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1.
Vaccine ; 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127211

RESUMO

As COVID-19 vaccination for children becomes commonplace in Ireland, it is important to understand parent's willingness to vaccinate their children and factors associated with hesitancy and resistance. Amongst a nationally representative sample of parents from Ireland, surveyed in March/April 2021, 52.1% had, or were intending to have their child vaccinated; 30.1% reported they might vaccine their child; and 17.8% reported they would not vaccinate their child. Compared to vaccine-accepting parents, hesitant parents were more likely to be younger, less educated, poorer, to not know somebody who was sick from COVID-19, to believe the COVID-19 vaccines were unsafe, and to hold negative beliefs about scientists and healthcare professionals. Vaccine-resistant parents were more likely to be younger, living alone, to distrust scientists, and to believe the COVID-19 vaccines were unsafe. Public health messaging should target younger, lower income parents with clear information about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines for children.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274052, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between perceived manageability of debt and risk of depression, anxiety, and mental health help-seeking among a nationally representative sample of adults living in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Data was derived from the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study Wave 6 (August/September 2021) which examined the psychological, social, and economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the UK adult population. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between different levels of perceived debt manageability (i.e., "easily manageable", "some problems", "quite serious problems", "very serious problems", "cannot manage at all") and mental health related outcomes. RESULTS: Almost a quarter of the sample (24%, n = 494) reported debt management problems, and debt manageability associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, and mental health help-seeking. After adjusting for demographic variables (e.g. income, receipt of benefits), logistic regression analysis demonstrated a dose-response association between increasing levels of debt manageability problems and mental health outcomes. Specifically, adjusted odds ratios for anxiety ranged from 2.28 ('some problems') to 11.18 ('very serious problems'), for depression ranged from 2.80 ('some problems') to 16.21 ('cannot manage at all'), and for mental health help-seeking ranged from 1.69 ('some problems') to 3.18 ('quite serious problems', 'very serious problems'). CONCLUSION: This study highlights that debt manageability problems represent a robust predictor of depression, anxiety, and mental-health help seeking.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1563, 2022 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding how pandemics differentially impact on the socio-protective and psychological outcomes of males and females is important to develop more equitable public health policies. We assessed whether males and females differed on measures of major depression and generalized anxiety during the COVID-19 the pandemic, and if so, which sociodemographic, pandemic, and psychological variables may affect sex differences in depression and anxiety. METHODS: Participants were a nationally representative sample of Irish adults (N = 1,032) assessed between April 30th to May 19th, 2020, during Ireland's first COVID-19 nationwide quarantine. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety (GAD-7) and depression (PHQ-9), as well as 23 sociodemographic pandemic-related, and psychological variables. Sex differences on measures of depression and anxiety were assessed using binary logistic regression analysis and differences in sociodemographic, pandemic, and psychological variables assessed using chi-square tests of independence and independent samples t-tests. RESULTS: Females were significantly more likely than males to screen positive for major depressive disorder (30.6% vs. 20.7%; χ2 (1) = 13.26, p < .001, OR = 1.69 [95% CI = 1.27, 2.25]), and generalised anxiety disorder (23.3% vs. 14.4%; χ2 (1) = 13.42, p < .001, OR = 1.81 [95% CI = 1.31, 2.49]). When adjusted for all other sex-varying covariates however, sex was no longer significantly associated with screening positive for depression (AOR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.51, 1.25) or GAD (AOR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.60, 1.57). CONCLUSION: Observed sex-differences in depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Ireland are best explained by psychosocial factors of COVID-19 related anxiety, trait neuroticism, lower sleep quality, higher levels of loneliness, greater somatic problems, and, in the case of depression, increases in childcaring responsibilities and lower trait consciousnesses. Implications of these findings for public health policy and interventions are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Caracteres Sexuais
4.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e47, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773999

