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1.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 39(8): e592-e596, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medial epicondyle fractures are a common pediatric and adolescent injury accounting for 11% to 20% of elbow fractures in this population. This purpose of this study was to determine the variability among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating pediatric medial epicondyle fractures. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was conducted to determine which patient and injury attributes influence the management of medial epicondyle fractures by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. A convenience sample of 13 pediatric orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 60 case vignettes of medial epicondyle fractures that included elbow radiographs and patient/injury characteristics. Displacement was incorporated into the study model as a fixed effect. Surgeons were queried if they would treat the injury with immobilization alone or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed effect regression model. In addition, surgeons filled out a demographic questionnaire and a risk assessment to determine if these factors affected clinical decision-making. RESULTS: Elbow dislocation and fracture displacement were the only attributes that significantly influenced surgeons to perform surgery (P<0.05). The presence of an elbow dislocation had the largest impact on surgeons when choosing operative care (ß=-0.14; P=0.02). In addition, for every 1 mm increase in displacement, surgeons tended to favor ORIF by a factor of 0.09 (P<0.01). Sex, mechanism of injury, and sport participation did not influence decision-making. In total, 54% of the surgeons demonstrated a preference for ORIF for the included scenarios. On the basis of the personality Likert scale, participants were neither high-risk takers nor extremely risk adverse with an average-risk score of 2.24. Participant demographics did not influence decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial variation among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating medial epicondyle fractures. The decision to operate is significantly based on the degree of fracture displacement and if there is a concomitant elbow dislocation. There is no standardization regarding how to treat medial epicondyle fractures and better treatment algorithms are needed to provide better patient outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Úmero/terapia , Luxações Articulares/terapia , Ortopedia/métodos , Pediatria/métodos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Articulação do Cotovelo/lesões , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Fraturas do Úmero/complicações , Fraturas do Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Imobilização , Luxações Articulares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redução Aberta , Padrões de Prática Médica , Radiografia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are important outcome measures, especially in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) where symptoms (pain and limping), activity restrictions, and treatments vary depending on the stage of the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) for measuring HRQoL of patients with LCPD in various stages of the disease. METHODS: This is a multicenter validity study. Patients with LCPD between 4 and 18 years old were included and classified into modified Waldenström stages of disease: Early (1 or 2A), Late (2B or 3), or Healed (4). Seven PROMIS domains were collected, including Pain Interference, Fatigue, Mobility, Depression, Anger, Anxiety, and Peer Relationships. Convergent, discriminant, and known group validity was determined. RESULTS: A total of 190 patients were included (mean age: 10.4±3.1 y). All 7 domains showed the worst scores in patients in the Early stage (known group validity). Within each domain, all domains positively correlated to each other (convergent validity). Patients who reported more anxiety, depression, and anger were associated with decreased mobility and increased fatigue and pain. Peer relationships had no to weak associations with other domains (discriminant validity). CONCLUSIONS: PROMIS has construct validity in measuring the HRQoL of patients in different stages of LCPD, suggesting that PROMIS has potential to serve as a patient-reported outcome tool for this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic level III study.

3.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 46: e10-e14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850174

