Magnified benefits of high-intensity statins compared with low- to moderate-intensity statins were observed in patients who underwent revascularization therapy and those under 75 years of age. Conclusions Statins, particularly high-intensity statins, could reduce the risk for NACCE in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation; this needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

5.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681159

RESUMO

Background and aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of ischemic stroke; however, detailed clinical data and prognostic factors for stroke patients with AF are lacking in Korea. We aimed to investigate clinical information and factors associated with functional outcomes of stroke patients with AF from the Korean nationwide ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts (K-ATTENTION) database. Methods: From January 2013 to December 2015, consecutive clinical information from acute stroke patients with AF or history of AF was collected from 11 centers in Korea. Collected data included demographics, risk factors, pre-stroke medication, stroke severity, stroke subtypes, concomitant cerebral atherosclerosis, brain image findings, recanalization therapy, discharge medication, and functional outcome at 3 months after index stroke. Results: A total of 3,213 stroke patients (mean age, 73.6 ± 9.8 years; female, 48.6%) were included. The mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4.9. Among the 1,849 (57.5%) patients who had brain image and functional outcome data, poor outcome (modified Rankin scale > 2) was noted in 53.1% (981/1,849) of patients. After adjusting for age, sex, and variables that had a p < 0.05 in univariate analysis or well-known factors for functional outcome, presence of asymptomatic extracranial cerebral atherosclerosis [odd ratio (OR): 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36-2.82, p = 0.001] and less frequent prior stroke statin intake (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.98, p = 0.038) were associated with poor functional outcome. Conclusion: Our results suggest that presence of non-relevant extracranial cerebral atherosclerosis may affect poor functional outcome and prior stroke statin therapy may be feasible in Korean stroke patients with AF.

6.
J Clin Neurol ; 15(4): 545-554, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical implications of echocardiography findings for long-term outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke patients are unknown. METHODS: This was a substudy of the Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts (K-ATTENTION), which is a multicenter-based cohort comprising prospective stroke registries from 11 tertiary centers. Stroke survivors who underwent two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization were enrolled. Echocardiography markers included the left-ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF), the left atrium diameter, and the ratio of the peak transmitral filling velocity to the mean mitral annular velocity during early diastole (E/e' ratio). LVEF was categorized into normal (≥55%), mildly decreased (>40% and <55%), and severely decreased (≤40%). The E/e' ratio associated with the LV filling pressure was categorized into normal (<8), borderline (≥8 and <15), and elevated (≥15). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed for recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death. RESULTS: This study finally included 1,947 patients. Over a median follow-up of 1.65 years (interquartile range, 0.42-2.87 years), the rates of recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death were 35.1, 10.8, and 69.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that severely decreased LVEF was associated with a higher risks of major adverse cardiac events [hazard ratio (HR), 3.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.58-9.69] and all-cause death (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.23-3.10). The multivariable fractional polynomial plot indicated that recurrent stroke might be associated with a lower LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Severe LV systolic dysfunction could be a determinant of long-term outcomes in AF-related stroke.

7.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First pass recanalization (FPR, defined as achieving a modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia (mTICI) grade 2c/3 with a single pass of a thrombectomy device) effect has not yet been evaluated in contact aspiration thrombectomy (CAT). We evaluated FPR effect on clinical outcomes and FPR predictors in CAT. METHODS: All consecutive patients who underwent frontline CAT for anterior circulation large vessel occlusion with recanalization (mTICI 2b-3) were identified from registries at six stroke centers. The patients were dichotomized into FPR and non-FPR groups. Clinical features and outcomes were compared between the groups. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine whether FPR was independently associated with clinical outcomes and to identify predictors of FPR. RESULTS: Of the 429 patients who underwent frontline CAT, recanalization was successful in 344 patients (80.2%; mean age 68.7±11.0 years; M:F ratio 179:165). The FPR group had a higher rate of good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) than the non-FPR group. Furthermore, the good outcome rate was higher in the FPR group than in patients who achieved mTICI 2c/3 with multiple passes or rescue treatment. FPR (OR 2.587; 95% CI 1.237 to 5.413) remained independently associated with good outcomes, in addition to age, baseline National Institute Health Stroke Scale, and coronary artery disease. The use of a balloon guide catheter (OR 3.071; 95% CI 1.699 to 5.550) was the only predictor of FPR. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in the FPR group had better clinical outcomes than the non-FPR group in CAT. FPR was independently associated with a good outcome. The use of a balloon guide catheter was the only predictor of FPR.

