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1.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(2): 15, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591358

RESUMO

Purpose: Refractive errors, particularly myopia, are common and a leading cause of blindness. This study aimed to explore associations between medications and refractive error in an aging adult cohort and to determine whether childhood-onset refractive errors predict future medication use to provide novel insights into disease mechanisms. Methods: The study compared the spherical equivalent values measured in 102,318 UK Biobank participants taking the 960 most commonly used medications. The strengths of associations were evaluated against the self-reported age of spectacle wear. The causality of refractive error changes was inferred using sensitivity and Mendelian randomization analyses. Results: Anti-glaucoma drugs were associated with 1 to 2 diopters greater myopic refraction, particularly in subjects who started wearing correction in the first two decades of life, potentially due to the association of higher intraocular pressure since early years with both myopia and, later in life, glaucoma. All classes of pain-control medications, including paracetamol, opiates, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and gabapentinoids, were associated with greater hyperopia (+0.68-1.15 diopters), after correction for deprivation, education, and polypharmacy and sensitivity analyses for common diagnoses. Oral hypoglycemics (metformin, gliburonide) were associated with myopia, as was allopurinol, and participants using bronchodilators (ipratropium and salbutamol) were more hyperopic. Conclusions: This study finds for the first time, to our knowledge, that medication use is associated with refractive error in adults. The novel finding that analgesics are associated with hyperopic refraction, and the possibility that multisite chronic pain predisposes to hyperopia, deserves further research. Some drugs, such as antihyperglycemic or bronchodilators, may directly alter refractive error. Intraocular pressure appears causative for myopia.

2.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547071

RESUMO

To characterize the genetic basis of facial features in Latin Americans, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of more than 6000 individuals using 59 landmark-based measurements from two-dimensional profile photographs and ~9,000,000 genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We detected significant association of 32 traits with at least 1 (and up to 6) of 32 different genomic regions, more than doubling the number of robustly associated face morphology loci reported until now (from 11 to 23). These GWAS hits are strongly enriched in regulatory sequences active specifically during craniofacial development. The associated region in 1p12 includes a tract of archaic adaptive introgression, with a Denisovan haplotype common in Native Americans affecting particularly lip thickness. Among the nine previously unidentified face morphology loci we identified is the VPS13B gene region, and we show that variants in this region also affect midfacial morphology in mice.

3.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 755, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311586

RESUMO

Nuclear cataract is the most common type of age-related cataract and a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Age-related nuclear cataract is heritable (h2 = 0.48), but little is known about specific genetic factors underlying this condition. Here we report findings from the largest to date multi-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (discovery cohort N = 14,151 and replication N = 5299) of the International Cataract Genetics Consortium. We confirmed the known genetic association of CRYAA (rs7278468, P = 2.8 × 10-16) with nuclear cataract and identified five new loci associated with this disease: SOX2-OT (rs9842371, P = 1.7 × 10-19), TMPRSS5 (rs4936279, P = 2.5 × 10-10), LINC01412 (rs16823886, P = 1.3 × 10-9), GLTSCR1 (rs1005911, P = 9.8 × 10-9), and COMMD1 (rs62149908, P = 1.2 × 10-8). The results suggest a strong link of age-related nuclear cataract with congenital cataract and eye development genes, and the importance of common genetic variants in maintaining crystalline lens integrity in the aging eye.

4.
Ophthalmology ; 127(12): 1625-1626, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222773
5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(11): 20, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926103

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants on chromosome X associated with intraocular pressure (IOP) and determine if they possess any sex-specific effects. Methods: Association analyses were performed across chromosome X using 102,407 participants from the UK Biobank. Replication and validation analyses were conducted in an additional 6599 participants from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, and an independent 331,682 participants from the UK Biobank. Results: We identified three loci associated with IOP at genomewide significance (P < 5 × 10-8), located within or near the following genes: MXRA5 (rs2107482, P = 7.1 × 10-11), GPM6B (rs66819623, P = 6.9 × 10-10), NDP, and EFHC2 (rs12558081, P = 4.9 × 10-11). Alleles associated with increased IOP were also associated with increased risk for primary open-angle glaucoma in an independent sample. Finally, our results indicate that chromosome X genetics most likely do not illicit sex-specific effects on IOP. Conclusions: In this study, we report the results of genomewide levels of association of three loci on chromosome X with IOP, and provide a framework to include chromosome X in large-scale genomewide association analyses for complex phenotypes.