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study compares the current practice patterns of pain assessment and management between children with and without CP following either posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion (PSIF) or hip osteotomy (HO). METHODS: Two cohorts of CP patients were retrospectively identified and matched with non-CP patients based on age, surgical procedure, and approach to post-operative pain management. Sixteen CP patients undergoing PSIF and twenty-two undergoing HO were respectively matched with the same numbers of non-CP patients receiving the same procedures. The frequency of assessments conducted, highest pain scores recorded on each post-operative day (POD), and the amount of adjuvant analgesics administered were collected for POD 0-4. RESULTS: Patients with CP were significantly more frequently evaluated for pain post-operatively, tended to have lower pain scores as measured by current scales, and received slightly fewer analgesics. Patients with CP differed from their non-CP counterparts in both frequency and method of post-operative pain assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The purpose of this study is to elucidate the current state of post-operative pain assessment and management in children with CP undergoing major orthopaedic surgeries, to improve CP patient/caregiver understanding and expectation of the post-operative experience regarding pain, and to provide recommendations for improving the post-operative care for these patients.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Paralisia Cerebral/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 39(4): e298-e302, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is currently minimal evidence that preoperative malnutrition increases surgical site infection (SSI) risk in children with cerebral palsy (CP) undergoing spinal deformity surgery. Growth charts specifically for patients with CP have been created to aid in the clinical interpretation of body mass index (BMI) as a marker of nutritional status, but to our knowledge these charts have never been used to risk stratify patients before orthopaedic surgery. We hypothesize that patients with CP who have BMI-for-age below the 10th percentile (BMI≤10) on CP-specific growth charts are at increased risk of surgical site infection following spinal deformity surgery compared with patients with BMI-for-age above the 10th percentile (BMI>10). METHODS: Single-center, retrospective review comparing the rate of SSI in patients with CP stratified by BMI-for-age percentiles on CP-specific growth charts who underwent spinal deformity surgery. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and Pearson χ tests were used to analyze the association of the measured nutritional indicators with SSI. RESULTS: In total, 65 patients, who underwent 74 procedures, had complete follow-up data and were included in this analysis. Ten patients (15.4%) were GMFCS I-III and 55 (84.6%) were GMFCS IV-V; 39 (60%) were orally fed and 26 (40%) were tube-fed. The rate of SSI in this patient population was 13.5% with 10 SSIs reported within 90 days of surgery. There was a significant association between patients with a BMI below the 10th percentile on GMFCS-stratified growth charts and the development of SSI (OR, 13.6; 95% CI, 2.4-75.4; P=0.005). All SSIs occurred in patients that were GMFCS IV-V. There was no association between height, weight, feeding method, or pelvic instrumentation and development of SSI. CONCLUSIONS: CP-specific growth charts are useful tools for identifying patients at increased risk for SSI following spinal instrumentation procedures, whereas standard CDC growth charts are much less sensitive. There is a strong association between preoperative BMI percentile on GMFCS-stratified growth charts and SSI following spinal deformity surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-Retrospective Study.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/cirurgia , Gráficos de Crescimento , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 31(1): 129-133, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767937

RESUMO

In December 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a drug safety warning stating that 11 commonly used anesthetic and sedative medications had potential neurotoxic effects when used in children under the age of 3 years and in pregnant women during the third trimester. A panel presentation at the sixth biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) symposium addressed the FDA announcement in a session entitled "Anesthesia Exposure in Children During Surgical and Non-Surgical Procedures: How Do We Respond to the 2016 FDA Drug Safety Communication?" Panelists included representatives from pediatric anesthesiology, obstetrics, pediatric surgery, and several pediatric surgical subspecialties. Each panelist was asked to address the following questions: How has the FDA labelling change affected your clinical practice including patient discussions, timing, and frequency of procedures? Has your professional society provided any guidelines for this discussion? Has there been any discussion of this topic at your national meetings? The panelists provided important perspectives specific to each specialty, which generated a lively discussion and a detailed response from the Deputy Director of the Division of Anesthesia and Addiction of the FDA describing the FDA procedures that led to this drug safety warning.


Assuntos
Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Segurança do Paciente , Médicos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Anestesiologia , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
6.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is currently minimal evidence that preoperative malnutrition increases surgical site infection (SSI) risk in children with cerebral palsy (CP) undergoing spinal deformity surgery. Growth charts specifically for patients with CP have been created to aid in the clinical interpretation of body mass index (BMI) as a marker of nutritional status, but to our knowledge these charts have never been used to risk stratify patients before orthopaedic surgery. We hypothesize that patients with CP who have BMI-for-age below the 10th percentile (BMI≤10) on CP-specific growth charts are at increased risk of surgical site infection following spinal deformity surgery compared with patients with BMI-for-age above the 10th percentile (BMI>10). METHODS: Single-center, retrospective review comparing the rate of SSI in patients with CP stratified by BMI-for-age percentiles on CP-specific growth charts who underwent spinal deformity surgery. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and Pearson χ tests were used to analyze the association of the measured nutritional indicators with SSI. RESULTS: In total, 65 patients, who underwent 74 procedures, had complete follow-up data and were included in this analysis. Ten patients (15.4%) were GMFCS I-III and 55 (84.6%) were GMFCS IV-V; 39 (60%) were orally fed and 26 (40%) were tube-fed. The rate of SSI in this patient population was 13.5% with 10 SSIs reported within 90 days of surgery. There was a significant association between patients with a BMI below the 10th percentile on GMFCS-stratified growth charts and the development of SSI (OR, 13.6; 95% CI, 2.4-75.4; P=0.005). All SSIs occurred in patients that were GMFCS IV-V. There was no association between height, weight, feeding method, or pelvic instrumentation and development of SSI. CONCLUSIONS: CP-specific growth charts are useful tools for identifying patients at increased risk for SSI following spinal instrumentation procedures, whereas standard CDC growth charts are much less sensitive. There is a strong association between preoperative BMI percentile on GMFCS-stratified growth charts and SSI following spinal deformity surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-Retrospective Study.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1532, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050515

