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1.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasma proteins have been widely studied as candidate biomarkers to predict brain amyloid deposition to increase recruitment efficiency in secondary prevention clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease. Most such biomarker studies are targeted to specific proteins or are biased toward high abundant proteins. METHODS: 4001 plasma proteins were measured in two groups of participants (discovery group = 516, replication group = 365) selected from the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study, all of whom had measures of amyloid. RESULTS: A panel of proteins (n = 44), along with age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4, predicted brain amyloid deposition with good performance in both the discovery group (area under the curve = 0.78) and the replication group (area under the curve = 0.68). Furthermore, a causal relationship between amyloid and tau was confirmed by Mendelian randomization. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that high-dimensional plasma protein testing could be a useful and reproducible approach for measuring brain amyloid deposition.

2.
Dev Neurobiol ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389176

RESUMO

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discovering reliable biomarkers which could facilitate early AD diagnosis and be used to predict/monitor disease course would be extremely valuable. To examine if analytes in blood related to amyloid plaques may constitute such biomarkers, we conducted meta-analyses of studies comparing plasma amyloid beta (Aß) levels between DS individuals and controls, and between DS individuals with and without dementia. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched for studies investigating the relationship between Aß plasma concentrations and dementia in DS and 10 studies collectively comprising >1,600 adults, including >1,400 individuals with DS, were included. RevMan 5.3 was used to perform meta-analyses. Meta-analyses showed higher plasma Aß40 (SMD = 1.79, 95% CI [1.14, 2.44], Z = 5.40, p < .00001) and plasma Aß42 levels (SMD = 1.41, 95% CI [1.15, 1.68], Z = 10.46, p < .00001) in DS individuals than controls, and revealed that DS individuals with dementia had higher plasma Aß40 levels (SMD = 0.23, 95% CI [0.05, 0.41], Z = 2.54, p = .01) and lower Aß42 /Aß40 ratios (SMD = -0.33, 95% CI [-0.63, -0.03], Z = 2.15, p = .03) than DS individuals without dementia. Our results indicate that plasma Aß40 levels may constitute a promising biomarker for predicting dementia status in individuals with DS. Further investigations using new ultra-sensitive assays are required to obtain more reliable results and to investigate to what extent these results may be generalizable beyond the DS population.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of Lewy body dementias (LBD) is second only to Alzheimer's disease (AD) among people with neurodegenerative dementia. LBD cause earlier mortality, more intense neuropsychiatric symptoms, more caregivers' burden, and higher costs than AD. The molecular mechanisms underlying LBD are largely unknown. As advancing molecular level mechanistic understanding is essential for identifying reliable peripheral biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for LBD, the authors aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG), and dysfunctional molecular networks in postmortem LBD brains. METHODS: The authors investigated the transcriptomics of postmortem anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices of people with pathology-verified LBD using next-generation RNA-sequencing. The authors verified the identified DEG using high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Functional implications of identified DEG and the consequent metabolic reprogramming were evaluated by Ingenuity pathway analyses, genome-scale metabolic modeling, reporter metabolite analyses, and in silico gene silencing. RESULTS: The authors identified and verified 12 novel DEGs (MPO, SELE, CTSG, ALPI, ABCA13, GALNT6, SST, RBM3, CSF3, SLC4A1, OXTR, and RAB44) in LBD brains with genome-wide statistical significance. The authors documented statistically significant down-regulation of several cytokine genes. Identified dysfunctional molecular networks highlighted the contributions of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and immunosenescence toward neurodegeneration in LBD. CONCLUSION: Our findings support that chronic microglial activation and neuroinflammation, well-documented in AD, are notably absent in LBD. The lack of neuroinflammation in LBD brains was corroborated by statistically significant down-regulation of several inflammatory markers. Identified DEGs, especially down-regulated inflammatory markers, may aid distinguishing LBD from AD, and their biomarker potential warrant further investigation.

