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1.
J Med Chem ; 62(21): 9931-9946, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638797

RESUMO

RORγt is an important nuclear receptor that regulates the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-22. As a result, RORγt has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of various immunological disorders such as psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Structure and computer-assisted drug design led to the identification of a novel series of tricyclic RORγt inverse agonists with significantly improved in vitro activity in the reporter (Gal4) and human whole blood assays compared to our previous chemotype. Through careful structure activity relationship, several potent and selective RORγt inverse agonists have been identified. Pharmacokinetic studies allowed the identification of the lead molecule 32 with a low peak-to-trough ratio. This molecule showed excellent activity in an IL-2/IL-23-induced mouse pharmacodynamic study and demonstrated biologic-like efficacy in an IL-23-induced preclinical model of psoriasis.

2.
Org Lett ; 21(22): 9198-9202, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647672

RESUMO

This communication highlights the use of chiral sulfinamides as nitrogen nucleophiles in intermolecular aza-Michael reactions. When chiral sulfinamides are coupled to a chloroethyl group, the corresponding novel annulating reagents can be used to streamline the stereoselective synthesis of complex pyrrolidine-containing molecules. As a result, it has enabled a medicinal chemistry campaign for the synthesis of biologically active RORγt inverse agonists.

3.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292918

RESUMO

AIMS: To rationalize the ordering of trauma cervical spine radiographs via the institution of electronic clinical decision support criteria. METHODS: In February 2017, we added evidence-based criteria to the electronic imaging ordering system so that requesting clinicians had to indicate which criteria the patient met. We subsequently compared numbers of cervical spine trauma films requested by the ED in comparable months prior to and after the intervention. RESULTS: The total number of ED trauma cervical spine radiographs reduced by 30.7%, from 182 (in March and April 2016) to 126 (in March and April 2017). The proportion of requests clinically indicated increased from 76.7% (140/182) to 99.2% (125/126). There were no fractures in the 2016 period. 1.6% (2/126) had fractures in the 2017 group. CONCLUSION: Introduction of clinical indication criteria to the electronic ordering system for cervical spine radiographs in trauma patients reduced the total number of requests by 30.7% while increasing the proportion which were indicated to 99.2%.

4.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 50(6): 1687-1701, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016800

RESUMO

Technical advances in the last two decades have allowed rapid, high-resolution whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI). MRI allows unparalleled visualization and detail in the imaging of bone marrow and surrounding soft tissues. The properties of nuclear magnetic resonance allow superb characterization of bone marrow constituents. WBMRI allows superb characterization of the different types of bone marrow and their natural evolution during the life cycle. Diffusion-weighted WBMRI is an exciting development that adds functional information to anatomical detail. The mainstay of WBMRI for bone marrow abnormalities to date has centered upon staging multiple myeloma and other hematologic bone marrow conditions, and as a valuable tool in quantifying skeletal metastases. Increasingly, WBMRI is being utilized in a variety of additional malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Due to the absence of ionizing radiation, WBMRI represents a valuable screening tool in areas such as malignant transformation in hereditary multifocal exostoses or for the development of ischemic marrow insult in at-risk patients. An additional novel area of use includes postmortem WBMRI for characterization of skeletal injuries. This article provides a state-of-the-art and current review of WBMRI of the bone marrow and highlights potential future areas of development. Level of Evidence: 5 Technical Efficacy Stage: 3 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2019. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:1687-1701.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553974

