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1.
Cancer Discov ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029534

RESUMO

BRAF V600 mutations occur in a wide range of tumor types and RAF inhibition has become standard in several of these cancers. Despite this progress, BRAF V600 mutations have historically been considered a clear demonstration of tumor lineage context-dependent oncogene addiction, based predominantly on the insensitivity of RAF inhibition in colorectal cancer. However, the true broader activity of RAF inhibition pan-cancer remains incompletely understood. To address this, we conducted a multi-cohort 'basket' study of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib in non-melanoma BRAF V600 mutation-positive solid tumors. In total, 172 patients with 26 unique cancer types were treated, achieving an overall response rate of 33% and median duration of response of 13 months. Responses were observed in 13 unique cancer types, including historically treatment-refractory tumors such as cholangiocarcinoma, sarcoma, glioma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and salivary gland carcinomas. Collectively, these data demonstrate that single-agent BRAF inhibition has broader clinical activity than previously recognized.

3.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare histiocytic neoplasm characterized by recurrent alterations in the mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The existing literature about the neuro-oncological spectrum of ECD is limited. METHODS: We present retrospective clinical, radiographic, pathologic, molecular, and treatment data from 30 patients with ECD neurohistiocytic involvement treated at a tertiary center. RESULTS: Median age was 52 (range: 7-77) years and 20 (67%) patients were male. Presenting symptoms included ataxia in 19 (63%), dysarthria in 14 (47%), diabetes insipidus in 12 (40%), cognitive impairment in 10 (33%), and bulbar affect in 9 (30%) patients. Neurosurgical biopsy specimens in 8 patients demonstrated varied morphologic findings often uncharacteristic of typical ECD lesions. Molecular analysis revealed mutations in BRAF (18 patients), MAP2K1 (5), RAS isoforms (2), and two fusions involving BRAF and ALK. Conventional therapies (corticosteroids, immunosuppresants, interferon-alpha [IFN-α], cytotoxic chemotherapy) led to partial radiographic response in 8/40 (20%) by MRI with no complete responses, partial metabolic response in 4/16 (25%) and complete metabolic response in 1/16 (6%) by FDG-PET scan. In comparison, targeted (kinase inhibitor) therapies yielded partial radiographic response in 10/27 (37%) and complete radiographic response in 14/27 (52%) by MRI, and partial metabolic response in 6/25 (24%) and complete metabolic response in 17/25 (68%) by FDG-PET scan. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight underrecognized symptomatology, heterogenous neuropathology, and robust responses to targeted therapies across the mutational spectrum in ECD patients with neurological involvement, particularly when conventional therapies have failed.

4.
Cancer Discov ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924700

RESUMO

AKT inhibitors have promising activity in AKT1 E17K-mutant estrogen receptor (ER)-positive metastatic breast cancer, but the natural history of this rare genomic subtype remains unknown. Utilizing AACR Project GENIE, an international clinicogenomic data-sharing consortium, we conducted a comparative analysis of clinical outcomes of matched AKT1 E17K-mutant (n=153) and -wildtype (n=302) metastatic breast cancer patients. AKT1-mutant cases had similar adjusted overall survival (OS) compared with AKT1-wildtype controls (median OS, 24.1 vs 29.9, respectively; p=0.98). AKT1-mutant cases enjoyed longer durations on mTOR inhibitor therapy, an observation previously unrecognized in pivotal clinical trials due to the rarity of this alteration. Other baseline clinicopathologic features, as well as durations on other classes of therapy were broadly similar. In summary, we demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel and publicly accessible clincogenomic registry to define outcomes in a rare genomically defined cancer subtype, an approach with broad applicability to precision oncology.

6.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(1): 194-202, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess outcomes of a clinical cohort of patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) harboring somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs). METHODS: Patients were consented to a protocol of tumor-normal massively parallel sequencing of 410-468 cancer related genes. EECs subjected to sequencing from 2014 to 2018 were reviewed. Tumors with somatic POLE EDMs were identified. EECs were assessed for microsatellite instability (MSI) using MSIsensor and immunohistochemical analysis for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. RESULTS: Of the 451 EECs sequenced, 23 had a POLE EDM (5%): 20 primary and 3 recurrent tumors sequenced. Nineteen cases (83%) were stage I/II and 4 (17%) were stages III/IV. Thirteen EECs (57%) were of FIGO grades 1/2, 10 (43%) grade 3. All patients were treated with surgery and 17 (89%) received adjuvant therapy. Five (22%) demonstrated loss of DNA MMR protein expression, none were due to Lynch syndrome. MSIsensor scores were conclusive for 21 samples: 19 were microsatellite stable and 2 MSI-high. After median follow-up of 30 months, 4/23 (17%) developed recurrences: 3 with initial grade 3 stage I and 1 with grade 1 stage III disease. One patient with grade 2 stage IV EEC had progressive disease after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with POLE EDM EEC have been shown to have a favorable prognosis. In this real-world cohort of patients, de novo metastatic disease and recurrences in initially uterine-confined cases were observed. Further research is warranted before incorporating the presence of POLE EDM into decision-making regarding adjuvant therapy.

