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1.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105399, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081659

RESUMO

Pretos Novos cemetery (PNC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1769-1830) was created exclusively to bury enslaved Africans who died upon arrival at the city or before being sold in the slave market. The PNC site may be unique in the Americas in allowing the study of African parasite infections acquired in Africa. We aimed to identify parasites infecting PNC individuals through paleoparasitological and paleogenetic analyses. The bodies had been dismembered, placed in mass graves, and burned, and most human remains collected from the site are highly fragmented and show extensive degradation. Sacrum and pelvic sediments were collected from five individuals along with seven samples of sediment from other areas of the body, as controls. Samples were submitted to three parasitological techniques and, in paleogenetic analysis, to four molecular targets. Larvae, mites, pollen grains, and structure suggestive of plants and fungus were observed, but we found no evidence of helminth infection. Ascaris sp. cytb sequence was recovered in one individual. We emphasize that, even with the extensive degradation of PNC human remains and the process of curation of samples, it was possible to recover helminth aDNA. The origin of PNC individuals confirms that these infections were brought to Brazil from western and central Africa during the colonial era.

2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 346-359, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042519

RESUMO

Abstract Flounders are commercially and economically important fish. A total of 120 specimens of flounders (60 Paralichthys isosceles, 30 Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile) were collected off the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fish were measured, necropsied and filleted, and then had their organs investigated for acanthocephalans. Taxonomic identification of the parasites was based on morphological, morphometric and genetic characters. Paralichthys isosceles and P. patagonicus were parasitized by juveniles of Serrasentis sagittifer, Bolbosoma turbinella, Corynosoma australe and C. cetaceum; Xystreurys rasile was parasitized by C. australe. Genetic characterization confirmed the identification of specimens of Bolbosoma turbinella and Corynosoma australe, as demonstrated by phylogenetic analyses using both ITS and cox1 molecular targets. Parasite indices of prevalence, intensity, mean intensity, abundance, mean abundance, and range of infection, as well as infection site, were evaluated for each parasite species. This is the first report of S. sagittifer parasitizing P. isosceles and P. patagonicus, and B. turbinella parasitizing P. patagonicus.


Resumo Os linguados são peixes comercial e economicamente importantes. Um total de 120 espécimes de linguados (60 Paralichthys isosceles, 30 P. patagonicus e 30 Xystreurys rasile) foram coletados no litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os peixes foram medidos, necropsiados, filetados e tiveram seus órgãos investigados para a presença de acantocéfalos. A identificação taxonômica foi baseada em caracteres morfológicos, morfométricos e genéticos. Paralichthys isosceles e P. patagonicus estavam parasitados por acantocéfalos juvenis de Serrasentis sagittifer, Bolbosoma turbinella, Corynosoma australe e C. cetaceum; Xystreurys rasile estava parasitado com C. australe. A caracterização genética confirmou a identificação dos espécimes de Bolbosoma turbinella e Corynosoma australe, como demonstrado por análises filogenéticas usando ambos marcadores moleculares ITS e cox1. Foram analisados os índices parasitários: prevalência, intensidade, intensidade média, abundância, abundância média, amplitude de variação da infecção e sítio de infecção de cada espécie de parasito. Este é o primeiro registro de S. sagittifer parasitando P. isosceles e P. patagonicus, e de B. turbinella parasitando P. patagonicus.

3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 346-359, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215609