4.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(6): 817-827, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078433

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A critical and as-yet unmet need in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the discovery of peripheral small molecule biomarkers. Given that brain pathology precedes clinical symptom onset, we set out to test whether metabolites in blood associated with pathology as indexed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers. METHODS: This study analyzed 593 plasma samples selected from the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's Disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study, of individuals who were cognitively healthy (n = 242), had mild cognitive impairment (n = 236), or had AD-type dementia (n = 115). Logistic regressions were carried out between plasma metabolites (n = 883) and CSF markers, magnetic resonance imaging, cognition, and clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: Eight metabolites were associated with amyloid ß and one with t-tau in CSF, these were primary fatty acid amides (PFAMs), lipokines, and amino acids. From these, PFAMs, glutamate, and aspartate also associated with hippocampal volume and memory. DISCUSSION: PFAMs have been found increased and associated with amyloid ß burden in CSF and clinical measures.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6343, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992456

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

6.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 26, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS), caused by chromosome 21 trisomy, is associated with an ultra-high risk of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), driven by amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene triplication. Understanding relevant molecular differences between those with DS, those with sporadic AD (sAD) without DS, and controls will aid in understanding AD development in DS. We explored group differences in plasma concentrations of amyloid-ß peptides and tau (as their accumulation is a characteristic feature of AD) and cytokines (as the inflammatory response has been implicated in AD development, and immune dysfunction is common in DS). METHODS: We used ultrasensitive assays to compare plasma concentrations of the amyloid-ß peptides Aß40 and Aß42, total tau (t-tau), and the cytokines IL1ß, IL10, IL6, and TNFα between adults with DS (n = 31), adults with sAD (n = 27), and controls age-matched to the group with DS (n = 27), and explored relationships between molecular concentrations and with age within each group. In the group with DS, we also explored relationships with neurofilament light (NfL) concentration, due to its potential use as a biomarker for AD in DS. RESULTS: Aß40, Aß42, and IL1ß concentrations were higher in DS, with a higher Aß42/Aß40 ratio in controls. The group with DS showed moderate positive associations between concentrations of t-tau and both Aß42 and IL1ß. Only NfL concentration in the group with DS showed a significant positive association with age. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of Aß40 and Aß42 were much higher in adults with DS than in other groups, reflecting APP gene triplication, while no difference in the Aß42/Aß40 ratio between those with DS and sAD may indicate similar processing and deposition of Aß40 and Aß42 in these groups. Higher concentrations of IL1ß in DS may reflect an increased vulnerability to infections and/or an increased prevalence of autoimmune disorders, while the positive association between IL1ß and t-tau in DS may indicate IL1ß is associated with neurodegeneration. Finally, NfL concentration may be the most suitable biomarker for dementia progression in DS. The identification of such a biomarker is important to improve the detection of dementia and monitor its progression, and for designing clinical intervention studies.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3147, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816126

RESUMO

Metal/mineral dyshomeostasis has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the study was to investigate the difference in absolute and percentage levels of plasma phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, selenium in cognitively normal (CN) and AD subjects. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy was used to detect plasma metals/minerals in CN and AD subjects (n = 44 per group). TXRF detected significantly increased plasma levels of phosphorus (p = 1.33 × 10-12) and calcium (p = 0.025) in AD compared to CN subjects, with higher phosphorus/calcium (p = 2.55 × 10-14) ratio in the former. Percentage concentrations calculated for phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, selenium by dividing the concentration of each element by the total concentration of these elements and multiplying by 100%, demonstrated phosphorus was higher in AD compared to CN subjects, while calcium, iron, zinc, copper and selenium were lower in AD subjects, with area under the curves as high as 0.937 (p = 6 × 10-5) computed from receiver operating curves. With exclusion of high levels of phosphorus and calcium from percentage calculations, iron levels remained low in AD whereas zinc was higher in AD, and copper and selenium levels were similar. We demonstrate altered distribution of elements in the plasma of AD subjects with high interdependencies between elemental levels and propose the potential of TXRF measurements for disease monitoring.

8.
Sci Adv ; 5(2): eaau7220, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775436

RESUMO

A blood-based assessment of preclinical disease would have huge potential in the enrichment of participants for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic trials. In this study, cognitively unimpaired individuals from the AIBL and KARVIAH cohorts were defined as Aß negative or Aß positive by positron emission tomography. Nontargeted proteomic analysis that incorporated peptide fractionation and high-resolution mass spectrometry quantified relative protein abundances in plasma samples from all participants. A protein classifier model was trained to predict Aß-positive participants using feature selection and machine learning in AIBL and independently assessed in KARVIAH. A 12-feature model for predicting Aß-positive participants was established and demonstrated high accuracy (testing area under the receiver operator characteristic curve = 0.891, sensitivity = 0.78, and specificity = 0.77). This extensive plasma proteomic study has unbiasedly highlighted putative and novel candidates for AD pathology that should be further validated with automated methodologies.