RESUMO

Integrative conjugative elements (ICE) are a diverse group of chromosomally integrated, self-transmissible mobile genetic elements (MGE) that are active in shaping the functions of bacteria and bacterial communities. Each type of ICE carries a characteristic set of core genes encoding functions essential for maintenance and self-transmission, and cargo genes that endow on hosts phenotypes beneficial for niche adaptation. An important area to which ICE can contribute beneficial functions is the biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds. In the biodegradation realm, the best-characterized ICE is ICEclc, which carries cargo genes encoding for ortho-cleavage of chlorocatechols (clc genes) and aminophenol metabolism (amn genes). The element was originally identified in the 3-chlorobenzoate-degrader Pseudomonas knackmussii B13, and the closest relative is a nearly identical element in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (designated ICEclc-B13 and ICEclc-LB400, respectively). In the present report, genome sequencing of the o-chlorobenzoate degrader Pseudomonas aeruginosa JB2 was used to identify a new member of the ICEclc family, ICEclc-JB2. The cargo of ICEclc-JB2 differs from that of ICEclc-B13 and ICEclc-LB400 in consisting of a unique combination of genes that encode for the utilization of o-halobenzoates and o-hydroxybenzoate as growth substrates (ohb genes and hyb genes, respectively) and which are duplicated in a tandem repeat. Also, ICEclc-JB2 lacks an operon of regulatory genes (tciR-marR-mfsR) that is present in the other two ICEclc, and which controls excision from the host. Thus, the mechanisms regulating intracellular behavior of ICEclc-JB2 may differ from that of its close relatives. The entire tandem repeat in ICEclc-JB2 can excise independently from the element in a process apparently involving transposases/insertion sequence associated with the repeats. Excision of the repeats removes important niche adaptation genes from ICEclc-JB2, rendering it less beneficial to the host. However, the reduced version of ICEclc-JB2 could now acquire new genes that might be beneficial to a future host and, consequently, to the survival of ICEclc-JB2. Collectively, the present identification and characterization of ICEclc-JB2 provides insights into roles of MGE in bacterial niche adaptation and the evolution of catabolic pathways for biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds.

9.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 2017 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medial epicondyle fractures are a common pediatric and adolescent injury accounting for 11% to 20% of elbow fractures in this population. This purpose of this study was to determine the variability among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating pediatric medial epicondyle fractures. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was conducted to determine which patient and injury attributes influence the management of medial epicondyle fractures by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. A convenience sample of 13 pediatric orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 60 case vignettes of medial epicondyle fractures that included elbow radiographs and patient/injury characteristics. Displacement was incorporated into the study model as a fixed effect. Surgeons were queried if they would treat the injury with immobilization alone or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed effect regression model. In addition, surgeons filled out a demographic questionnaire and a risk assessment to determine if these factors affected clinical decision-making. RESULTS: Elbow dislocation and fracture displacement were the only attributes that significantly influenced surgeons to perform surgery (P<0.05). The presence of an elbow dislocation had the largest impact on surgeons when choosing operative care (ß=-0.14; P=0.02). In addition, for every 1 mm increase in displacement, surgeons tended to favor ORIF by a factor of 0.09 (P<0.01). Sex, mechanism of injury, and sport participation did not influence decision-making. In total, 54% of the surgeons demonstrated a preference for ORIF for the included scenarios. On the basis of the personality Likert scale, participants were neither high-risk takers nor extremely risk adverse with an average-risk score of 2.24. Participant demographics did not influence decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial variation among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating medial epicondyle fractures. The decision to operate is significantly based on the degree of fracture displacement and if there is a concomitant elbow dislocation. There is no standardization regarding how to treat medial epicondyle fractures and better treatment algorithms are needed to provide better patient outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V.