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low intrinsic solubility leading to poor oral bioavailability is a common challenge in drug discovery that can often be overcome by formulation strategies, however, it remains a potential limitation that can pose challenges for early risk assessment and represent a significant obstacle to drug development. We identified a selective inhibitor (BMS-986126) of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) with favorable properties as a lead candidate, but with unusually low intrinsic solubility of <1 µg/mL. METHODS: Conventional histopathology identified the issue of crystal formation in vivo. Subsequent investigative work included confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy, MALDI-MS, polarized light microscopy of fresh wet-mount tissue scrapings and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: BMS-986126 was advanced into a 2-week toxicology study in rats. The main finding in this study was minimal granulomatous inflammation in the duodenum, associated with the presence of birefringent crystals at the highest dosage of 100 mg/kg/day. Considering the safety margin, and the single location of the lesion, BMS-986126 was further progressed into IND-enabling toxicology studies where tolerability deteriorated with increasing dosing duration. Birefringent crystals and granulomatous inflammation were detected in multiple organs at dosages ≥20 mg/kg/day. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the identity of the crystals as BMS-986126. Therefore, follow up investigations were conducted to further characterize drug crystallization and to evaluate detection methods for their potential to reliably detect in vivo crystallization early. DISCUSSION: The purpose of our efforts was to identify critical factors influencing in vivo drug crystallization and to provide a preliminary assessment (based on one compound) which method would be best suited for identifying crystals. Results indicated a combination of methods was required to provide a complete assessment of drug crystallization and that a simple technique, scraping of freshly collected tissue followed by evaluation under polarizing light was suitable for detecting crystals. However, dosing for 2 weeks was required for crystals to grow to a clearly detectable size.


Assuntos
Cristalização , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/química , Piridinas/química , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Descoberta de Drogas , Duodeno/patologia , Feminino , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/química , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Cultura Primária de Células , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Risco , Solubilidade , Análise Espectral Raman
6.
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol ; 22(5): 546-563, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399619

RESUMO

Over the last several decades, the volume and range of therapeutic musculoskeletal (MSK) interventions that radiologists can offer their patients has dramatically increased. With new materials and improving imaging modalities, as well as significant investment in research, the field of MSK interventional radiologic intervention will likely continue to expand. In this article, we summarize the range of interventions currently available to the MSK radiologist. We also seek to explore new and emerging techniques that may become commonplace in the near future while considering the challenges that may lie ahead in the field of MSK radiology.

7.
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol ; 22(5): 564-581, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399620

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of MSK disorders and has rapidly expanded in tandem with advances in technology and improved access to imaging. Although anatomical imaging remains the mainstay of MSK radiology, significant progress has been made in functional and molecular imaging as well as in hybrid imaging with an expanding armament of technologies becoming available or in development. A vast array of research is occurring in MSK imaging, and this review article highlights some of the most promising current and future clinical applications in development in each of the major imaging modalities. Identifying the clinical utility of these technologies in an era of rising health care costs is an important challenge for MSK radiologists.

8.
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol ; 22(5): 582-591, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399621

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal radiology's role in the recent and continued evolution of sports medicine is an exciting and expanding one. In this article we explore a variety of the ways that musculoskeletal radiology contributes to current practices in modern sports medicine, discussing advances across a variety of imaging modalities in the care of both elite athletes and so-called weekend warriors. We describe the technical and ethical factors pertaining to image-guided therapeutic intervention in athletes and speculate on the potential for future developments in the role of imaging in deciding when an athlete may return to participation. We also explore the recent shift to the delivery of imaging facilities at sporting events and in stadiums.

9.
Org Lett ; 20(2): 337-340, 2018 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29283585

RESUMO

The purpose of this letter is to document the use of protected chloroethyl and chloropropyl amines as conformationally unrestricted ambiphilic reagents that undergo annulation reactions with Michael acceptors. This reaction is wide in scope and utilizes reagents that are commercially available, inexpensive, and stable. Furthermore, this reaction is easy to execute and proceeds rapidly.

11.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 27(14): 3101-3106, 2017 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28539220

RESUMO

A series of potent dual JAK1/3 inhibitors have been developed from a moderately selective JAK3 inhibitor. Substitution at the C6 position of the pyrrolopyridazine core with aryl groups provided exceptional biochemical potency against JAK1 and JAK3 while maintaining good selectivity against JAK2 and Tyk2. Translation to in vivo efficacy was observed in a murine model of chronic inflammation. X-ray co-crystal structure determination confirmed the presumed inhibitor binding orientation in JAK3. Efforts to reduce hERG channel inhibition will be described.