7.
Mod Pathol ; 33(1): 38-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375766

RESUMO

With the FDA approval of larotrectinib, NTRK fusion assessment has recently become a standard part of management for patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancers. Unlike somatic mutation assessment, the detection of NTRK fusions is not straightforward, and various assays exist at the DNA, RNA, and protein level. Here, we investigate the performance of immunohistochemistry and DNA-based next-generation sequencing to indirectly or directly detect NTRK fusions relative to an RNA-based next-generation sequencing approach in the largest cohort of NTRK fusion positive solid tumors to date. A retrospective analysis of 38,095 samples from 33,997 patients sequenced by a targeted DNA-based next-generation sequencing panel (MSK-IMPACT), 2189 of which were also examined by an RNA-based sequencing assay (MSK-Fusion), identified 87 patients with oncogenic NTRK1-3 fusions. All available institutional NTRK fusion positive cases were assessed by pan-Trk immunohistochemistry along with a cohort of control cases negative for NTRK fusions by next-generation sequencing. DNA-based sequencing showed an overall sensitivity and specificity of 81.1% and 99.9%, respectively, for the detection of NTRK fusions when compared to RNA-based sequencing. False negatives occurred when fusions involved breakpoints not covered by the assay. Immunohistochemistry showed overall sensitivity of 87.9% and specificity of 81.1%, with high sensitivity for NTRK1 (96%) and NTRK2 (100%) fusions and lower sensitivity for NTRK3 fusions (79%). Specificity was 100% for carcinomas of the colon, lung, thyroid, pancreas, and biliary tract. Decreased specificity was seen in breast and salivary gland carcinomas (82% and 52%, respectively), and positive staining was often seen in tumors with neural differentiation. Both sensitivity and specificity were poor in sarcomas. Selection of the appropriate assay for NTRK fusion detection therefore depends on tumor type and genes involved, as well as consideration of other factors such as available material, accessibility of various clinical assays, and whether comprehensive genomic testing is needed concurrently.

8.
Cancer Discov ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806627

RESUMO

HER2 mutations define a subset of metastatic breast cancers with a unique mechanism of oncogenic addiction to HER2 signaling. We explored activity of the irreversible pan-HER kinase inhibitor neratinib, alone or with fulvestrant, in 81 patients with HER2-mutant metastatic breast cancer. Overall response rate was similar with or without estrogen receptor (ER) blockade. By comparison, progression-free survival and duration of response appeared longer in ER+ patients receiving combination therapy, although the study was not designed for direct comparison. Preexistent concurrent activating HER2 or HER3 alterations were associated with poor treatment outcome. Similarly, acquisition of multiple HER2-activating events, as well as gatekeeper alterations, were observed at disease progression in a high proportion of patients deriving clinical benefit from neratinib. Collectively, these data define HER2 mutations as a therapeutic target in breast cancer and suggest that coexistence of additional HER signaling alterations may promote both de novo and acquired resistance to neratinib. SIGNIFICANCE: HER2 mutations define a targetable breast cancer subset, although sensitivity to irreversible HER kinase inhibition appears to be modified by the presence of concurrent activating genomic events in the pathway. These findings have implications for potential future combinatorial approaches and broader therapeutic development for this genomically defined subset of breast cancer.