10.
J Biomol Tech ; 28(1): 31-39, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337070

RESUMO

The Extreme Microbiome Project (XMP) is a project launched by the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Metagenomics Research Group (ABRF MGRG) that focuses on whole genome shotgun sequencing of extreme and unique environments using a wide variety of biomolecular techniques. The goals are multifaceted, including development and refinement of new techniques for the following: 1) the detection and characterization of novel microbes, 2) the evaluation of nucleic acid techniques for extremophilic samples, and 3) the identification and implementation of the appropriate bioinformatics pipelines. Here, we highlight the different ongoing projects that we have been working on, as well as details on the various methods we use to characterize the microbiome and metagenome of these complex samples. In particular, we present data of a novel multienzyme extraction protocol that we developed, called Polyzyme or MetaPolyZyme. Presently, the XMP is characterizing sample sites around the world with the intent of discovering new species, genes, and gene clusters. Once a project site is complete, the resulting data will be publically available. Sites include Lake Hillier in Western Australia, the "Door to Hell" crater in Turkmenistan, deep ocean brine lakes of the Gulf of Mexico, deep ocean sediments from Greenland, permafrost tunnels in Alaska, ancient microbial biofilms from Antarctica, Blue Lagoon Iceland, Ethiopian toxic hot springs, and the acidic hypersaline ponds in Western Australia.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Microbiota/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Ambientes Extremos , Metagenoma , Tipagem Molecular/normas , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
11.
Spine Deform ; 4(1): 27-32, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27852496