RESUMO

Flounders are commercially and economically important fish. A total of 120 specimens of flounders (60 Paralichthys isosceles, 30 Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile) were collected off the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fish were measured, necropsied and filleted, and then had their organs investigated for acanthocephalans. Taxonomic identification of the parasites was based on morphological, morphometric and genetic characters. Paralichthys isosceles and P. patagonicus were parasitized by juveniles of Serrasentis sagittifer, Bolbosoma turbinella, Corynosoma australe and C. cetaceum; Xystreurys rasile was parasitized by C. australe. Genetic characterization confirmed the identification of specimens of Bolbosoma turbinella and Corynosoma australe, as demonstrated by phylogenetic analyses using both ITS and cox1 molecular targets. Parasite indices of prevalence, intensity, mean intensity, abundance, mean abundance, and range of infection, as well as infection site, were evaluated for each parasite species. This is the first report of S. sagittifer parasitizing P. isosceles and P. patagonicus, and B. turbinella parasitizing P. patagonicus.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Linguado/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , Animais , Brasil , Linguado/classificação , Filogenia
4.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0216150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paleoparasitology, the study of parasites in the past, brings the knowledge of where and when they occurred in preterit populations. Some groups of parasites, as capillariids, have a complex and controversial systematic, hindering the paleoparasitological diagnosis. In this article, we synthesized the occurrence of capillariids in both the New and the Old World in ancient times, and discussed the difficulty of the diagnosis of species and the strategies for identification. The present review also shows the current status of the phylogeny in capillariids and indicates the necessity to try new approaches for a better understanding of capillariid paleodistribution. METHODS: For the systematic review, a predefined guideline defined by PRISMA was used. The articles collected were identified, screened, and included in the review following criteria for eligibility. The current status of the phylogeny of capillariids was accessed using MUSCLE, Bioedit v.7.0.5 and MEGA v. 7.0.21 programs. RESULTS: The review discussed 38 articles that presented information about capillariids in past populations. Most of capillariid eggs found in the New and Old World were not identified. However, Calodium hepaticum eggs were the most identified, as some from Eucoleus genus. It was observed that sites from the New World had a better chance for capillariid egg identification, due to previous knowledge of its host, when compared to the Old World. In the 18S rDNA phylogenetic analyses, two datasets were constructed, one including sequences from 7 Moravec's genera, where 3 genus-specific clusters, with high bootstrap values, could be observed for Capillaria (ML = 99%, NJ = 96%), Eucoleus (ML / NJ = 100%) and Paratrichosoma (ML / NJ = 100%). A fourth cluster of 18S rDNA dataset I revealed lack of definition of Pearsonema and Aonchotheca genera. The 18S rDNA dataset II comprised 8 Moravec's genera and defined 3 clusters, 2 genus-specific for Eucoleus (ML = 99%, NJ = 100%) and Capillaria (ML / NJ = 98%). The third 18S rDNA dataset II cluster included 6 genera and exhibited, once again, Pearsonema and Aonchotheca poor discrimination. The cox1 gene data consist of 4 Moravec's genera, and in spite of grouping some species-specific clusters, did not show genera-specific definition. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the numerous archaeological findings, both in the New and the Old Worlds, the identification of capillariid species based on the morphology and morphometry of eggs remains imprecise, often resulting in a generic diagnosis of a group or morphotype of capillariid. Capillariid is one of the most diverse group of helminths recovered in archaeological sites. The phylogenetic trees produced in this study showed limited genetic information available, unresolved genera and incongruence with the classical taxonomy. The elucidation of the paleodistribution of capillariids can give insights of the ancient host-parasite associations but also in modern sceneries.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Paleontologia , Parasitos/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Parasitos/genética
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 8304129, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406142

RESUMO

Despite interest in the origins of syphilis, paleopathological analysis has not provided answers, and paleogenetic diagnosis remains a challenge. Even venereal syphilis has low infectivity which means there are few circulating bacteria for most of the individual's life. Human remains recovered from the Nossa Senhora do Carmo Church (17th to 19th centuries) and the Praça XV Cemetery (18th to 19th centuries), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were subjected to Treponema paleogenetic analysis. Historical data point to endemic treponemal infections in the city, including venereal syphilis. Based on the physiopathology of Treponema pallidum infection, 25 samples, mostly from skull remains of young adults, with no visible paleopathological evidence of treponematoses, were analyzed. PCR with three molecular targets, tpp47, polA, and tpp15, were applied. Ancient DNA tpp15 sequences were recovered from two young adults from each archaeological site and revealed the polymorphism that characterizes T. p. subsp. pallidum in a female up to 18 years old, suggesting a probable case of syphilis infection. The results indicated that the epidemiological context and the physiopathology of the disease should be considered in syphilis paleogenetic detection. The findings of Treponema sp. aDNA are consistent with historical documents that describe venereal syphilis and yaws as endemic diseases in Rio de Janeiro. Data on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease and its pathophysiology offer new perspectives in paleopathology.