9.
Cancer ; 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PI3K pathway activation is common in endometrial cancer. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, LY3023414, in patients with advanced endometrial cancer harboring activating mutations in the PI3K pathway. METHODS: We conducted a single-arm phase 2 study of monotherapy LY3023414. Eligible patients had advanced endometrial cancer of any grade, prior management with 1-4 cytotoxic lines, and PI3K pathway activation prospectively defined as a loss-of-function PTEN alteration or activating alteration in PIK3CA, AKT1, PIK3R1, PIK3R2, or MTOR. The primary objective was best overall response rate (ORR) per RECIST 1.1. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were treated; histologies included endometroid (39%), carcinosarcoma (25%), serous (21%), and mixed (14%). Patients were heavily pretreated, with a median of 2 prior cytotoxic lines (range, 1-3). The most common alterations involved PIK3CA (68%), PTEN (43%), and PIK3R1 (32%). In the 25 efficacy-evaluable patients, the ORR was 16% (90% CI, 7%-100%), and the clinical benefit rate was 28% (90% CI, 16%-100%). Four patients had a confirmed partial response, and 2 responses lasted for >9 months. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 2.5 months (95% CI, 1.2-3.0) and 9.2 months (95% CI, 5.0-15.9), respectively. The most common all-grade treatment-related adverse events were anemia (71%), hyperglycemia (71%), hypoalbuminemia (68%), and hypophosphatemia (61%). No correlation between molecular alterations and response was observed. CONCLUSION: In patients with heavily pretreated advanced endometrial cancer prospectively selected for tumors with activating PI3K pathway mutations, LY3023414 demonstrated modest single-agent activity and a manageable safety profile.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871300

RESUMO

PURPOSE: TRK inhibitors achieve marked tumor-agnostic efficacy in TRK fusion-positive cancers and consequently are now an established standard of care. Little is known, however, about the demographics, outcomes, response to alternative standard therapies, or genomic characteristics of TRK fusion-positive cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Utilizing a center-wide screening program involving more than 26,000 prospectively sequenced patients, genomic and clinical data from all cases with TRK fusions were extracted. An integrated analysis was performed of genomic, therapeutic, and phenomic outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 76 cases with confirmed TRK fusions (0.28% overall prevalence) involving 48 unique rearrangements and 17 cancer types. The presence of a TRK fusion was associated with depletion of concurrent oncogenic drivers (p<0.001) and lower TMB (p<0.001), with the exception of colorectal cancer where TRK fusions co-occur with microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Longitudinal profiling in a subset of patients indicated that TRK fusions were present in all sampled timepoints in 82% (14/17) of cases. PFS on first-line therapy, excluding TRK inhibitors, administered for advanced disease was 9.6 months (95% CI: 4.8-13.2). The best ORR achieved with chemotherapy containing-regimens across all lines of therapy was 63% (95% CI: 41-81). Among 12 patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors, an MSI-H colorectal patient had the only observed response. CONCLUSIONS: TRK fusion-positive cancers can respond to alternative standards of care, although efficacy of immunotherapy in the absence of other predictive biomarkers (MSI-H) appears limited. TRK fusions are present in tumors with simple genomes lacking in concurrent drivers that may partially explain the tumor-agnostic efficacy of TRK inhibitors.

11.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1839-1842, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768065

RESUMO

Histiocytoses are clonal hematopoietic disorders frequently driven by mutations mapping to the BRAF and MEK1 and MEK2 kinases. Currently, however, the developmental origins of histiocytoses in patients are not well understood, and clinically meaningful therapeutic targets outside of BRAF and MEK are undefined. In this study, we uncovered activating mutations in CSF1R and rearrangements in RET and ALK that conferred dramatic responses to selective inhibition of RET (selpercatinib) and crizotinib, respectively, in patients with histiocytosis.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Histiocitose/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Histiocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1928-1937, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768066

RESUMO

Accurate identification of tumor-derived somatic variants in plasma circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) requires understanding of the various biological compartments contributing to the cfDNA pool. We sought to define the technical feasibility of a high-intensity sequencing assay of cfDNA and matched white blood cell DNA covering a large genomic region (508 genes; 2 megabases; >60,000× raw depth) in a prospective study of 124 patients with metastatic cancer, with contemporaneous matched tumor tissue biopsies, and 47 controls without cancer. The assay displayed high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for de novo detection of tumor-derived mutations and inference of tumor mutational burden, microsatellite instability, mutational signatures and sources of somatic mutations identified in cfDNA. The vast majority of cfDNA mutations (81.6% in controls and 53.2% in patients with cancer) had features consistent with clonal hematopoiesis. This cfDNA sequencing approach revealed that clonal hematopoiesis constitutes a pervasive biological phenomenon, emphasizing the importance of matched cfDNA-white blood cell sequencing for accurate variant interpretation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Genômica , Neoplasias/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia
13.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725847