8.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of D-dimer levels and efficacy of different antithrombotic therapies according to the baseline D-dimer levels on recurrent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke and atherosclerosis. METHODS: We enrolled 1441 patients with AF-related stroke and atherosclerosis in this nationwide multicenter study. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of recurrent ischemic stroke over a 3-year period. RESULTS: High D-dimer levels (≥2 µg/mL) were significantly associated with higher risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-2.84; p = 0.012). The risk of recurrent stroke was similar between the anticoagulant and the antiplatelet groups in all subjects (adjusted HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.46-1.32; p = 0.369). However, in patients with high D-dimer levels (≥2 µg/mL), risk of recurrent stroke was significantly lower in the anticoagulant group than in the antiplatelet group (adjusted HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.87; p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that baseline D-dimer levels could be used as a risk assessment biomarker of recurrent stroke in patients with AF-related stroke and atherosclerosis. High D-dimer levels would facilitate the identification of patients who are more likely to benefit from anticoagulants to ensure secondary prevention of stroke.

9.
Neurointervention ; 14(2): 107-115, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315390

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Emergent intracranial occlusions causing acute ischemic stroke are often related to extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between post-procedure intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and emergent extracranial artery stenting and assess their effects on clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing hyperacute endovascular treatment for cervicocephalic vascular occlusion in three Korean hospitals between January 2011 and February 2016. Patients who had extracranial artery involvement and were treated from 24 hours of symptom onset to puncture were included in this study, and they were divided into the extracranial stenting (ES) and non-ES groups. Any type of petechial hemorrhages and parenchymal hematoma was defined as ICH for the current study. RESULTS: In total, 76 patients were included in this study. Among them, 56 patients underwent ES, and 20 patients did not. Baseline characteristics, risk factors, laboratory data, treatment methods, successful reperfusion rates, and baseline stenotic degrees of extracranial internal carotid artery did not differ between these two groups. However, atrial fibrillation was more frequent in patients without than with ES (P=0.002), and post-procedure ICH was more frequent in patients with than without ES (P=0.035). Logistic regression models revealed that ES was independently associated with post-procedure ICH (odds ratio [OR], 7.807; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.213-50.248; P=0.031), and ICH was independently associated with poor clinical outcomes (OR, 0.202; 95% CI, 0.054-0.759; P=0.018); however, ES itself was not associated with clinical outcomes (OR, 0.530; 95% CI, 0.117-2.395; P=0.409). Notably, ICH and ES had interaction for predicting good outcomes (P=0.041). CONCLUSION: Post-procedure ICH was associated with ES and poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, ES should be cautiously considered in patients with hyperacute stroke.

10.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 161(6): 1197-1204, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent aspiration thrombectomy devices tend to have a more flexible distal tip and larger bore for easy target access and effective reperfusion. Here, this study primarily focused on the efficacy and safety of the SOFIA catheters when it was used as a frontline contact aspiration thrombectomy (CAT) tool for acute intracranial large vessel occlusion in comparison with the data from a period when the Penumbra catheter was used. METHODS: The subjects comprised 189 patients who underwent CAT (90 with Penumbra Max family and 99 with SOFIA/SOFIA plus). Patients' data were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate overall clinical and angiographic outcomes and compared between the devices. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. But, intravenous alteplase was more frequently administered in the Penumbra group (43.3% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.045), while incidence of ICA occlusion was higher in SOFIA group (18.9% vs. 38.4%, p = 0.013). The modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b-3 of reperfusion was 94.4% for the Penumbra group and 92.9% for the SOFIA group (p = 0.656). The first-pass effect was more frequently achieved in the SOFIA group (20.0% vs. 39.4%, p = 0.004) and endovascular procedure time was significantly shorter (55.5 min vs. 36 min, p < 0.001). However, clinical outcomes did not differ significantly regarding mortality (11.1% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.213), hemorrhagic complications, and mRS 0-2 at 3 months (63.3% vs. 58.6%; p = 0.504). CONCLUSION: CAT using SOFIA may be safe and comparable to thrombectomy using the Penumbra reperfusion catheter. And, the SOFIA catheter could be advantageous for rapid reperfusion and first-pass effect without any significant complications.