Assuntos
Paleopatologia , Sífilis/genética , Sífilis/história , Infecções por Treponema/genética , Infecções por Treponema/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Brasil , Feminino , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Sífilis/patologia , Treponema/genética , Infecções por Treponema/patologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0202394, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183732

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) has been described in Native American populations prior to the arrival of European explorers, and in Brazilian populations dating from the Colonial Period. There are no studies demonstrating TB infection in native Brazilians, and the history and epidemiological scenario of TB in Brazil is still unknown. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of TB infection among the native Tenetehara-Guajajara population from Maranhão State, Brazil, 210 ± 40 years ago. A Tenetehara-Guajajara skeleton collection was submitted to paleopathological analysis, and rib bone samples (n = 17) were used for paleogenetic analysis based on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) targets. Porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia were found in 10 and 13 individuals, respectively. Maternal ancestry analysis revealed Native American mtDNA haplogroups A and C1 in three individuals. Three samples showed osteological evidence suggestive of TB. katG and mtp40 sequences were detected in three individuals, indicating probable TB infection by two MTC lineages. Tuberculosis infection in the Tenetehara-Guajajara population since the 18th century points to a panorama of the disease resulting, most probably, from European contact. However, the important contribution of African slaves in the population of Maranhão State, could be also considered as a source of the disease. This study provides new data on TB during the Brazilian Colonial Period. This is the first report integrating paleopathological and paleogenetic data for the study of TB in Brazil.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/microbiologia , Fósseis/microbiologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Brasil , Catalase/genética , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Fosfolipases Tipo C/genética
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 243, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Libyostrongylus douglassii, Libyostrongylus dentatus and Libyostrongylus magnus are nematodes that infect ostriches. The first species has been identified in ostriches from Africa, Europe, Americas and Oceania. Although the natural range of ostriches is Africa, L. dentatus was first described in birds from the USA and later identified in Brazil, where co-infections with L. douglassii have been commonly reported. Libyostrongylus magnus is known from the original description only. There are a few reports on infections with L. douglassii in ostriches from Africa and all farmed birds examined are from the southern region of the continent. The aim of this report was to verify Libyostrongylus spp. infections in wild ostriches from Ethiopia. Fecal samples from ostriches, Struthio molybdophanes, were collected and submitted to coproculture. Infective larvae were identified to the species level based on general morphology and morphometry. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the first and second internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA was performed. RESULTS: Infective larvae from Ethiopian ostriches had the morphological characteristics of L. dentatus. Confidence interval estimate for sheath tail length from Ethiopian Libyostrongylus sp. isolates overlapped one for Brazilian L. dentatus. Neighbor-joining and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees based on sequences of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions revealed that the Ethiopian samples belong to the L. dentatus species clade. Monospecific infections with L. dentatus were confirmed in Ethiopian wild ostriches, opposed to the co-infections typically found in the Americas. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first record of L. dentatus from African ostriches, the region from which this parasite originated.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Struthioniformes/parasitologia , Trichostrongyloidea/genética , Trichostrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Américas/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Larva , Filogenia , Trichostrongyloidea/classificação , Tricostrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Tricostrongiloidíase/parasitologia
8.
Acta Trop ; 178: 290-296, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191518