Assuntos
Janus Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Piridazinas/química , Pirróis/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Janus Quinase 1/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Piridazinas/síntese química , Piridazinas/farmacocinética , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , TYK2 Quinase/antagonistas & inibidores , TYK2 Quinase/metabolismo
12.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 27(13): 2849-2853, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28209465

RESUMO

Selective PI3Kδ inhibitors have recently been hypothesized to be appropriate immunosuppressive agents for the treatment of immunological disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, few reports have highlighted molecules that are highly selective for PI3Kδ over the other PI3K isoforms. In this letter, isoform and kinome selective PI3Kδ inhibitors are presented. The Structural Activity Relationship leading to such molecules is outlined.


Assuntos
Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
J Immunol ; 198(3): 1308-1319, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003376

RESUMO

The serine/threonine kinase IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)4 is a critical regulator of innate immunity. We have identified BMS-986126, a potent, highly selective inhibitor of IRAK4 kinase activity that demonstrates equipotent activity against multiple MyD88-dependent responses both in vitro and in vivo. BMS-986126 failed to inhibit assays downstream of MyD88-independent receptors, including the TNF receptor and TLR3. Very little activity was seen downstream of TLR4, which can also activate an MyD88-independent pathway. In mice, the compound inhibited cytokine production induced by injection of several different TLR agonists, including those for TLR2, TLR7, and TLR9. The compound also significantly suppressed skin inflammation induced by topical administration of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. BMS-986126 demonstrated robust activity in the MRL/lpr and NZB/NZW models of lupus, inhibiting multiple pathogenic responses. In the MRL/lpr model, robust activity was observed with the combination of suboptimal doses of BMS-986126 and prednisolone, suggesting the potential for steroid sparing activity. BMS-986126 also demonstrated synergy with prednisolone in assays of TLR7- and TLR9-induced IFN target gene expression using human PBMCs. Lastly, BMS-986126 inhibited TLR7- and TLR9-dependent responses using cells derived from lupus patients, suggesting that inhibition of IRAK4 has the potential for therapeutic benefit in treating lupus.


Assuntos
Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/fisiologia , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Receptor Toll-Like 9/fisiologia
14.
J Med Chem ; 58(19): 7775-84, 2015 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26359680

RESUMO

In search for prodrugs to address the issue of pH-dependent solubility and exposure associated with 1 (BMS-582949), a previously disclosed phase II clinical p38α MAP kinase inhibitor, a structurally novel clinical prodrug, 2 (BMS-751324), featuring a carbamoylmethylene linked promoiety containing hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (HPA) derived ester and phosphate functionalities, was identified. Prodrug 2 was not only stable but also water-soluble under both acidic and neutral conditions. It was effectively bioconverted into parent drug 1 in vivo by alkaline phosphatase and esterase in a stepwise manner, providing higher exposure of 1 compared to its direct administration, especially within higher dose ranges. In a rat LPS-induced TNFα pharmacodynamic model and a rat adjuvant arthritis model, 2 demonstrated similar efficacy to 1. Most importantly, it was shown in clinical studies that prodrug 2 was indeed effective in addressing the pH-dependent absorption issue associated with 1.


Assuntos
Organofosfatos/farmacologia , Fenilacetatos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Disponibilidade Biológica , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Estrutura Molecular , Organofosfatos/química , Fenilacetatos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
J Labelled Comp Radiopharm ; 58(10): 414-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26228905

RESUMO

N-((R)-1-((S)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-3-sulfamoylbenzamide is a potent C-C chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) antagonist. The compound, possessing benzamide functionality, successfully underwent tritium/hydrogen (T/H) exchange with an organoiridium catalyst (Crabtree's catalyst). The labeling pattern in the product was studied with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and (3) H-NMR. Overall, multiple labeled species were identified. In addition to the anticipated incorporation of tritium in the benzamide moiety, tritium labeling was observed in the valine portion of the molecule including substitution at its chiral carbon. Using authentic standards, liquid chromatography analysis of the labeled compound showed complete retention of stereochemical configuration.