11.
Stroke ; 50(6): 1490-1496, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043149

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Based on its mechanism, the use of balloon guide catheters (BGCs) may be beneficial during endovascular treatment, regardless of the type of mechanical recanalization modality used-stent retriever thrombectomy or thrombaspiration. We evaluated whether the use of BGCs can be beneficial regardless of the first-line mechanical endovascular modality used. Methods- We retrospectively reviewed consecutive acute stroke patients who underwent stent retriever thrombectomy or thrombaspiration from the prospectively maintained registries of 17 stroke centers nationwide. Patients were assigned to the BGC or non-BGC group based on the use of BGCs during procedures. Endovascular and clinical outcomes were compared between the BGC and non-BGC groups. To adjust the influence of the type of first-line endovascular modality on successful recanalization and favorable outcome, multivariable analyses were also performed. Results- This study included a total of 955 patients. Stent retriever thrombectomy was used as the first-line modality in 526 patients (55.1%) and thrombaspiration in 429 (44.9%). BGC was used in 516 patients (54.0%; 61.2% of stent retriever thrombectomy patients; 45.2% of thrombaspiration patients). The successful recanalization rate was significantly higher in the BGC group compared with the non-BGC group (86.8% versus 74.7%, respectively; P<0.001). Furthermore, the first-pass recanalization rate was more frequent (37.0% versus 14.1%; P<0.001), and the number of device passes was fewer in the BGC group (2.5±1.9 versus 3.3±2.1; P<0.001). The procedural time was also shorter in the BGC group (54.3±27.4 versus 67.6±38.2; P<0.001). The use of BGC was an independent factor for successful recanalization (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.54-3.10; P<0.001) irrespective of the type of first-line endovascular modality used. The use of BGC was also an independent factor for a favorable outcome (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.92; P=0.038) irrespective of the type of first-line endovascular modality used. Conclusions- Regardless of the first-line mechanical endovascular modality used, the use of BGC in endovascular treatment was beneficial in terms of both recanalization success and functional outcome.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
12.
Stroke ; 50(6): 1504-1509, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043151

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Several studies have reported partial reversal of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions after acute stroke reperfusion treatment. However, factors associated with DWI reversal have not yet been systematically investigated. We evaluated the factors associated with DWI reversal after endovascular treatment (EVT). Methods- We retrospectively analyzed consecutively encountered patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent EVT at 3 comprehensive stroke centers in Korea from January 2011 to February 2016. Patients who received EVT within 24 hours of anterior circulation infarction and had both baseline and follow-up DWIs were included. DWI reversal was defined as a decrease in DWI volume from baseline to follow-up. We compared the characteristics and outcomes between patients with and without DWI reversal and assessed independent factors associated with DWI reversal. Results- Of 720 patients encountered during the time period, 404 patients (56.1%) met the study criteria, with 63 patients (15.5%) showing DWI reversal after EVT. The mean time interval between baseline and follow-up DWI was 4.7±2.4 days. Mean baseline DWI volumes of patients with and without DWI reversal were 30.1±36.7 versus 22.0±30.7 mL ( P=0.106), and follow-up DWI volumes were 17.8±24.9 versus 68.7±77.5 mL ( P<0.001). Patients with DWI reversal showed better functional outcomes at 3 months than those without DWI reversal (modified Rankin Scale [interquartile range], 1 [0-3] versus 2 [1-4]; P=0.001). In a multivariate analysis, complete reperfusion (odds ratio, 1.954; 95% CI, 1.063-3.582) and shorter time from baseline DWI to final reperfusion (odds ratio, 0.991; 95% CI, 0.983-0.998) were independently associated with DWI reversal. Conclusions- Complete reperfusion and shorter imaging time to recanalization were independently associated with DWI reversal among patients with acute ischemic stroke who received EVT.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia
13.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(9): 918-924, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High blood pressure variability (BPV) is associated with recurrent stroke. We investigated the association between BPV, new ischemic lesions (NILs), and white matter lesion (WML) growth in patients with ischemic stroke due to intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS). METHODS: This study was performed as a post-hoc analysis of the STABLE-ICAS trial, which enrolled subacute ischemic stroke patients with symptomatic ICAS (>50% stenosis) and hypertension. BPV was measured at the office (visit by visit) and at home (day by day). Patients were divided into 3 groups (tertiles) according to their home BPV. WML growth and the occurrence of NILs were compared among the 3 groups. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify the independent risk factors of WML growth and NILs. RESULTS: Of the 111 enrolled patients, 69 patients (67.6%) demonstrated WML growth and 15 patients (13.7%) had NILs. Patients with higher BPV demonstrated a more WML growth (50% vs. 61.8% vs. 83.8; P = 0.02, by tertiles) and more NILs (5.4% vs. 5.4% vs. 29.7%; P = 0.002, by tertiles). In multivariable analyses, old age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.052 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.005-1.101); P = 0.03] and home BPV [OR = 1.149 (95% CI = 1.013-1.304); P = 0.02] were independently associated with WML growth. Low mean diastolic blood pressure [OR = 0.913 (95% CI = 0.874-0.984); P = 0.02] and high home BPV [OR = 1.287 (95% CI = 1.086-1.526); P = 0.004] were independently associated with NILs at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: High BPV is associated with WML growth and NIL in ischemic stroke patients with symptomatic ICAS. BPV monitoring at home may be helpful.