RESUMO

Paleoparasitological studies have demonstrated that changes in environment or culture are reflected in the patterns of parasitic infection diseases in populations worldwide. The advent of agriculture and animal domestication, with its accompanying reduction in human mobility and expanding population involves changes in or emergence of, parasites, the so-called first epidemiological transition. Cultural processes related to territory occupation contribute to both loss and acquisition of parasites. The archaeological site Lluta 57 in the Lluta Valley, Chile, provides a chronology of the transition from the pre-Inca or Late Intermediate Period (LIP), through the Late or Inca Period (LP), to the Hispanic Contact Period (HCP), providing the possibility of evaluating this epidemiological transition. The aim of this study was to conduct a paleoparasitological investigation of to gain insight into the dynamics of parasitism in Lluta people throughout the Inca expansion. Fourteen human coprolites from the three periods were rehydrated, submitted to spontaneous sedimentation, and examined by light microscopy for the presence of intestinal parasite eggs, pollen grains, and micro-remains. Eggs of four parasites: Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus sp., Trichuris sp., and Eimeria macusaniensis were recovered. Frequency, diversity, and number of parasite eggs per sample increased over the studied time period. Trichostrongylus sp. and E. macusaniensis were recorded in the region for the first time. Enterobius vermicularis eggs, absent in the LIP, were present as a hyper-infection in LP. The presence of E. macusaniensis is likely related to exploitation of llamas, which were used for food and transport and as sacrificial offerings. The paleobotanical analysis revealed ten families of pollen grains, as well as phytoliths and floral remains. In contrast to parasitological results, a diachronic pattern was not detected. Evolution of the settlements, with the advent of larger, more densely populated, villages, could have influenced the emergence and intensification of transmission of parasites in the region. The study showed that the Inca expansion influenced host-parasite-environment relationships in the Lluta Valley.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Demografia , Fósseis , Helmintíase/história , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/história
9.
J Parasitol ; 103(4): 359-365, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398107

RESUMO

Raillietina celebensis is a cestode that parasitizes the small intestine of rats and humans. Here, we detail the morphology and morphometry of R. celebensis based on specimens collected from Rattus norvegicus in the municipality of São Gonçalo, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by light and confocal scanning laser microscopies and also report the results of molecular phylogenetic analyses to determine its relationships within the family Davaineidae. Analysis of the number and size of testes, number and shape of rostellar hooks, cirrus sac length, capsules and eggs per capsule, and morphology of the mature proglottid allowed concluding that the present specimens constitute a new record of R. celebensis in South America. Our genetic and phylogenetic analyses, based on the partial small subunit 18S rRNA gene, revealed R. celebensis to be in the family Davaineidae within the genus Raillietina, in agreement with the morphological taxonomy. Phylogenetic trees obtained by neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods demonstrated R. celebensis as a unique taxonomic unit, and also demonstrated some taxonomic inconsistences. The incorporation of Brazilian R. celebensis sequences derived from mammals in the phylogeny of davaineids is consistent with the assertion that neither Raillietina nor Fuhrmannetta can be supported as distinct genera.


Assuntos
Cestoides/classificação , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Ribossômico/química , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Microscopia Confocal/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , População Urbana
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 235: 113-24, 2016 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491056

RESUMO

Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile.


Assuntos
Anisakis/anatomia & histologia , Anisakis/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Linguado/parasitologia , Animais , Anisakis/genética , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia
11.
J Parasitol ; 102(2): 222-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26641720

RESUMO

The Guanches, ancient inhabitants of the Canary Islands, Spain, practiced mummification of their dead. A paleoparasitological and paleogenetic analysis was conducted on mummified bodies (n = 6) (AD 1200, Cal BP 750) belonging to the Guanche culture from Gran Canaria Island. Coprolite and sediment samples (n = 19) were removed from below the abdominal region or sacral foramina. The samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution for 72 hr at 4 C, and the paleoparasitological investigation was conducted by spontaneous sedimentation method and microscopic examination. The results revealed the presence of well-preserved eggs of Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura , Enterobius vermicularis , and hookworms. Ancient DNA was extracted from sediment samples to elucidate the ancestry of the mummies and for molecular detection of Ascaris sp. infection. Results of paleogenetic analysis demonstrated Ascaris sp. infection using 2 molecular targets, cytb and nad1. The mtDNA haplotypes U6b, U6b1, and HV were identified, which confirmed records of Guanche ancestry. The excellent preservation of Guanche mummies facilitated the paleoparasitological and paleogenetic study, the results of which contribute to our knowledge of Guanche culture and their health status.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/história , Múmias/parasitologia , Paleopatologia , Helmintíase/genética , História Medieval , Humanos , Múmias/história , Espanha
12.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 48(3): 321-5, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26108011