6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(18): 3154-3164, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716492

RESUMO

Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor are parameters that reflect the dynamic biomechanical properties of the cornea and have been shown to be biomarkers of corneal disease. In this genome-wide association study of over 100 000 participants, we identified over 200 genetic loci, all but eight novel, significantly associated with either one or both of these traits. In addition to providing key insights into the genetic architecture underlying normal corneal function, these results identify many candidate loci in the study of corneal diseases that lead to severe visual impairment. Additionally, using Mendelian randomization, we were able to identify causal relationships between corneal biomechanics and intraocular pressure measurements, which help elucidate the relationship between corneal properties and glaucoma.

7.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 301, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528159

RESUMO

Central corneal thickness (CCT) is one of the most heritable human traits, with broad-sense heritability estimates ranging between 0.68 to 0.95. Despite the high heritability and numerous previous association studies, only 8.5% of CCT variance is currently explained. Here, we report the results of a multiethnic meta-analysis of available genome-wide association studies in which we find association between CCT and 98 genomic loci, of which 41 are novel. Among these loci, 20 were significantly associated with keratoconus, and one (RAPSN rs3740685) was significantly associated with glaucoma after Bonferroni correction. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis suggests that thinner CCT does not causally increase the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma. This large CCT study explains up to 14.2% of CCT variance and increases substantially our understanding of the etiology of CCT variation. This may open new avenues of investigation into human ocular traits and their relationship to the risk of vision disorders.

8.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(6): 678-679, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352497
9.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 401-407, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231278

RESUMO

Refractive errors, in particular myopia, are a leading cause of morbidity and disability worldwide. Genetic investigation can improve understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie abnormal eye development and impaired vision. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that involved 542,934 European participants and identified 336 novel genetic loci associated with refractive error. Collectively, all associated genetic variants explain 18.4% of heritability and improve the accuracy of myopia prediction (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.75). Our results suggest that refractive error is genetically heterogeneous, driven by genes that participate in the development of every anatomical component of the eye. In addition, our analyses suggest that genetic factors controlling circadian rhythm and pigmentation are also involved in the development of myopia and refractive error. These results may enable the prediction of refractive error and the development of personalized myopia prevention strategies in the future.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Miopia/genética , Erros de Refração/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
10.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 133, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193507

RESUMO

Corneal curvature, a highly heritable trait, is a key clinical endophenotype for myopia - a major cause of visual impairment and blindness in the world. Here we present a trans-ethnic meta-analysis of corneal curvature GWAS in 44,042 individuals of Caucasian and Asian with replication in 88,218 UK Biobank data. We identified 47 loci (of which 26 are novel), with population-specific signals as well as shared signals across ethnicities. Some identified variants showed precise scaling in corneal curvature and eye elongation (i.e. axial length) to maintain eyes in emmetropia (i.e. HDAC11/FBLN2 rs2630445, RBP3 rs11204213); others exhibited association with myopia with little pleiotropic effects on eye elongation. Implicated genes are involved in extracellular matrix organization, developmental process for body and eye, connective tissue cartilage and glycosylation protein activities. Our study provides insights into population-specific novel genes for corneal curvature, and their pleiotropic effect in regulating eye size or conferring susceptibility to myopia.