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: This study determines the rate of change in the scoliosis surgery plan in cases presented in preoperative indications conference. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of preoperative indications conference on the plan of surgery and to identify characteristics that increased the likelihood of change. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Preoperative indications conferences are used as a teaching and planning tool. Levels of fusion, construct options, and necessity for osteotomies are often debated in the planning of scoliosis surgery. METHODS: Scoliosis surgeries were presented at preoperative indications conference with four attending pediatric orthopedic surgeons present. The operative surgeon committed to a surgical plan before conference. A consensus-based plan was made without knowledge of the operative surgeon's preconference plan. Changes of plan were classified as major, minor, or no change. RESULTS: Of the 107 surgical plans, 50 were index surgeries, 13 were revisions, and 44 were scheduled growing rod lengthenings. There were two major changes, including a change to a growing construct from planned fusion, and a change in fusion levels in an adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patient. There were 13 minor changes, which included changes in fusion levels (1 to 3; mean = 1.23) and the addition of an osteotomy. The rate of change was 28% for index surgeries and 7.69% for revisions. Of the 14 changes in the 50 index surgeries, there were 8 AIS, 3 cerebral palsy, 1 congenital scoliosis, 1 Ehlers-Danlos, and 1 patient with an undetermined neuromuscular condition. There was 1 change in 13 revision surgeries. There were no changes for growing rod lengthenings and no cancellations as a result of indications conference. CONCLUSIONS: Although revision scoliosis surgery is complex, index AIS/JIS surgery was most subject to the influence of indications conference. This likely reflects controversy around choosing levels of fusion. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral , Humanos , Cifose , Doenças Neuromusculares , Reoperação
12.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 97(24): 1994-8, 2015 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26677232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ScoliScore is a DNA-based prognostic test, designed and used to help to predict the risk of curve progression in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The role of this test in clinical practice remains unclear as the published results of the ScoliScore have not been validated independently. The purpose of this study was to determine if the ScoliScore effectively predicted the risk of curve progression in patients with mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in two urban academic medical centers. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who met inclusion criteria at two centers were administered the ScoliScore test. Two groups were created: a progression group (those who had a Cobb angle of >40° or those who had undergone surgical fusion) and a non-progression group (those who had skeletal maturity without curve progression to 40°). ScoliScore values and risk levels were compared between the two groups. The negative predictive value was calculated for low-risk scores and the positive predictive value was calculated for high-risk scores. RESULTS: There was no significant difference (p = 0.706) in the mean ScoliScore (and standard deviation) between patients with curve progression (107 ± 55 points) and those without curve progression (102 ± 62 points). There was also no significant difference (p = 0.399) in curve progression between patients with high-risk scores (26.7%) and those with low-risk scores (12.9%). The positive predictive value of the test was 0.27 (95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.55), and the negative predictive value was 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 0.96). ScoliScores and rates of progression were not affected by brace-wear. CONCLUSIONS: ScoliScores did not differ between patients with and without curve progression, and the negative and positive predictive values were lower in our study than in the previously published validation study by the developers of the test. This may be due to differences in our test population, genetic variability, or failure of patients in the non-progression group to follow up.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Progressão da Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escoliose/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Braquetes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Escoliose/diagnóstico , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Escoliose/terapia
13.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 97(8): 643-50, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25878308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The absence of a reliable classification system for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease has contributed to difficulty in establishing consistent management strategies and in interpreting outcome studies. The purpose of this study was to assess interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the modified Waldenström classification system among a large and diverse group of pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. METHODS: Twenty surgeons independently completed the first two rounds of staging: two assessments of forty deidentified radiographs of patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in various stages. Ten of the twenty surgeons completed another two rounds of staging after the addition of a second pair of radiographs in sequence. Kappa values were calculated within and between each of the rounds. RESULTS: Interobserver kappa values for the classification for surveys 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.81, 0.82, 0.76, and 0.80, respectively (with 0.61 to 0.80 considered substantial agreement and 0.81 to 1.0, nearly perfect agreement). Intraobserver agreement for the classification was an average of 0.88 (range, 0.77 to 0.96) between surveys 1 and 2 and an average of 0.87 (range, 0.81 to 0.94) between surveys 3 and 4. CONCLUSIONS: The modified Waldenström classification system for staging of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease demonstrated substantial to almost perfect agreement between and within observers across multiple rounds of study. In doing so, the results of this study provide a foundation for future validation studies, in which the classification stage will be associated with clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Doença de Legg-Calve-Perthes/classificação , Doença de Legg-Calve-Perthes/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Criança , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 26(4): 391-5, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25191958

RESUMO

The Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopment Assessment team at Columbia University Medical Center Department of Anesthesiology convened its fourth biennial Symposium to address unresolved issues concerning potential neurotoxic effects of anesthetic agents and sedatives on young children and to assess study findings to date. Dialogue initiated at the third Symposium was continued between anesthesiologists, researchers, and a panel of expert pediatric surgeons representing general surgery and dermatology, orthopedic, and urology specialties. The panel explored the need to balance benefits of early surgery using improved technologies against potential anesthetic risks, practice changes while awaiting definitive answers, and importance of continued interprofessional dialogue.


Assuntos
Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesiologia/métodos , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/prevenção & controle , Pediatria/métodos , Cirurgiões , Criança , Humanos , Risco
15.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 34(1): 22-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23863413

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: The review of multicenter national pediatric scoliosis database. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent scoliosis surgery utilizing different rod diameter constructs by the posterior approach. BACKGROUND: Little attention has specifically been focused on the effect of rod diameter on correction of spinal deformity after posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion in children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). METHODS: The review of national database comprised of 1125 patients, of which 352 patients had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Of these, 163 patients received 5.5 mm and 189 patients received 6.35 mm diameter rods for posterior spinal instrumentation. RESULTS: The 6.35 mm rods were used more often for patients who were male, taller, heavier, with larger coronal curves, and more flexible curves. Larger diameter rods were also more likely to be stainless steel, implanted with an increased number of implants per level, and an increased number of pedicle screws used on the concavity of the curve. Univariate analysis of coronal curve showed a significant difference between 5.5 and 6.35 mm rods in correction (67.0% vs. 57.3%) at 2 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that the most significant factors affecting coronal curve correction at 2 years were rod diameter, the patient's preoperative coronal major curve and flexibility, and the implant density. In the sagittal plane, preoperative sagittal curve and rod diameter are the predictors of sagittal correction at 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: The study did not support our hypothesis that larger rods would be associated with a greater correction of frontal and sagittal plane in patients with AIS. In addition to rod diameter, implant density and the inherent flexibility and deformity of the patient were found to be influential factors contributing for the correction and maintenance of coronal and sagittal curves in AIS.