RESUMO

AIMS: Current information about the prevalence of various mental health disorders in the general adult population of the Republic of Ireland is lacking. In this study, we examined the prevalence of 12 common mental disorders, the proportion of adults who screened positive for any disorder, the sociodemographic factors associated with meeting criteria for a disorder and the associations between each disorder and history of attempted suicide. METHODS: A non-probability nationally representative sample (N = 1110) of adults living in Ireland completed self-report measures of 12 mental health disorders. Effect sizes were calculated using odds ratios from logistic regression models, and population attributable risk fractions (PAFs) were estimated to quantify the associations between each disorder and attempted suicide. RESULTS: Prevalence rates ranged from 15.0% (insomnia disorder) to 1.7% (histrionic personality disorder). Overall, 42.5% of the sample met criteria for a mental health disorder, and 11.1% had a lifetime history of attempted suicide. Younger age, being a shift worker and trauma exposure were independently associated with a higher likelihood of having a mental health disorder, while being in university was associated with a lower likelihood of having a disorder. ICD-11 complex posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder and insomnia disorder had the highest PAFs for attempted suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health disorder prevalence in Ireland is relatively high compared to international estimates. The findings are discussed in relation to important mental health policy implications.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adulto , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia
6.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 859877, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693953

RESUMO

The 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases has endorsed substantial changes in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and has introduced Complex PTSD (cPTSD). The objective of this study was to assess the symptom and network structure of PTSD and cPTSD using the International Trauma Questionnaire- Italian version (ITQ) and the prevalence of PTSD and cPTSD in a community sample of late adolescents enriched with exposure to a destructive earthquake. A 1,010 high school students participated to the study. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supports that a six first-order correlated factors was the best fitting model of ICD-11 PTSD/cPTSD. The network analysis supports a clear separation between core PTSD symptoms and disturbances in self-organization (DSO) symptoms, avoidance, and negative self-concept were the most central items. The prevalence of PTSD and cPTSD was 9.11 and 4.06%, respectively. Female participants reported higher rates of both PTSD and cPTSD. This is the first study to report on ICD-11 PTSD and cPTSD rates on an Italian adolescence community sample. Consistent with other community samples, we found higher rates of PTSD compared to cPTSD. The results confirmed the factorial validity of the ITQ. The network structure highlights the importance of negative self-concept in cPTSD and avoidance in PTSD.

7.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; : e1928, 2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study was established in March 2020 to monitor the psychological and socio-economic impact of the pandemic in the UK and other countries. This paper describes the protocol for Wave 5 (March-April 2021). METHODS: The survey assessed: COVID-19 related experiences; experiences of common mental health disorders; psychological characteristics; and social and political attitudes. Adults who participated in any previous wave (N = 4949) were re-invited to participate. Weights were calculated using a survey raking algorithm to ensure the longitudinal panel was nationally representative in terms of gender, age, and household income, amongst other factors. RESULTS: Overall, 2520 adults participated. A total of 2377 adults who participated in the previous survey wave (November-December 2020) were re-interviewed at Wave 5 (61.5% retention rate). Attrition between these two waves was predicted by younger age, lower household income, children living in the household, and treatment for mental health difficulties. Of the adults recruited into the C19PRC study at baseline, 57.4% (N = 1162) participated in Wave 5. The raking procedure re-balanced the longitudinal panel to within 1.5% of population estimates for selected socio-demographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: This paper outlines the growing strength of the publicly available C19PRC Study data for COVID-19-related interdisciplinary research.

8.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35756900

RESUMO

There is a burgeoning evidence base highlighting the positive influence of benevolent childhood experiences (BCEs), even in the context of adversity. However, few measures are available to assess BCEs. The current study sought to develop and validate a measure which assesses positive recollections of experiences and emotions at home and with family during childhood called the 'Memories of Home and Family Scale'(MHFS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to test the latent structure of the preliminary MHFS item scores in a sample of university students from the United Kingdom (N = 624). Following selection of the best-fitting model and final items for inclusion in the scale, total and subscale scores were correlated with a range of mental health outcomes. CFA results indicated that the latent structure of the MHFS items was best represented by a correlated six-factor first-order model. The final MHFS demonstrated high levels of internal reliability and convergent validity.