11.
Nat Genet ; 52(2): 160-166, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959993

RESUMO

Glaucoma, a disease characterized by progressive optic nerve degeneration, can be prevented through timely diagnosis and treatment. We characterize optic nerve photographs of 67,040 UK Biobank participants and use a multitrait genetic model to identify risk loci for glaucoma. A glaucoma polygenic risk score (PRS) enables effective risk stratification in unselected glaucoma cases and modifies penetrance of the MYOC variant encoding p.Gln368Ter, the most common glaucoma-associated myocilin variant. In the unselected glaucoma population, individuals in the top PRS decile reach an absolute risk for glaucoma 10 years earlier than the bottom decile and are at 15-fold increased risk of developing advanced glaucoma (top 10% versus remaining 90%, odds ratio = 4.20). The PRS predicts glaucoma progression in prospectively monitored, early manifest glaucoma cases (P = 0.004) and surgical intervention in advanced disease (P = 3.6 × 10-6). This glaucoma PRS will facilitate the development of a personalized approach for earlier treatment of high-risk individuals, with less intensive monitoring and treatment being possible for lower-risk groups.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Progressão da Doença , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glaucoma/etiologia , Glaucoma/cirurgia , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Razão de Chances , Nervo Óptico/fisiologia , Penetrância , Trabeculectomia/efeitos adversos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
12.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(3): 294-299, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999318

RESUMO

Importance: Mechanisms behind pigmentary glaucoma, a form of early-onset glaucoma that may potentially lead to severe visual impairment or blindness, are poorly understood. Objective: To calculate the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability of pigmentary glaucoma and identify genetic associations with the disease. Design, Setting and Participants: This genome-wide association study included affected individuals from Germany and control participants from the United Kingdom. Genome-wide information was obtained for patients with pigmentary glaucoma and control participants free of glaucoma by using the Illumina Human Omni Express Exome 8v1-2 chip and genomic imputation. The SNP heritability of pigmentary glaucoma was estimated through a restricted maximum likelihood analysis. Associations between the genetic variants and pigmentary glaucoma obtained from age, sex, and principal component-adjusted logistic regression models were compared with those of SNPs previously associated with other eye phenotypes using Pearson product-moment correlations. Data were collected from November 2008 to January 2018, and analysis was completed between April 2018 and August 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: An estimate of SNP-explained heritability for pigmentary glaucoma; correlations of effect sizes between pigmentary glaucoma and iris pigmentation and myopia; and correlations of effect sizes between pigmentary glaucoma and other eye phenotypes. Results: A total of 227 affected individuals (mean [SD] age, 58.7 [13.3] years) and 291 control participants (mean [SD] age, 80.2 [4.9] years) were included; all were of European ancestry. The SNP heritability of pigmentary glaucoma was 0.45 (SE, 0.22; P = 6.15 × 10-10). Twelve SNPs previously reported with genome-wide significant associations with eye pigmentation were associated with pigmentary glaucoma's SNP heritability (4.9% SNP heritability; 0.022; P = 6.0 × 10-4). Pigmentary glaucoma SNP effect sizes were correlated moderately for myopia (r, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.14-0.63]; P = 4.3 × 10-3) and more strongly with those for iris pigmentation (r = -0.69 [95% CI, -0.91 to -0.20]; P = .01), although this was nonsignificant per a strict adjusted significance threshold (P < .01). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings support the conclusion that pigmentary glaucoma may have a genetic basis and be highly heritable. Variants associated with lighter eye color and myopia appear to be associated with increased risk of pigmentary glaucoma, but no shared genetic basis with primary open-angle glaucoma (or its quantitative endophenotype of cup-disc ratio) was observed.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Hereditariedade , Iris/fisiopatologia , Miopia/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Visão Ocular/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
14.
Ophthalmology ; 127(1): 62-71, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe and compare associations with macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses in a large cohort. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We included 42 044 participants in the UK Biobank. The mean age was 56 years. METHODS: Spectral-domain OCT macular images were segmented and analyzed. Corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) was measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (Reichert, Corp., Buffalo, NY). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations with mean mRNFL, GCC, and GCIPL thicknesses. Factors examined were age, sex, ethnicity, height, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, alcohol intake, Townsend deprivation index, education level, diabetes status, spherical equivalent, and IOPcc. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thicknesses of mRNFL, GCC, and GCIPL. RESULTS: We identified several novel independent associations with thinner inner retinal thickness. Thinner inner retina was associated with alcohol intake (most significant for GCIPL: -0.46 µm for daily or almost daily intake compared with special occasion only or never [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.61-0.30]; P = 1.1×10-8), greater social deprivation (most significant for GCIPL: -0.28 µm for most deprived quartile compared with least deprived quartile [95% CI, -0.42 to -0.14]; P = 6.6×10-5), lower educational attainment (most significant for mRNFL: -0.36 µm for less than O level compared with degree level [95% CI, -0.45 to 0.26]; P = 2.3×10-14), and nonwhite ethnicity (most significant for mRNFL comparing blacks with whites: -1.65 µm [95% CI, -1.86 to -1.43]; P = 2.4×10-50). Corneal-compensated intraocular pressure was associated most significantly with GCIPL (-0.04 µm/mmHg [95% CI, -0.05 to -0.03]; P = 4.0×10-10) and was not associated significantly with mRNFL (0.00 µm/mmHg [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.01]; P = 0.77). The variables examined explained a greater proportion of the variance of GCIPL (11%) than GCC (6%) or mRNFL (7%). CONCLUSIONS: The novel associations we identified may be important to consider when using inner retinal parameters as a diagnostic tool. Associations generally were strongest with GCIPL, particularly for IOP. This suggests that GCIPL may be the superior inner retinal biomarker for macular pathophysiologic processes and especially for glaucoma.