RESUMO

Importance: Diagnosing the site of origin for cancer is a pillar of disease classification that has directed clinical care for more than a century. Even in an era of precision oncologic practice, in which treatment is increasingly informed by the presence or absence of mutant genes responsible for cancer growth and progression, tumor origin remains a critical factor in tumor biologic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity. Objective: To evaluate whether data derived from routine clinical DNA sequencing of tumors could complement conventional approaches to enable improved diagnostic accuracy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A machine learning approach was developed to predict tumor type from targeted panel DNA sequence data obtained at the point of care, incorporating both discrete molecular alterations and inferred features such as mutational signatures. This algorithm was trained on 7791 tumors representing 22 cancer types selected from a prospectively sequenced cohort of patients with advanced cancer. Results: The correct tumor type was predicted for 5748 of the 7791 patients (73.8%) in the training set as well as 8623 of 11 644 patients (74.1%) in an independent cohort. Predictions were assigned probabilities that reflected empirical accuracy, with 3388 cases (43.5%) representing high-confidence predictions (>95% probability). Informative molecular features and feature categories varied widely by tumor type. Genomic analysis of plasma cell-free DNA yielded accurate predictions in 45 of 60 cases (75.0%), suggesting that this approach may be applied in diverse clinical settings including as an adjunct to cancer screening. Likely tissues of origin were predicted from targeted tumor sequencing in 95 of 141 patients (67.4%) with cancers of unknown primary site. Applying this method prospectively to patients under active care enabled genome-directed reassessment of diagnosis in 2 patients initially presumed to have metastatic breast cancer, leading to the selection of more appropriate treatments, which elicited clinical responses. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that the application of artificial intelligence to predict tissue of origin in oncologic practice can act as a useful complement to conventional histologic review to provide integrated pathologic diagnoses, often with important therapeutic implications.

14.
Nature ; 575(7782): 299-309, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723286

RESUMO

The problem of resistance to therapy in cancer is multifaceted. Here we take a reductionist approach to define and separate the key determinants of drug resistance, which include tumour burden and growth kinetics; tumour heterogeneity; physical barriers; the immune system and the microenvironment; undruggable cancer drivers; and the many consequences of applying therapeutic pressures. We propose four general solutions to drug resistance that are based on earlier detection of tumours permitting cancer interception; adaptive monitoring during therapy; the addition of novel drugs and improved pharmacological principles that result in deeper responses; and the identification of cancer cell dependencies by high-throughput synthetic lethality screens, integration of clinico-genomic data and computational modelling. These different approaches could eventually be synthesized for each tumour at any decision point and used to inform the choice of therapy.

15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(24): 7381-7387, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548342

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether FDG PET can expand eligibility in biomarker-selected clinical trials by providing a means to quantitate response in patients with non-assessable disease by RECIST. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: SUMMIT (NCT01953926) is a multicenter phase II "basket" trial of the Pan-HER kinase inhibitor, neratinib. Patients had advanced ERBB2 (HER2)-mutant solid tumors, ≥1 measurable lesion, preferably defined unidimensionally by RECIST v1.1, or alternatively metabolically by PET Response Criteria (PRC). The primary aim was to determine the proportion of additional breast cancer patients accrued using PRC who would have otherwise been ineligible based on RECIST criteria alone. The secondary aim was to determine the concordance of response versus non-response between RECIST and PRC. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients with HER2-mutant metastatic breast cancer were accrued; 77 were evaluable for response by RECIST and/or PRC. 63 (82%) were RECIST-evaluable and 14 (18%) were accrued using PRC alone. Bone-only disease (n = 11; 79%) was the most common reason for classification as non-measurable by RECIST. Twenty-nine patients were accrued and followed using both criteria, of which 25 (86%; 95% confidence interval, 68%-96%) were concordant for response versus non-response as defined by RECIST and PRC. CONCLUSIONS: PRC allowed patients with non-RECIST measurable disease access to therapy and facilitated more rapid accrual of patients to this trial of a rare biomarker. PRC and RECIST both provided methods of response assessment and were generally concordant. Thus, PRC was useful as a supplement to RECIST criteria. This provides a rationale for including FDG PET measurements in future clinical trials involving rare tumors or rare genomically defined subpopulations of more common cancers.

17.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1422-1427, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406350

RESUMO

TRK fusions are found in a variety of cancer types, lead to oncogenic addiction, and strongly predict tumor-agnostic efficacy of TRK inhibition1-8. With the recent approval of the first selective TRK inhibitor, larotrectinib, for patients with any TRK-fusion-positive adult or pediatric solid tumor, to identify mechanisms of treatment failure after initial response has become of immediate therapeutic relevance. So far, the only known resistance mechanism is the acquisition of on-target TRK kinase domain mutations, which interfere with drug binding and can potentially be addressable through second-generation TRK inhibitors9-11. Here, we report off-target resistance in patients treated with TRK inhibitors and in patient-derived models, mediated by genomic alterations that converge to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. MAPK pathway-directed targeted therapy, administered alone or in combination with TRK inhibition, re-established disease control. Experimental modeling further suggests that upfront dual inhibition of TRK and MEK may delay time to progression in cancer types prone to the genomic acquisition of MAPK pathway-activating alterations. Collectively, these data suggest that a subset of patients will develop off-target mechanisms of resistance to TRK inhibition with potential implications for clinical management and future clinical trial design.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Receptor trkA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nature ; 571(7766): 576-579, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292550