Assuntos
Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Receptores CCR1/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Trítio/química , Valina/análogos & derivados , Sulfonamidas/química , Valina/síntese química , Valina/química
16.
J Mol Biol ; 427(4): 924-942, 2015 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25579995

RESUMO

The human pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a promiscuous nuclear receptor that functions as a sensor to a wide variety of xenobiotics and regulates expression of several drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. We have generated "Adnectins", derived from 10th fibronectin type III domain ((10)Fn3), that target the PXR ligand binding domain (LBD) interactions with the steroid receptor co-activator-1 (SRC-1) peptide, displacing SRC-1 binding. Adnectins are structurally homologous to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Three different co-crystal structures of PXR LBD with Adnectin-1 and CCR1 (CC chemokine receptor-1) antagonist Compound-1 were determined. This structural information was used to modulate PXR affinity for a related CCR1 antagonist compound that entered into clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis. The structures of PXR with Adnectin-1 reveal specificity of Adnectin-1 in not only targeting the interface of the SRC-1 interactions but also engaging the same set of residues that are involved in binding of SRC-1 to PXR. Substituting SRC-1 with Adnectin-1 does not alter the binding conformation of Compound-1 in the ligand binding pocket. The structure also reveals the possibility of using Adnectins as crystallization chaperones to generate structures of PXR with compounds of interest.


Assuntos
Coativador 1 de Receptor Nuclear/química , Receptores CCR1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Esteroides/química , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Valina/análogos & derivados , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Lignanas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Receptor de Pregnano X , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Receptores CCR1/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Ureia/química , Ureia/metabolismo , Ureia/farmacologia , Valina/química , Valina/metabolismo , Valina/farmacologia
17.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 24(24): 5721-5726, 2014 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25453808

RESUMO

A new class of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors was discovered using a rationally designed pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine-3-carboxamide scaffold. Preliminary studies identified (R)-(2,2-dimethylcyclopentyl)amine as a preferred C4 substituent on the pyrrolopyridazine core (3b). Incorporation of amino group to 3-position of the cyclopentane ring resulted in a series of JAK3 inhibitors (4g-4j) that potently inhibited IFNγ production in an IL2-induced whole blood assay and displayed high functional selectivity for JAK3-JAK1 pathway relative to JAK2. Further modifications led to the discovery of an orally bioavailable (2-fluoro-2-methylcyclopentyl)amino analogue 5g which is a nanomolar inhibitor of both JAK3 and TYK2, functionally selective for the JAK3-JAK1 pathway versus JAK2, and active in a human whole blood assay.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Janus Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridazinas/química , Pirróis/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Conformação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
J Med Chem ; 57(18): 7550-64, 2014 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25101488
19.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 23(13): 3833-40, 2013 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23707259

RESUMO

A series of compounds which exhibited good human CCR1 binding and functional potency was modified resulting in the discovery of a novel series of high affinity, functionally potent antagonists of the CCR1 receptor. Issues of PXR activity, ion-channel potency, and poor metabolic stability were addressed by the addition of a hydroxyl group to an otherwise lipophilic area in the molecule resulting in the discovery of preclinical candidate BMS-457 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Receptores CCR1/antagonistas & inibidores , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Piperidinas/síntese química , Piperidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
J Med Chem ; 55(22): 9643-53, 2012 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23075267

RESUMO

A series of novel, potent CCR1 inhibitors was developed from a moderately active hit using an iterative parallel synthesis approach. The initial hit (composed of three subunits: an amine, a central amino acid, and an N-terminal cap) became the basis for a series of parallel chemical libraries designed to generate SAR data. Libraries were synthesized that explored each of the three subunits; the CCR1 binding data obtained revealed the following: (1) changes to the amine are not well tolerated; (2) small alkylamino acids are preferred in the center of the molecule; (3) substitutions at the N-terminus are generally well tolerated. These data were used to drive the optimization of the series, ultimately providing a lead with a CCR1 binding IC(50) of 28 nM (48). This lead demonstrates high selectivity for CCR1 over other CCR-family members, high microsomal stability, and good pharmacokinetics in mice.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Receptores CCR/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Monócitos/citologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Piperidinas/síntese química , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Ligação Proteica , Coelhos , Ratos , Receptores CCR/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Distribuição Tecidual
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