9.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 5, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626432

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-ß (Aß) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and widespread neuronal loss in the brain. In recent years, blood biomarkers have emerged as a realistic prospect to highlight accumulating pathology for secondary prevention trials. Neurofilament light chain (NfL), a marker of axonal degeneration, is robustly elevated in the blood of many neurological and neurodegenerative conditions, including AD. A strong relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NfL suggests that these biomarker modalities reflect the same pathological process. Yet, the connection between blood NfL and brain tissue pathology has not been directly compared. In this study, longitudinal plasma NfL from cognitively healthy controls (n = 12) and AD participants (n = 57) were quantified by the Simoa platform. On reaching post-mortem, neuropathological assessment was performed on all participants, with additional frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue acquired from 26 participants for further biochemical (Aß1-42, Aß1-40, tau) and histological (NfL) evaluation. Plasma NfL concentrations were significantly increased in AD and correlated with cognitive decline, independent of age. Retrospective stratification based on Braak staging revealed that baseline plasma NfL concentrations were associated with higher neurofibrillary tangle pathology at post-mortem. Longitudinal increases in plasma NfL were observed in all Braak groupings; a significant negative association, however, was found between plasma NfL at time point 1 and both its rate of change and annual percentage increase. Immunohistochemical evaluation of NfL in the medial temporal gyrus (MTG) demonstrated an inverse relationship between Braak stages and NfL staining. Importantly, a significant negative correlation was found between the plasma NfL measurement closest to death and the level of NfL staining in the MTG at post-mortem. For the first time, we demonstrate that plasma NfL associates with the severity of neurofibrillary tangle pathology and neurodegeneration in the post-mortem brain.

10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 70: 125-127, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007161

RESUMO

There is a need for an accessible biomarker that can complement current cerebrospinal fluid and imaging biomarkers in an accurate and early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Saliva is a rich source of potential biomarkers and proteins related to neurodegenerative disorders have been shown to be present in this matrix, including tau. In this study, we quantified salivary total tau (t-tau) concentration in 160 healthy elderly control, 68 mild cognitive impairment, and 53 AD participants using ultrasensitive Single molecule array (Simoa) technology. No median difference in salivary t-tau concentration was found between AD and mild cognitive impairment or healthy elderly control (12.3 ng/L, 9.8 ng/L and 9.6 ng/L, respectively, p = 0.219). In addition, there was no association of salivary t-tau concentration with neurophysiological assessment or structural magnetic resonance imaging. Despite a nominal increase in AD, due to the large overlaps in concentrations between clinical groups, we conclude that salivary t-tau is a suitable biomarker neither for AD nor for cognitive impairment.

11.
Biomark Med ; 12(7): 799-812, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902934

RESUMO

At the center of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is the aberrant aggregation of amyloid-ß (Aß) into oligomers, fibrils and plaques. Effective monitoring of Aß deposition directly in patients is essential to assist anti-Aß therapeutics in target engagement and participant selection. In the advent of approved anti-Aß therapeutics, biomarkers will become of fundamental importance in initiating treatments having disease modifying effects at the earliest stage. Two well-established Aß biomarkers are widely utilized: Aß-binding ligands for positron emission tomography and immunoassays to measure Aß42 in cerebrospinal fluid. In this review, we will discuss the current clinical, diagnostic and research state of biomarkers for Aß pathology. Furthermore, we will explore the current application of blood-based markers to assess Aß pathology.

12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 62(3): 1181-1198, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562526

RESUMO

Blood-based biomarkers represent a less invasive and potentially cheaper approach for aiding Alzheimer's disease (AD) detection compared with cerebrospinal fluid and some neuroimaging biomarkers. Acknowledging that many in the field have made great progress, here we review some of the work that our group has pursued to identify and validate blood-based proteomic biomarkers through both case control and AD pathology endophenotype-based approaches. Our focus is primarily to identify a minimally invasive and hopefully cost-effective blood-based biomarker to reduce screen failure in clinical trials where participants have prodromal or even pre-clinical disease. We summarize some of the key findings and approaches taken in these biomarker studies, while addressing the main challenges, including that of limited replication in the field, and discuss opportunities for biomarker development.