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth that produces an infection that can persist for decades. The relationships between certain clinical conditions and strongyloidiasis remains controversial. This study aims to identify the clinical conditions associated with intestinal strongyloidiasis at a reference center for infectious diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: The clinical conditions that were assessed included HIV/AIDS, HTLV infection, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obstructive respiratory diseases, viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, cancer, chronic renal disease, nutritional/metabolic disorders, psychiatric conditions, rheumatic diseases and dermatologic diseases. We compared 167 S. stercoralis-positive and 133 S. stercoralis-negative patients. RESULTS: After controlling for sex (male/female OR = 2.29; 95% (CI): (1.42 - 3.70), rheumatic diseases remained significantly associated with intestinal strongyloidiasis (OR: 4.96; 95% CI: 1.34-18.37) in a multiple logistic regression model. With respect to leukocyte counts, patients with strongyloidiasis presented with significantly higher relative eosinophil (10.32% ± 7.2 vs. 4.23% ± 2.92) and monocyte (8.49% ± 7.25 vs. 5.39% ± 4.31) counts and lower segmented neutrophil (52.85% ± 15.31 vs. 61.32% ± 11.4) and lymphocyte counts (28.11% ± 9.72 vs. 30.90% ± 9.51) than S. stercoralis-negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Strongyloidiasis should be routinely investigated in hospitalized patients with complex conditions facilitate the treatment of patients who will undergo immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnoses should be determined through the use of appropriate parasitological methods, such as the Baermann-Moraes technique.


Assuntos
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/imunologia , Masculino , Estrongiloidíase/imunologia
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(3): 321-325, May-Jun/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-749875

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth that produces an infection that can persist for decades. The relationships between certain clinical conditions and strongyloidiasis remains controversial. This study aims to identify the clinical conditions associated with intestinal strongyloidiasis at a reference center for infectious diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: The clinical conditions that were assessed included HIV/AIDS, HTLV infection, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obstructive respiratory diseases, viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, cancer, chronic renal disease, nutritional/metabolic disorders, psychiatric conditions, rheumatic diseases and dermatologic diseases. We compared 167 S. stercoralis-positive and 133 S. stercoralis-negative patients. RESULTS: After controlling for sex (male/female OR = 2.29; 95% (CI): (1.42 - 3.70), rheumatic diseases remained significantly associated with intestinal strongyloidiasis (OR: 4.96; 95% CI: 1.34-18.37) in a multiple logistic regression model. With respect to leukocyte counts, patients with strongyloidiasis presented with significantly higher relative eosinophil (10.32% ± 7.2 vs. 4.23% ± 2.92) and monocyte (8.49% ± 7.25 vs. 5.39% ± 4.31) counts and lower segmented neutrophil (52.85% ± 15.31 vs. 61.32% ± 11.4) and lymphocyte counts (28.11% ± 9.72 vs. 30.90% ± 9.51) than S. stercoralis-negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Strongyloidiasis should be routinely investigated in hospitalized patients with complex conditions facilitate the treatment of patients who will undergo immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnoses should be determined through the use of appropriate parasitological methods, such as the Baermann-Moraes technique. .


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Brasil , Enteropatias Parasitárias/imunologia , Estrongiloidíase/imunologia
14.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e105910, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25162694

RESUMO

Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples.