9.
Child Abuse Negl ; 129: 105681, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have various deleterious effects on mental health but few studies have been conducted in Ireland. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine if there were significant differences in occurrences of ACEs in U.S. and Irish adults. We also sought to determine if there were unique associations between individual and multiple ACE events and mental health. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Preexisting nationally representative adult samples from the U.S. (n = 1893) and Ireland (n = 1020) were utilized for analysis. METHOD: To determine if there were significant differences in the occurrence of specific ACE events and the mean number of ACEs experienced by U.S. and Irish adults, chi-square difference tests and an independent samples t-test were used, respectively. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the unique associations between ACE events and major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). Nationality, sex, age, and educational level were included as covariates and adjusted odds ratios are reported. RESULTS: Irish respondents had a higher rate of ACEs, were more likely to experience specific ACEs, and to meet diagnostic requirements for MDD, GAD, and CPTSD than U.S. RESPONDENTS: Emotional neglect was more strongly related to mental health than all other ACEs, and there was an exceptionally strong dose-response association between ACEs and CPTSD. CONCLUSIONS: ACEs seem to be more common in Ireland than the U.S., and efforts to minimize exposure to ACEs through public policies may lead to beneficial mental health effects.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 146(2): 110-125, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence, construct validity, risk factors and psychopathological correlates associated with ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) as measured by the International Trauma Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ITQ-CA) were assessed in a sample of young people from Northern Ireland. METHOD: Participants were trauma-exposed 11-19-year-olds (N = 507) who participated in the Northern Ireland Youth Wellbeing Prevalence Survey (YWS-NI, 2020). Factor mixture modelling (FMM) was used to test the latent structure of the ITQ-CA. Risk-factors and psychopathological correlates associated with latent class membership, and ICD-11diagnostic status, were also investigated. RESULTS: More participants met the ITQ-CA criteria for CPTSD (3.4%, n = 44) than PTSD (1.5%, n = 19). A second-order FMM comprising a 'partial-PTSD class', a 'CPTSD class', a 'DSO class' and a 'low symptom endorsement class' was the best-fitting model. Younger age and cumulative trauma were risk factors for all trauma classes. Female gender and two or more violent traumas were significant predictors of the 'PTSD' and 'CPTSD' classes, while single sexual trauma was a significant predictor of the 'DSO' and 'CPTSD' classes. Two or more sexual traumas was a unique predictor of 'CPTSD class', while two or more vicarious traumas was a unique predictor of 'DSO class'. The 'CPTSD' class displayed the most notable comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that CPTSD may be more prevalent than PTSD in children and young people. Support for the ICD-11 conceptualisation of CPTSD as representing a unique diagnostic construct was supported using FMM, with findings indicating trauma symptom class-specific risk profiles.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Int J Psychol ; 57(5): 585-596, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523540

RESUMO

High risk of mental health problems is associated with loneliness resulting from social distancing measures and "lockdowns" that have been imposed globally due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explores the interconnectedness of loneliness, anxiety and depression on a symptom level using network analysis. A representative sample of participants (N = 1041), who were of at least 18 years of age, was recruited from the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Loneliness, anxiety and depression were assessed using validated instruments. Network analysis was used to identify the network structure of loneliness, anxiety and depression. Loneliness was found to be largely isolated from anxiety and depression nodes in the network. Anxiety and depression were largely interconnected. "Trouble relaxing," "feeling bad about oneself" and "not being able to stop or control worrying" were suggested as the most influential nodes of the network. Despite the expectation that loneliness would be implicated more robustly in the anxiety and depression network of symptoms, the results suggest loneliness as a distinct construct that is not interwoven with anxiety and depression.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Pandemias
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476235

RESUMO

The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a multidimensional and hierarchical model of the latent structure of psychopathology. While HiTOP has received much support in child/adolescent community samples, fewer studies have assessed this model in clinical samples of children/adolescents. Here, we modelled the latent structure of 45 symptoms of psychopathology from a clinical sample of children/adolescents and assessed how dimensions of psychopathology were related to specific forms of trauma and suicidality/self-harm. Clinician-derived assessments were obtained from 507 people aged 7-18 years. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the optimal fitting model, and structural equation modelling was used to estimate associations with trauma exposure and suicidality/self-harm. The best fitting model(s) included five first-order factors reflecting Fear, Distress, Externalizing, Thought Disorder, and Traumatic Stress, with a higher-order general factor (p) accounting for the covariation between these factors. Unique associations were identified between specific forms of trauma and each dimension of psychopathology. p was strongly associated with suicidality/self-harm, and of the first-order factors, Distress was most strongly associated with suicidality/self-harm. Findings support the predictions of HiTOP that the latent structure of child/adolescent psychopathology can be effectively described by a multidimensional and hierarchal model. Moreover, we found tentative evidence for a unique dimension of Traumatic Stress psychopathology. Our findings also highlight the unique associations between specific forms of early life trauma and specific dimensions of psychopathology, and the importance of Distress related psychopathology for suicidality/self-harm in children and adolescents.