14.
PLoS Med ; 14(3): e1002266, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The metabolic basis of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and expression of AD symptoms is poorly understood. Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids have previously been linked to both protective and pathogenic effects in AD. However, to date little is known about how the abundance of these species is affected by differing levels of disease pathology in the brain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed metabolic profiling on brain tissue samples from 43 individuals ranging in age from 57 to 95 y old who were stratified into three groups: AD (N = 14), controls (N = 14) and "asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease" (ASYMAD), i.e., individuals with significant AD neuropathology at death but without evidence for cognitive impairment during life (N = 15) from the autopsy sample of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). We measured 4,897 metabolite features in regions both vulnerable in the middle frontal and inferior temporal gyri (MFG and ITG) and resistant (cerebellum) to classical AD pathology. The levels of six unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in whole brain were compared in controls versus AD, and the differences were as follows: linoleic acid (p = 8.8 x 10-8, FC = 0.52, q = 1.03 x 10-6), linolenic acid (p = 2.5 x 10-4, FC = 0.84, q = 4.03 x 10-4), docosahexaenoic acid (p = 1.7 x 10-7, FC = 1.45, q = 1.24 x 10-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (p = 4.4 x 10-4, FC = 0.16, q = 6.48 x 10-4), oleic acid (p = 3.3 x 10-7, FC = 0.34, q = 1.46 x 10-6), and arachidonic acid (p = 2.98 x 10-5, FC = 0.75, q = 7.95 x 10-5). These fatty acids were strongly associated with AD when comparing the groups in the MFG and ITG, respectively: linoleic acid (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0006), linolenic acid (p < 0.0001, p = 0.002), docosahexaenoic acid (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0024), eicosapentaenoic acid (p = 0.0002, p = 0.0008), oleic acid (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0003), and arachidonic acid (p = 0.0001, p = 0.001). Significant associations were also observed between the abundance of these UFAs with neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle burden as well as domain-specific cognitive performance assessed during life. Based on the regional pattern of differences in brain tissue levels of these metabolites, we propose that alterations in UFA metabolism represent both global metabolic perturbations in AD as well as those related to specific features of AD pathology. Within the middle frontal gyrus, decrements in linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid (control>ASYMAD>AD) and increases in docosahexanoic acid (AD>ASYMAD>control) may represent regionally specific threshold levels of these metabolites beyond which the accumulation of AD pathology triggers the expression of clinical symptoms. The main limitation of this study is the relatively small sample size. There are few cohorts with extensive longitudinal cognitive assessments during life and detailed neuropathological assessments at death, such as the BLSA. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that unsaturated fatty acid metabolism is significantly dysregulated in the brains of patients with varying degrees of Alzheimer pathology.

15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 54(2): 707-16, 2016 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27567854

RESUMO

There is a critical unmet need for reliable markers of disease and disease course in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). The growing appreciation of the importance of inflammation in early AD has focused attention on inflammatory biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid or plasma; however, non-specific inflammation markers have disappointed to date. We have adopted a targeted approach, centered on an inflammatory pathway already implicated in the disease. Complement, a core system in innate immune defense and potent driver of inflammation, has been implicated in pathogenesis of AD based on a confluence of genetic, histochemical, and model data. Numerous studies have suggested that measurement of individual complement proteins or activation products in cerebrospinal fluid or plasma is useful in diagnosis, prediction, or stratification, but few have been replicated. Here we apply a novel multiplex assay to measure five complement proteins and four activation products in plasma from donors with MCI, AD, and controls. Only one complement analyte, clusterin, differed significantly between control and AD plasma (controls, 295 mg/l; AD, 388 mg/l: p < 10- 5). A model combining clusterin with relevant co-variables was highly predictive of disease. Three analytes (clusterin, factor I, terminal complement complex) were significantly different between MCI individuals who had converted to dementia one year later compared to non-converters; a model combining these three analytes with informative co-variables was highly predictive of conversion. The data confirm the relevance of complement biomarkers in MCI and AD and build the case for using multi-parameter models for disease prediction and stratification.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Clusterina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 52(2): 561-72, 2016 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27031486

RESUMO

Increasingly, clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are being conducted earlier in the disease phase and with biomarker confirmation using in vivo amyloid PET imaging or CSF tau and Aß measures to quantify pathology. However, making such a pre-clinical AD diagnosis is relatively costly and the screening failure rate is likely to be high. Having a blood-based marker that would reduce such costs and accelerate clinical trials through identifying potential participants with likely pre-clinical AD would be a substantial advance. In order to seek such a candidate biomarker, discovery phase proteomic analyses using 2DGE and gel-free LC-MS/MS for high and low molecular weight analytes were conducted on longitudinal plasma samples collected over a 12-year period from non-demented older individuals who exhibited a range of 11C-PiB PET measures of amyloid load. We then sought to extend our discovery findings by investigating whether our candidate biomarkers were also associated with brain amyloid burden in disease, in an independent cohort. Seven plasma proteins, including A2M, Apo-A1, and multiple complement proteins, were identified as pre-clinical biomarkers of amyloid burden and were consistent across three time points (p <  0.05). Five of these proteins also correlated with brain amyloid measures at different stages of the disease (q <  0.1). Here we show that it is possible to detect a plasma based biomarker signature indicative of AD pathology at a stage long before the onset of clinical disease manifestation. As in previous studies, acute phase reactants and inflammatory markers dominate this signature.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas/análise , Benzotiazóis/análise , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/patologia , Química Encefálica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Macroglobulinas/análise
18.
J Proteome Res ; 14(12): 5063-76, 2015 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26488311