Assuntos
Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Constituição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Reino Unido
15.
Commun Biol ; 2: 435, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798171

RESUMO

A new avenue of mining published genome-wide association studies includes the joint analysis of related traits. The power of this approach depends on the genetic correlation of traits, which reflects the number of pleiotropic loci, i.e. genetic loci influencing multiple traits. Here, we applied new meta-analyses of optic nerve head (ONH) related traits implicated in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG); intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness using Haplotype reference consortium imputations. We performed a multi-trait analysis of ONH parameters cup area, disc area and vertical cup-disc ratio. We uncover new variants; rs11158547 in PPP1R36-PLEKHG3 and rs1028727 near SERPINE3 at genome-wide significance that replicate in independent Asian cohorts imputed to 1000 Genomes. At this point, validation of these variants in POAG cohorts is hampered by the high degree of heterogeneity. Our results show that multi-trait analysis is a valid approach to identify novel pleiotropic variants for ONH.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Disco Óptico/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/genética , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/genética , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(21): 3680-3690, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809533

RESUMO

Optic nerve head morphology is affected by several retinal diseases. We measured the vertical optic disc diameter (DD) of the UK Biobank (UKBB) cohort (N = 67 040) and performed the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of DD to date. We identified 81 loci (66 novel) for vertical DD. We then replicated the novel loci in International Glaucoma Genetic Consortium (IGGC, N = 22 504) and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk (N = 6005); in general the concordance in effect sizes was very high (correlation in effect size estimates 0.90): 44 of the 66 novel loci were significant at P < 0.05, with 19 remaining significant after Bonferroni correction. We identified another 26 novel loci in the meta-analysis of UKBB and IGGC data. Gene-based analyses identified an additional 57 genes. Human ocular tissue gene expression analysis showed that most of the identified genes are enriched in optic nerve head tissue. Some of the identified loci exhibited pleiotropic effects with vertical cup-to-disc ratio, intraocular pressure, glaucoma and myopia. These results can enhance our understanding of the genetics of optic disc morphology and shed light on the genetic findings for other ophthalmic disorders such as glaucoma and other optic nerve diseases.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glaucoma/genética , Disco Óptico/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Disco Óptico/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Padronização Corporal/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ontologia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
18.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246245