13.
J Trauma Stress ; 35(3): 775-777, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366367

RESUMO

The mental health consequences of the war in Ukraine will be enormous. Mental health professionals who are providing care for people in Ukraine, or those resettled elsewhere, may require access to standardized and validated assessment tools. We have developed a repository of mental health measures that are available in Ukrainian, Russian, and English and can be accessed at http://www.traumameasuresglobal.com/ukraine.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Ucrânia
14.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 27(3): 521-523, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471085

RESUMO

The mental health consequences of the war in Ukraine will be enormous. Mental health professionals who are providing care for people in Ukraine, or those resettled elsewhere, may require access to standardized and validated assessment tools. We have developed a repository of mental health measures that are available in Ukrainian, Russian and English and can be accessed at www.traumameasuresglobal.com/ukraine.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde , Saúde Mental , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Ucrânia
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 312: 114533, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381505

RESUMO

It is well recognised that there is an intimate relationship between sleep and depression, with poor quality or short duration sleep associated with greater symptoms of depression. However, it is not clear from the current evidence base what the temporal relationship is between symptoms of insomnia and depression. Further, it is also unclear how the COVID-19 pandemic may impact on such relationships. In this study we have examined the longitudinal relationships between symptoms of depression and insomnia during the COVID-19 pandemic at two points separated by one year (April/May 2020 and March/April 2021) in a sample of 1032 Irish adults using a cross-lagged paths model. We report that there is a bidirectional relationship across time between depression and insomnia symptoms (ß = -0.115 between Insomnia symptoms and subsequent depression symptoms and ß = -0.163 between depression symptoms and subsequent insomnia symptoms; scales scored in opposite directions), and that these relationships persist when COVID-19 anxiety, age and sex are introduced into the model. Our analyses suggest that during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic that insomnia symptoms predicted depression symptoms one year later, and conversely that depression symptoms predicted subsequent insomnia symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
16.
Child Abuse Negl ; 127: 105569, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) was accepted into the International Classification of Diseases, edition 11 (ICD-11) to capture symptoms associated with exposure to chronic, inescapable trauma. Thereafter, the disorder's links with interpersonal trauma have been established. OBJECTIVE: Within a sample of homeless adults in Ireland, the (1) prevalence of ICD-11 disorders specifically associated with stress; Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and CPTSD, (2) nature of interpersonal trauma exposure, self-identified index events, and their association with the diagnostic criteria of CPTSD, and (3) relationship between cumulative interpersonal trauma exposure and CPTSD via self-compassion were examined. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Adults using homeless services (N = 56) completed self-report measures of socio-demographics, trauma-history, PSTD, CPTSD, and self-compassion. METHODS: The data were analysed using chi-squared and mediation analyses (via PROCESS). RESULTS: CPTSD was highly prevalent (33.9%) among the sample, but PTSD was not (3.6%). Emotional neglect was the most prevalent interpersonal trauma and the most common index event. Only lifetime sexual abuse (from someone other than a parent or guardian) was associated with CPTSD diagnostic status (χ2 = 3.94, (1), p = .047). When adjusted for gender, relationship status, and living situation, self-compassion mediated the relationship between cumulative interpersonal trauma exposure and CPTSD severity (B = 1.30, SE = 0.50, 95% CI = [0.43-2.35]). CONCLUSION: Findings support the relevance of CPTSD to understanding psychopathology in homeless adults and the potential role of self-compassion in interventions. Further, they open debate on the nature of events that are considered traumatic - subjectively and in psychiatric canon.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Prevalência , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
17.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265145, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324964