RESUMO

Specific glycosylated peptides of clusterin are found associated with hippocampal atrophy. The glycosylation of clusterin from human plasma was comprehensively analyzed and characterized using mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomics analysis. All six known N-glycosylation sites are covered, three in the alpha subunit (α64N, α81N and α123N) and three in the beta subunit (ß64N, ß127N, and ß147N). More detailed structural characterization of clusterin glycopeptides was also performed, demonstrating the presence of glycosylated peptides and their corresponding glycans. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we have determined the differences in the glycoforms associated at each of the different glycosylation sites in plasma clusterin obtained from subjects of low hippocampal atrophy (n = 13) and high hippocampal atrophy (n = 14). In our pilot study, the ß64N site shows the most significant regulations between clinical groups. Eight ß64N glycoforms are significantly reduced in patients with high atrophy compared with those with low atrophy, which demonstrates the utility of clusterin isoforms as diagnostic and prognostic Alzheimer's disease (AD) markers. These results provide a novel and robust workflow suitable for rapid verification of specific clusterin glycoforms with utility as AD biomarkers.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Clusterina/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Atrofia/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Clusterina/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/sangue , Feminino , Glicosilação , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Projetos Piloto , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0122883, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25853858

RESUMO

Unbiased metabolomic analysis of biological samples is a powerful and increasingly commonly utilised tool, especially for the analysis of bio-fluids to identify candidate biomarkers. To date however only a small number of metabolomic studies have been applied to studying the metabolite composition of tissue samples, this is due, in part to a number of technical challenges including scarcity of material and difficulty in extracting metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a method for maximising the biological information obtained from small tissue samples by optimising sample preparation, LC-MS analysis and metabolite identification. Here we describe an in-vial dual extraction (IVDE) method, with reversed phase and hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography (HILIC) which reproducibly measured over 4,000 metabolite features from as little as 3mg of brain tissue. The aqueous phase was analysed in positive and negative modes following HILIC separation in which 2,838 metabolite features were consistently measured including amino acids, sugars and purine bases. The non-aqueous phase was also analysed in positive and negative modes following reversed phase separation gradients respectively from which 1,183 metabolite features were consistently measured representing metabolites such as phosphatidylcholines, sphingolipids and triacylglycerides. The described metabolomics method includes a database for 200 metabolites, retention time, mass and relative intensity, and presents the basal metabolite composition for brain tissue in the healthy rat cerebellum.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Animais , Cerebelo/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 46(2): 313-27, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25835424

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative dementia, with the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-ß and formation of neurofibrillary tau tangles as leading explanations of pathology. With the difficulties of studying the brain directly, it is hoped that identifying the effect of AD on the metabolite composition of biofluids will provide insights into underlying mechanisms of pathology. The present review identified 705 distinct metabolite reports representing 448 structurally distinct metabolites in six human biofluids, with 147 metabolites increased and 214 metabolites decreased with AD, while 80 metabolites showed inconsistent shifts. Sphingolipid, antioxidant, and glutamate metabolism were found to be strongly associated with AD and were selected for detailed investigation of their role in pathogenesis. In plasma, two ceramides increased and eight sphingomyelins decreased with AD, with total ceramides shown to increase in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In general antioxidants were shown to be depleted, with oxidative stress markers elevated in a range of biofluids in patients suggesting AD produces a pro-oxidative environment. Shifts in glutamate and glutamine and elevation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal suggests peroxidation of the astrocyte lipid bilayer resulting in reduced glutamate clearance from the synaptic cleft, suggesting a excitotoxicity component to AD pathology; however, due to inconsistencies in literature reports, reliable interpretation is difficult. The present review has shown that metabolite shifts in biofluids can provide valuable insights into potential pathological mechanisms in the brain, with sphingolipid, antioxidant, and glutamate metabolism being implicated in AD pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
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