14.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The optimal front-line thrombectomy choice for primary recanalization of a target artery remains unknown for patients with acute large-vessel occlusion (LVO) and an underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). The authors aimed to compare procedural characteristics and outcomes between patients who received a stent-retriever thrombectomy (SRT) and patients who received a contact aspiration thrombectomy (CAT), as the front-line approach for treating LVO due to severe underlying ICAS. METHODS: One hundred thirty patients who presented with acute LVO and underlying severe ICAS at the occlusion site were included. Procedural characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between patients treated with front-line SRT (n = 70) and those treated with front-line CAT (n = 60). The primary outcomes were the rate of switching to an alternative thrombectomy technique, time from groin puncture to initial reperfusion, and duration of the procedure. Initial reperfusion was defined as revealing the underlying culprit stenosis with an antegrade flow after thrombectomy. RESULTS: The rate of switching to an alternative thrombectomy after failure of the front-line technique was significantly higher in the CAT group than in the SRT group (40% vs 4.3%; OR 2.543, 95% CI 1.893-3.417, p < 0.001). The median time from puncture to initial reperfusion (17 vs 31 minutes, p < 0.001) and procedure duration (39 vs 75.5 minutes, p < 0.001) were significantly shorter in the SRT group than in the CAT group. In the binary logistic regression analysis, a longer time from puncture to initial reperfusion was an independent predictor of a 90-day poor (modified Rankin Scale score 3-6) functional outcome (per 1-minute increase; OR 1.029, 95% CI 1.008-1.050, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The authors' results suggest that SRT may be more effective than CAT for identifying underlying culprit stenosis and therefore considered the optimal front-line thrombectomy technique in acute stroke patients with LVO and severe underlying ICAS.