RESUMO

Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose individuals to certain cancers1-3, and disease-specific screening and preventative strategies have reduced cancer mortality in affected patients4,5. These classical tumour-suppressor genes have tumorigenic effects associated with somatic biallelic inactivation, although haploinsufficiency may also promote the formation and progression of tumours6,7. Moreover, BRCA1/2-mutant tumours are often deficient in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination8-13, and consequently exhibit increased therapeutic sensitivity to platinum-containing therapy and inhibitors of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP)14,15. However, the phenotypic and therapeutic relevance of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 remains poorly defined in most cancer types. Here we show that in the 2.7% and 1.8% of patients with advanced-stage cancer and germline pathogenic or somatic loss-of-function alterations in BRCA1/2, respectively, selective pressure for biallelic inactivation, zygosity-dependent phenotype penetrance, and sensitivity to PARP inhibition were observed only in tumour types associated with increased heritable cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers (BRCA-associated cancer types). Conversely, among patients with non-BRCA-associated cancer types, most carriers of these BRCA1/2 mutation types had evidence for tumour pathogenesis that was independent of mutant BRCA1/2. Overall, mutant BRCA is an indispensable founding event for some tumours, but in a considerable proportion of other cancers, it appears to be biologically neutral-a difference predominantly conditioned by tumour lineage-with implications for disease pathogenesis, screening, design of clinical trials and therapeutic decision-making.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(18): 5537-5547, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The genomic landscape of gliomas has been characterized and now contributes to disease classification, yet the relationship between molecular profile and disease progression and treatment response remain poorly understood.Experimental Design: We integrated prospective clinical sequencing of 1,004 primary and recurrent tumors from 923 glioma patients with clinical and treatment phenotypes. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of glioma patients harbored a pathogenic germline variant, including a subset associated with heritable genetic syndromes and variants mediating DNA repair dysfunctions (29% of the total) that were associated with somatic biallelic inactivation and mechanism-specific somatic phenotypes. In astrocytomas, genomic alterations in effectors of cell-cycle progression correlated with aggressive disease independent of IDH mutation status, arose preferentially in enhancing tumors (44% vs. 8%, P < 0.001), were associated with rapid disease progression following tumor recurrence (HR = 2.6, P = 0.02), and likely preceded the acquisition of alkylating therapy-associated somatic hypermutation. Thirty-two percent of patients harbored a potentially therapeutically actionable lesion, of whom 11% received targeted therapies. In BRAF-mutant gliomas, response to agents targeting the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling axis was influenced by the type of mutation, its clonality, and its cellular and genomic context. CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal genomic correlates of disease progression and treatment response in diverse types of glioma and highlight the potential utility of incorporating genomic information into the clinical decision-making for patients with glioma.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(18): 5458-5465, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068369

RESUMO

PURPOSE: STM 434 is a soluble receptor ligand trap targeting activin A, a protein in the TGFß family that plays important roles in growth, differentiation, and cancer cachexia. This study evaluated the safety, antitumor activity, and metabolic effects of STM 434 in a first-in-human, multicenter, phase I clinical trial (NCT02262455). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled in 8 dose cohorts ranging from 0.25 mg/kg every 4 weeks to 8 mg/kg every 2 weeks via a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. The primary endpoint was maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Secondary endpoints included safety, pharmacokinetics, and response. As activin A is implicated in metabolism and muscle function, changes in key metabolic parameters, including lean body mass and 6-minute walk test, were serially measured. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were treated on study. The most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (41%) and mucocutaneous bleeding complications including epistaxis (34%) and gingival bleeding (22%), likely related to off-target inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9). STM 434 treatment resulted in the expected follicle-stimulating hormone level decreases in most patients and in metabolic parameter changes, including an increase in total lean body mass and 6-minute walk test distance. No responses were observed in the 30 evaluable patients, but the stable disease rate in patients with granulosa cell ovarian cancer was 10 of 12 (80%). CONCLUSIONS: Although no direct antitumor efficacy was documented, potentially clinically meaningful dose-related metabolic effects, including treatment of cancer cachexia, were observed that support further exploration of activin A inhibitors that limit BMP9 blockade.See related commentary by Bonilla and Oza, p. 5432.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Ativinas , Células da Granulosa , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Resultado do Tratamento
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