RESUMO

Two theoretical perspectives have been proffered to explain changes in alcohol use during the pandemic: the 'affordability-availability' mechanism (i.e., drinking decreases due to changes in physical availability and/or reduced disposable income) and the 'psychological-coping' mechanism (i.e., drinking increases as adults attempt to cope with pandemic-related distress). We tested these alternative perspectives via longitudinal analyses of the COVID-19 Psychological Consortium (C19PRC) Study data (spanning three timepoints during March to July 2020). Respondents provided data on psychological measures (e.g., anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, paranoia, extraversion, neuroticism, death anxiety, COVID-19 anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty, resilience), changes in socio-economic circumstances (e.g., income loss, reduced working hours), drinking motives, solitary drinking, and 'at-risk' drinking (assessed using a modified version of the AUDIT-C). Structural equation modelling was used to determine (i) whether 'at-risk' drinking during the pandemic differed from that recalled before the pandemic, (ii) dimensions of drinking motives and the psychosocial correlates of these dimensions, (iii) if increased alcohol consumption was predicted by drinking motives, solitary drinking, and socio-economic changes. The proportion of adults who recalled engaging in 'at-risk' drinking decreased significantly from 35.9% pre-pandemic to 32.0% during the pandemic. Drinking to cope was uniquely predicted by experiences of anxiety and/or depression and low resilience levels. Income loss or reduced working hours were not associated with coping, social enhancement, or conformity drinking motives, nor changes in drinking during lockdown. In the earliest stage of the pandemic, psychological-coping mechanisms may have been a stronger driver to changes in adults' alcohol use than 'affordability-availability' alone.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Motivação , Pandemias
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 154, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) are self-report measures of major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. The primary aim of this study was to test for differential item functioning (DIF) on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 items based on age, sex (males and females), and country. METHOD: Data from nationally representative surveys in UK, Ireland, Spain, and Italy (combined N = 6,054) were used to fit confirmatory factor analytic and multiple-indictor multiple-causes models. RESULTS: Spain and Italy had higher latent variable means than the UK and Ireland for both anxiety and depression, but there was no evidence for differential items functioning. CONCLUSIONS: The PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores were found to be unidimensional, reliable, and largely free of DIF in data from four large nationally representative samples of the general population in the UK, Ireland, Italy and Spain.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Ansiedade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Psicometria , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Psychopathology ; 55(3-4): 226-234, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344963

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ICD-11 includes a new grouping for "disorders specifically associated with stress" that contains revised descriptions of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AjD) and new diagnoses in the form of complex PTSD (CPTSD) and prolonged grief disorder (PGD). These disorders are similar in that they each require a life event for the diagnosis; however, they have not yet been assessed together for validity within the same sample. We set out to test the distinctiveness of the four main ICD-11 stress disorders using a network analysis approach. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional design. A nationally representative sample of adults from the Republic of Ireland aged 18 years and older (N = 1,020) completed standardized measures of PTSD, CPTSD, AjD, and PGD. A network analysis was conducted at the symptom level. Outcome measures included the International Trauma Questionnaire, the Inventory of Complicated Grief, and the International Adjustment Disorder Questionnaire. RESULTS: Consistent with the taxonomic structure of the ICD-11, our results showed that although the four conditions clustered independently at the disorder level, the specific symptoms of PTSD, CPTSD, PGD, and AjD clustered together very strongly but more strongly than with symptoms of the other disorders. The majority (61%) of the variation in each symptom could be explained by its neighboring symptoms. The strongest transdiagnostically connecting symptom was "startle response." DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Mental health professionals caring for people who have experienced a range of stressors and traumatic life events can be confident in diagnosing these conditions that have clear diagnostic boundaries. Interventions addressing stress-associated disorders should be based on diagnostic assessment to ensure close fit between symptoms and treatment.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Transtornos de Adaptação/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Transtorno do Luto Prolongado , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 225: 103539, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219041

RESUMO

The beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic had a profound effect on all aspects of daily life and triggered a swell of anxiety across the world. Some suggest this emotional response to the pandemic can be explained through death anxiety (DA), a transdiagnostic dimension associated with numerous psychological disorders. However, it remains unclear as to whether DA is a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. The primary aim of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the Death Anxiety Inventory-Revised (DAI-R; Tomás-Sábado et al., 2005) and assess its associations with mental health and demographic variables during the COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve these aims, we utilized data from Waves 1 (N = 2205: collected between March 23 and March 28, 2020) and 2 (N = 1406: collected between April 22 and May 1, 2020) of the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC), a multi-wave nationally representative study. Results showed that a 4-factor model provided the best fit to the data compared to a unidimensional and 4-factor second-order model. Further analyses showed that DA at Wave 1 was positively associated with somatic symptoms, paranoia, depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress symptoms at Wave 2, supporting previous research that suggests that the fear of death is predictive of psychopathology. Significantly, the factor labelled 'Thoughts about Death' at Wave 1 was the strongest predictor of the five main psychological variables at Wave 2, after statistically controlling for the other latent variables. These findings highlight the transdiagnostic nature of DA and support this important diagnostic construct becoming a measure of mental health more generally within the population. It is hoped that this research will shine a light on those suffering from DA and become a catalyst for increased therapeutic intervention, funding, and research in this area.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Transtornos Fóbicos , SARS-CoV-2
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