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J Fish Biol ; 95(3): 719-742, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111501


Anthropogenic acidification in SW-Scotland, from the early 19th Century onwards, led to the extinction of several loch (lake) brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations and substantial reductions in numbers in many others. Higher altitude populations with no stocking influence, which are isolated above natural and artificial barriers and subjected to the greatest effect of acidification, exhibited the least intrapopulation genetic diversity (34% of the allelic richness of the populations accessible to anadromous S. trutta). These, however, were characterised by the greatest interpopulation divergence (highest pairwise DEST 0.61 and FST 0.53 in contemporary samples) based on 16 microsatellite loci and are among the most differentiated S. trutta populations in NW-Europe. Five lochs above impassable waterfalls, where S. trutta were thought to be extinct, are documented as having been stocked in the late 1980s or 1990s. All five lochs now support self-sustaining S. trutta populations; three as a direct result of restoration stocking and two adjoining lochs largely arising from a small remnant wild population in one, but with some stocking input. The genetically unique Loch Grannoch S. trutta, which has been shown to have a heritable increased tolerance to acid conditions, was successfully used as a donor stock to restore populations in two acidic lochs. Loch Fleet S. trutta, which were re-established from four separate donor sources in the late 1980s, showed differential contribution from these ancestors and a higher genetic diversity than all 17 natural loch populations examined in the area. Genetically distinct inlet and outlet spawning S. trutta populations were found in this loch. Three genetically distinct sympatric populations of S. trutta were identified in Loch Grannoch, most likely representing recruitment from the three main spawning rivers. A distinct genetic signature of Loch Leven S. trutta, the progenitor of many Scottish farm strains, facilitated detection of stocking with these strains. One artificially created loch was shown to have a population genetically very similar to Loch Leven S. trutta. In spite of recorded historical supplemental stocking with Loch Leven derived farm strains, much of the indigenous S. trutta genetic diversity in the area remains intact, aside from the effects of acidification induced bottlenecks. Overall genetic diversity and extant populations have been increased by allochthonous stocking.

Variação Genética , Rios/química , Truta/genética , Alelos , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Europa (Continente) , Genética Populacional , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Repetições de Microssatélites , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Escócia
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0122825, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25874617


Contact zones between divergent forms of the same species are often characterised by high levels of phenotypic diversity over small geographic distances. What processes are involved in generating such high phenotypic diversity? One possibility is that introgression and recombination between divergent forms in contact zones results in greater phenotypic and genetic polymorphism. Alternatively, strong reproductive isolation between forms may maintain distinct phenotypes, preventing homogenisation by gene flow. Contact zones between divergent freshwater-resident and anadromous stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) forms are numerous and common throughout the species distribution, offering an opportunity to examine these contrasting hypotheses in greater detail. This study reports on an interesting new contact zone located in a tidally influenced lake catchment in western Ireland, characterised by high polymorphism for lateral plate phenotypes. Using neutral and QTL-linked microsatellite markers, we tested whether the high diversity observed in this contact zone arose as a result of introgression or reproductive isolation between divergent forms: we found strong support for the latter hypothesis. Three phenotypic and genetic clusters were identified, consistent with two divergent resident forms and a distinct anadromous completely plated population that migrates in and out of the system. Given the strong neutral differentiation detected between all three morphotypes (mean FST = 0.12), we hypothesised that divergent selection between forms maintains reproductive isolation. We found a correlation between neutral genetic and adaptive genetic differentiation that support this. While strong associations between QTL linked markers and phenotypes were also observed in this wild population, our results support the suggestion that such associations may be more complex in some Atlantic populations compared to those in the Pacific. These findings provide an important foundation for future work investigating the dynamics of gene flow and adaptive divergence in this newly discovered stickleback contact zone.

Fluxo Gênico , Smegmamorpha/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Migração Animal , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Teorema de Bayes , Tamanho Corporal , Análise por Conglomerados , Ecossistema , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Irlanda , Lagos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogeografia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Rios , Seleção Genética , Smegmamorpha/anatomia & histologia , Smegmamorpha/classificação , Smegmamorpha/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
Proc Biol Sci ; 282(1804): 20142605, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25716786


Despite recent advances in the understanding of the interplay between a dynamic physical environment and phylogeography in Europe, the origins of contemporary Irish biota remain uncertain. Current thinking is that Ireland was colonized post-glacially from southern European refugia, following the end of the last glacial maximum (LGM), some 20 000 years BP. The Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri), one of the few native Irish mammal species, is widely distributed throughout Europe but, with the exception of Ireland, is generally rare and considered vulnerable. We investigate the origins and phylogeographic relationships of Irish populations in relation to those across Europe, including the closely related species N. azoreum. We use a combination of approaches, including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, in addition to approximate Bayesian computation and palaeo-climatic species distribution modelling. Molecular analyses revealed two distinct and diverse European mitochondrial DNA lineages, which probably diverged in separate glacial refugia. A western lineage, restricted to Ireland, Britain and the Azores, comprises Irish and British N. leisleri and N. azoreum specimens; an eastern lineage is distributed throughout mainland Europe. Palaeo-climatic projections indicate suitable habitats during the LGM, including known glacial refugia, in addition to potential novel cryptic refugia along the western fringe of Europe. These results may be applicable to populations of many species.

Distribuição Animal , Núcleo Celular/genética , Quirópteros/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Animais , Quirópteros/classificação , Europa (Continente) , Marcadores Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
Proc Biol Sci ; 270(1532): 2443-50, 2003 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14667333


The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two-generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F(1) and F(2) hybrids and BC(1) backcrosses to wild and farm salmon. Offspring of farm and "hybrids" (i.e. all F(1), F(2) and BC(1) groups) showed reduced survival compared with wild salmon but grew faster as juveniles and displaced wild parr, which as a group were significantly smaller. Where suitable habitat for these emigrant parr is absent, this competition would result in reduced wild smolt production. In the experimental conditions, where emigrants survived downstream, the relative estimated lifetime success ranged from 2% (farm) to 89% (BC(1) wild) of that of wild salmon, indicating additive genetic variation for survival. Wild salmon primarily returned to fresh water after one sea winter (1SW) but farm and 'hybrids' produced proportionately more 2SW salmon. However, lower overall survival means that this would result in reduced recruitment despite increased 2SW fecundity. We thus demonstrate that interaction of farm with wild salmon results in lowered fitness, with repeated escapes causing cumulative fitness depression and potentially an extinction vortex in vulnerable populations.

Ecossistema , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Genética Populacional , Hibridização Genética/fisiologia , Salmo salar/fisiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Água Doce , Irlanda , Dinâmica Populacional , Água do Mar , Análise de Sobrevida