15.
World Neurosurg ; 126: e1268-e1275, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tandem cervical carotid and intracranial occlusions are a well-known cause of complicated endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) in acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to evaluate safety and efficacy of an anterograde approach, which involved carotid balloon angioplasty (BA) alone without carotid artery stenting (CAS) followed by intracranial target recanalization (TR). METHODS: Between April 2009 and March 2017, 62 patients with tandem lesions confirmed in the cervical carotid and simultaneously in the intracranial arteries had EVT performed to target these lesions. Clinical, imaging, and angiographic outcomes for these patients were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Overall, successful reperfusion was achieved in 80.6% (50/62) and a favorable outcome in 61.3% (38/62) of patients. BA alone was enough to maintain access for TR in 85.5% (group A and B; 53/62), although more than one half (31/53; group B) required rescue CAS at the end of EVT due to elastic recoil. In contrast, emergent CAS was additionally required for the remaining 9 patients to maintain distal access (group C). In a subgroup comparison, procedure time (PT) to target recanalization was significantly shorter in group A and B than group C (P = 0.002). A multivariate regression model revealed age, parenchymal hematoma, and PT to target recanalization as independent predictors of favorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: EVT for tandem cervical carotid and intracranial occlusions showed optimistic results in terms of clinical and angiographic outcome. The anterograde EVT strategy of cervical BA alone then intracranial TR was effective in 85.5% of patients, which was likely to reduce PT to target recanalization.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Revascularização Cerebral/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia/métodos , Idoso , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
16.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 11(10): 979-983, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842306

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: The need for rescue treatment (RT) may differ depending on first-line modality (stent retriever (SR) or contact aspiration (CA)) in endovascular thrombectomy (EVT). We aimed to investigate whether the type of first-line modality in EVT was associated with the need for RT. METHODS: We identified all patients who underwent EVT for anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion from prospectively maintained registries of 17 stroke centers. Patients were dichotomized into SR-first and CA-first. RT involved switching to the other device, balloon angioplasty, permanent stenting, thrombolytics, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist, or any combination of these. We compared clinical characteristics, procedural details, and final recanalization rate between the two groups and assessed whether first-line modality type was associated with RT requirement and if this affected clinical outcome. RESULTS: A total of 955 patients underwent EVT using either SR-first (n=526) or CA-first (n=429). No difference occurred in the final recanalization rate between SR-first (82.1%) and CA-first (80.2%). However, recanalization with the first-line modality alone and first-pass recanalization rates were significantly higher in SR-first than in CA-first. CA-first had more device passes and higher RT rate. The RT group had significantly longer puncture-to-recanalization time (93±48 min versus 53±28 min). After adjustment, CA-first remained associated with RT (OR, 1.367; 95% CI, 1.019 to 1.834). RT was negatively associated with good outcome (OR, 0.597; 95% CI, 0.410 to 0.870). CONCLUSION: CA was associated with requiring RT, while recanalization with first-line modality alone and first-pass recanalization rates were higher with SR. RT was negatively associated with good outcome.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc ; 62(2): 201-208, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion, collateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow has a protective role against ischemia. However, some of these patients may experience initial major neurological deficits and major worsening on following days. Thus, we investigated the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) for ICA occlusion with collateral MCA flow by comparing clinical outcomes of medical treatment versus EVT. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were as follows : 1) acute ischemic stroke with ICA occlusion and presence of collateral MCA flow on transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA) and 2) hospital arrival within 12 hours from symptom onset. The treatment strategy was made by the attending physician based on the patient's clinical status and results of TFCA. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were included (30 medical treatment, 51 EVT). The EVT group revealed a high incidence of intracranial ICA occlusion, longer ipsilesional MCA contrast filling time, and a similar rate of favorable clinical outcome despite a higher mean baseline the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. By binary logistic regression analysis, intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and EVT were independent predictors of favorable clinical outcome. In subgroup analysis based on stroke etiology, the non-atherosclerotic group showed a higher baseline NIHSS score, higher incidence of EVT, and a higher rate of distal embolization during EVT in comparison with the atherosclerotic group. CONCLUSION: In patients with ICA occlusion and collateral MCA flow, decisions regarding treatment strategy based on TFCA can help achieve favorable clinical outcomes. EVT strategy with respect to etiology of ICA occlusion might help achieve better angiographic outcomes.

18.
J Stroke ; 21(1): 10-22, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732439

RESUMO

Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) as the standard care for acute stroke due to large vessel occlusion has recently been validated through several randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Contact aspiration (CA) and stent retriever (SR) are the two major EVT methods currently used. Because the RCTs have mostly evaluated SR devices, there was a demand to test CA in relation to SR as a frontline EVT treatment method. Recently, the Contact Aspiration vs Stent Retriever for Successful Recanalization (ASTER) study, the first RCT to compare CA and SR, demonstrated similar efficacy between them as a frontline EVT for patients with large vessel occlusions. This facilitates further investigation to confirm better frontline EVT for patients with acute stroke. In this review, we discuss past and recent developments in CA techniques, focusing on related literature. Additionally, we describe practical skills to overcome technical difficulties that can be encountered during the CA procedure. Finally, we review the evolution of device technologies, including a newer version of using a large-bore aspiration catheter.