Assuntos
Fixadores Internos , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/instrumentação , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Desenho de Equipamento , Segurança de Equipamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Radiografia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 12(6): 588-94, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24116982

RESUMO

OBJECT: Randomized clinical trials have established that lumbar selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) reduces lower-extremity tone and improves functional outcome in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Significant data exist to support a secondary effect on upper-extremity function in patients with upper-extremity spasticity. The effects of SDR on upper-extremity tone, however, are not well characterized. In this report, the authors sought to assess changes in upper-extremity tone in individual muscle groups after SDR and tried to determine if these changes could be predicted preoperatively. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed 42 children who underwent SDR at Columbia University Medical Center/Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of NewYork-Presbyterian between 2005 and 2011. Twenty-five had upper-extremity spasticity. All underwent pre- and postoperative examination for measuring tone (Modified Ashworth Scale) and assessing functional outcome. Follow-up examinations with therapists were performed at least once at a minimum of 2 months postoperatively (mean 15 months). RESULTS: In the upper extremities, 23 (92%) of 25 patients had improvements of at least 1 Ashworth point in 2 or more independent motor groups on the Modified Ashworth Scale, and 12 (71%) of 17 families surveyed reported increases in motor control or spontaneous movement. The mean Modified Ashworth Scale scores for all upper-extremity muscle groups demonstrated an improvement from 1.34 to 1.22 (p < 0.001). Patients with a mean preoperative upper-extremity tone of 1.25-1.75 were most likely to benefit from reduction in tone (p = 0.0019). Proximal and pronator muscle groups were most likely to demonstrate reduced tone. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to improvements in lower-extremity tone and function, SDR has demonstrable effects on upper extremities. Greater than 90% of our patients with elevated upper-extremity tone demonstrated reduction in tone in at least 2 muscle groups postoperatively. Patients with a mean Modified Ashworth Scale upper-extremity score of 1.25-1.75 may encounter the greatest reduction in upper-extremity tone.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/cirurgia , Espasticidade Muscular/terapia , Rizotomia/métodos , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Spine Deform ; 1(3): 189-195, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27927292

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate pedicle screw placement in pediatric patients with various etiologies of scoliosis, and to identify predictors of misplacement. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Accuracy of placement of pedicle screws has not been well documented for posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion performed in the non-idiopathic population. METHODS: A total of 54 patients (29 idiopathic, 16 neuromuscular, and 9 congenital/syndromic scoliosis), ages 5-19 years, were included. Computed tomography scans were obtained on patients postoperatively to assess screw position. Three pediatric orthopedic surgeons evaluated screw placement, and risk factors for misplacement were examined. RESULTS: Of 1,042 pedicle screws, 8.3% were misplaced. Among all etiologies, screws placed at T1 (28.6%) and T2 (18.2%) had higher misplacement rates. T2 screws and curve correction greater than 75% had higher misplacement rates in congenital/syndromic patients; screws at T3, screws at upper end of construct, and proximal screws had significantly higher misplacement rates in neuromuscular patients; and no variables predicted misplacement in idiopathics. Screws placed at the most proximal end of the screw/rod construct also had a higher misplacement rate (14.1%) compared with all remaining levels (7.8%). Nonidiopathic patients had higher anterior misplacement compared with idiopathic. No screws were removed or revised, and no screw-related complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pedicle screw instrumentation in the thoracolumbar spine was safe for pediatric patients. We found that pedicle screws placed at top levels are at higher risk for misplacement among all pediatric scoliosis patients. Nonidiopathic patients are at higher risk for anterior screw misplacement, and the predictive effect of vertebral level is more profound in nonidiopathic patients. Because of these findings, we routinely use fluoroscopic guidance for the placement of T1 and T2 screws, and screws at the proximal end of construct.