RESUMO

Importance: Keratoconus is an important cause of visual loss in young adults, but little is known about its genetic causes. Understanding the genetic determinants of corneal biomechanical factors may in turn teach us about keratoconus etiology. Objectives: To identify genetic associations with corneal biomechanical properties and to examine whether these genetic variants are associated with keratoconus. Design, Setting, and Participants: A stage 1 discovery and replication genome-wide association study (GWAS) of corneal biomechanical properties was performed in 2 cross-sectional populations (6645 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-Norfolk Eye Study and 2384 participants from the TwinsUK study). In stage 2, the association of genetic determinants identified in stage 1 with keratoconus was examined in a case-control study. A total of 752 patients with keratoconus were compared with 974 TwinsUK participants (undergoing direct sequencing) or 13 828 EPIC-Norfolk participants (undergoing genotyping and imputation) who were not part of the stage 1 analysis. Data were collected from March 1, 1993, through March 13, 2017, and analyzed from November 1, 2015, through February 1, 2018. Exposures: In stage 1, allele dosage at genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); in stage 2, allele dosage at SNPs with genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) in stage 1 and not previously reported as associated with corneal disease. Main Outcomes and Measures: In stage 1, corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF), measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA); in stage 2, association with keratoconus compared with controls. Results: Among 6645 participants in the discovery cohort (3635 women (54.7%); mean age, 69 years [range, 48-92 years]), 7 genome-wide significant loci associated with CH or CRF were identified that were independently replicated. Two further suggestive loci were identified after meta-analysis. To date, 5 of the identified loci, at ANAPC1, ADAMTS8, ADAMTS17, ABCA6, and COL6A1, have not previously been reported as associated with corneal disease. The ABCA6 locus (rs77542162) was associated with keratoconus using the TwinsUK (odds ratio [OR], 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27-0.92; P = .03) and EPIC-Norfolk controls (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.70; P = .002). The other loci were associated with keratoconus using TwinsUK (OR per effect allele for ADAMTS8, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.37-0.71; P = 7.9 × 10-5]; for COL6A1, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.05-2.59; P = .03]) or EPIC-Norfolk (OR per effect allele for ANAPC1, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.68-0.89; P = 3.7 × 10-4]; for ADAMTS17, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P = .04]) controls. Conclusions and Relevance: Five loci that are associated with corneal biomechanical properties and that have suggestive associations with keratoconus were reported. These findings suggest the role of type VI collagen, extracellular matrix, and connective-tissue development for corneal biomechanics and keratoconus and the role of CH and CRF as biomarkers for keratoconus.

20.
Hum Genet ; 138(7): 723-737, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073882

RESUMO

Strabismus refers to an abnormal alignment of the eyes leading to the loss of central binocular vision. Concomitant strabismus occurs when the angle of deviation is constant in all positions of gaze and often manifests in early childhood when it is considered to be a neurodevelopmental disorder of the visual system. As such, it is inherited as a complex genetic trait, affecting 2-4% of the population. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for self-reported strabismus (1345 cases and 65,349 controls from UK Biobank) revealed a single genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 17q25. Approximately 20 variants across the NPLOC4-TSPAN10-PDE6G gene cluster and in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) were most strongly associated (lead variant: rs75078292, OR = 1.26, p = 2.24E-08). A recessive model provided a better fit to the data than an additive model. Association with strabismus was independent of refractive error, and the degree of association with strabismus was minimally attenuated after adjustment for amblyopia. The association with strabismus was replicated in an independent cohort of clinician-diagnosed children aged 7 years old (116 cases and 5084 controls; OR = 1.85, p = 0.009). The associated variants included 2 strong candidate causal variants predicted to have functional effects: rs6420484, which substitutes tyrosine for a conserved cysteine (C177Y) in the TSPAN10 gene, and a 4-bp deletion variant, rs397693108, predicted to cause a frameshift in TSPAN10. The population-attributable risk for the locus was approximately 8.4%, indicating an important role in conferring susceptibility to strabismus.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estrabismo/genética , Estrabismo/patologia , Tetraspaninas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família Multigênica , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Estrabismo/metabolismo , Tetraspaninas/metabolismo , Acuidade Visual
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