19.
J Stroke ; 21(1): 42-59, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558400

RESUMO

Despite the great socioeconomic burden of stroke, there have been few reports of stroke statistics in Korea. In this scenario, the Epidemiologic Research Council of the Korean Stroke Society launched the "Stroke Statistics in Korea" project, aimed at writing a contemporary, comprehensive, and representative report on stroke epidemiology in Korea. This report contains general statistics of stroke, prevalence of behavioral and vascular risk factors, stroke characteristics, pre-hospital system of care, hospital management, quality of stroke care, and outcomes. In this report, we analyzed the most up-to-date and nationally representative databases, rather than performing a systematic review of existing evidence. In summary, one in 40 adults are patients with stroke and 232 subjects per 100,000 experience a stroke event every year. Among the 100 patients with stroke in 2014, 76 had ischemic stroke, 15 had intracerebral hemorrhage, and nine had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke mortality is gradually declining, but it remains as high as 30 deaths per 100,000 individuals, with regional disparities. As for stroke risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is decreasing in men but not in women, and the prevalence of alcohol drinking is increasing in women but not in men. Population-attributable risk factors vary with age. Smoking plays a role in young-aged individuals, hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals, and atrial fibrillation in the elderly. About four out of 10 hospitalized patients with stroke are visiting an emergency room within 3 hours of symptom onset, and only half use an ambulance. Regarding acute management, the proportion of patients with ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment was 10.7% and 3.6%, respectively. Decompressive surgery was performed in 1.4% of patients with ischemic stroke and in 28.1% of those with intracerebral hemorrhage. The cumulative incidence of bleeding and fracture at 1 year after stroke was 8.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The direct costs of stroke were about ₩1.68 trillion (KRW), of which ₩1.11 trillion were for ischemic stroke and ₩540 billion for hemorrhagic stroke. The great burden of stroke in Korea can be reduced through more concentrated efforts to control major attributable risk factors for age and sex, reorganize emergency medical service systems to give patients with stroke more opportunities for reperfusion therapy, disseminate stroke unit care, and reduce regional disparities. We hope that this report can contribute to achieving these tasks.

20.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVEThe role of the balloon guide catheter (BGC) has not been evaluated in contact aspiration thrombectomy (CAT) for acute stroke. Here, the authors aimed to test whether the BGC was associated with recanalization success and good functional outcome in CAT.METHODSAll patients who had undergone CAT as the first-line treatment for anterior circulation intracranial large vessel occlusion were retrospectively identified from prospectively maintained registries for six stroke centers. The patients were dichotomized into BGC utilization and nonutilization groups. Clinical findings, procedural details, and recanalization success rates were compared between the two groups. Whether the BGC was associated with recanalization success and functional outcome was assessed.RESULTSA total of 429 patients (mean age 68.4 ± 11.4 years; M/F ratio 215:214) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A BGC was used in 45.2% of patients. The overall recanalization and good outcome rates were 80.2% and 52.0%, respectively. Compared to the non-BGC group, the BGC group had a significantly reduced number of CAT passes (2.6 ± 1.6 vs 3.4 ± 1.5), shorter puncture-to-recanalization time (56 ± 27 vs 64 ± 35 minutes), lower need for the additional use of thrombolytics (1.0% vs 8.1%), and less embolization to a distal or different site (0.5% vs 3.4%). The BGC group showed significantly higher final (89.2% vs 72.8%) and first-pass (24.2% vs 8.1%) recanalization success rates. After adjustment for potentially associated factors, BGC utilization remained independently associated with recanalization (OR 4.171, 95% CI 1.523-11.420) and good functional outcome (OR 2.103, 95% CI 1.225-3.612).CONCLUSIONSBGC utilization significantly increased the final and first-pass recanalization rates and remained independently associated with recanalization success and good functional outcome.

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