18.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 37(25): 2099-103, 2012 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22614798

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study comparing ScoliScore and clinical risk estimates. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare risk stratification between ScoliScore and traditional clinical estimates to determine whether ScoliScore provides unique information. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ScoliScore is a genetic prognostic test designed to evaluate the risk of curve progression in skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with Cobb angles of 10° to 25°. Clinicians are currently trying to better understand the role this test may play in guiding clinical decision making because current standards of curve progression are largely based on radiographical markers, such as curve magnitude and bone age. METHODS: Ninety-one patients who received ScoliScore testing at our center and met study inclusion criteria were identified. Patients were given a "clinical risk" level using their Risser sign and Cobb angle. Assigned clinical risk levels were compared with the ScoliScore risk levels reported by the manufacturer's scoring algorithm. RESULTS: ScoliScore risk distribution in our population was 36% low risk, 55% intermediate risk, and 9% high risk. This compares with 2%, 51%, and 47%, respectively, for comparable clinical risk groupings. Only 25% of patients were in the same risk category for both systems. There were no significant correlations between ScoliScore and age, race, menarcheal status, Risser sign, or sex. There was a positive correlation between the Cobb angle and the ScoliScore (r = 0.581, P < 0.001). Cobb angle remained significant in the multivariate regression model (P < 0.001), and Cobb angle was found to account for 33.3% of ScoliScore's variance. CONCLUSION: Only Cobb angle showed significant correlation with ScoliScore among the socioclinical variables studied. The risk distribution of the 2 risk estimation systems examined differed markedly: ScoliScore predicted nearly 16 times more low-risk patients and more than 5 times fewer high-risk patients. This demonstrates that ScoliScore provides unique information to traditional predictors of curve progression, advancing our understanding of the role of ScoliScore in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
DNA/isolamento & purificação , Marcadores Genéticos , Testes Genéticos , Saliva/química , Escoliose/diagnóstico , Escoliose/genética , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento , Algoritmos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Radiografia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
J Pediatr Orthop B ; 21(4): 313-6, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22547146

RESUMO

Early diagnosis is critical in patients with congenital scoliosis to identify vertebral defects that have a high risk for progression. A review of the medical records and chest radiographs for 562 patients who underwent corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) at our institution between 1992 and 2007 was conducted. Of the 364 patients examined in the study, 12 patients (3.3%), six girls and six boys, had a positive diagnosis of congenital scoliosis confirmed by examination of radiographs. This incidence is significantly higher than both the incidence reported in prior studies (0-1.4%) and in the general population (0.05-0.10%). Given that patients with TOF routinely undergo chest radiograph, physicians examining chest radiographs of TOF patients should be aware of the potential for congenital scoliosis to provide early diagnosis and referral for orthopaedic evaluation and treatment.


Assuntos
Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Escoliose/epidemiologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , New York/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/congênito , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 37(9): 717-21, 2012 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22517480

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether monitoring increases brace-wearing compliance in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Noncompliance is a barrier to brace treatment of AIS. Studies have demonstrated that monitoring improves medication compliance; however, this has not been investigated in spinal braces. METHODS: Twenty-one patients (mean age = 12.4 ± 2.0 years) with AIS were prescribed treatment with a custom-made Thoraco-Lumbo-Sacral-Orthosis for 18 hours a day using a standardized script. Before beginning treatment, 10 patients were randomized to be informed that their compliance was monitored, whereas 11 patients were unaware. Compliance was measured via a temperature probe embedded within the Thoraco-Lumbo-Sacral-Orthosis hidden from view. RESULTS: Patients who were notified that they had a monitor in their brace demonstrated significantly increased compliance during the first 14 weeks of treatment compared with those who were uninformed (85.7% vs. 56.5%, P = 0.029), corresponding to a mean difference of 5.24 hours of daily brace wear. CONCLUSION: Electronic monitoring can improve compliance with orthoses in patients with spinal deformity during a short observation period.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Braquetes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Cooperação do Paciente , Escoliose/terapia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Escoliose/diagnóstico , Escoliose/psicologia , Termômetros , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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