Assuntos
Ascaris/genética , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Enterobius/genética , Helmintíase/história , Enteropatias Parasitárias/história , Strongyloides stercoralis/genética , Trichuris/genética , Animais , Antropologia/métodos , Ascaris/classificação , Brasil , Cemitérios , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enterobius/classificação , Exumação , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Hibridização Genética , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Parasitologia/métodos , Strongyloides stercoralis/classificação , Trichuris/classificação
15.
Acta Trop ; 125(3): 282-6, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23200641

RESUMO

Paleoparasitological studies of the Brazilian colonial period are scarce. A paleoparasitological analysis was performed on human remains from the archeological site Praça XV Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro, dating from the early 18th to 19th Centuries. The samples were obtained from the Institute of the Brazilian Archaeology collection, and showed evidence of washing and brushing. Sediments were extracted from sacral foramina by scraping. Sediments from skulls were used as negative paleoparasitological controls. Spontaneous sedimentation method was performed prior to microscopic analysis. The results revealed that 8 of 10 individuals were infected with intestinal helminths and/or protozoa. Eggs of the nematodes Trichuris sp. and Ascaris sp. as well as a single taeniid egg were found. Protozoa cysts suggestive of Entamoeba sp. were also observed. Trichuris sp. was the most frequent and abundant parasite, found in 70% of individuals (26 eggs). The study showed the importance of analysis of sediment from human remains preserved in museum or scientific collections, even those subjected to a curating procedure. The levels of infection revealed here should be considered underestimations. This is the first paleoparasitological study from Rio de Janeiro city for the Brazilian colonial period and the first report of human Taenia sp. in the New World.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/história
16.
Int J Paleopathol ; 3(3): 214-217, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29539459

RESUMO

Most paleoparasitological studies based on archeological sites in the New World are from pre-Columbian times. However, understanding of the introduction and spread of parasites with the arrival of European settlers and African slaves in America remains a topic for investigation. This study evaluated the presence of intestinal parasites in human remains from an archeological site of the colonial period, and compared the sensitivity of three parasitological techniques for paleoparasitological study. Samples were collected from the archeological site Nossa Senhora do Carmo Church, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Paleoparasitological examination revealed intestinal helminths in 2/17 (11.8%) individuals. Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris sp. eggs were found. The spontaneous sedimentation technique showed a greater numerical recovery of parasites, while the flotation techniques were superior in retrieving more parasite types. The study demonstrated that combining the three techniques improves the recovery of parasites in terms of number and diversity. Similar diversity of parasites to that of a previous historical archeological site suggests that the distribution of intestinal parasites was widespread in Rio de Janeiro, regardless of social status.

17.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(2): 186-93, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22415256

RESUMO

Taking into account the difficulties of taxonomic identification of larval anisakid nematodes based on morphological characters, genetic analyses were performed, together with those usually applied, in order to identify anisakid larvae found in the flounder Paralichthys isosceles from the littoral of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis of 1,820 larvae revealed a new species, similar to Hysterothylacium MD, Hysterothylacium 2, Hysterothylacium KB and Hysterothylacium sp regarding the absence of the larval tooth, an excretory pore situated below the nerve ring level, and slender lateral alae. Moreover, the new species differs from Hysterothylacium fortalezae and Hysterothylacium reliquens with regard to the number and size of spines present on the tail end and from Hysterothylacium patagonicus by the absence of interlabia. The maximum parsimony and neighbour joining tree topologies based on the 18S ribosomal DNA gene, complete internal transcribed spacer region and cytochrome oxidase 2 (COII) gene demonstrated that the Brazilian larvae belong to Raphidascarididae and represent a unique genetic entity, confirmed as a new Hysterothylacium species. Furthermore, the new species presents COII genetic signatures and shares polymorphisms with Raphidascarididae members. This is the first description of a new anisakid species from Brazil through the integration of morphological and molecular taxonomy data.


Assuntos
Anisakis/anatomia & histologia , Anisakis/genética , Linguado/parasitologia , Animais , Anisakis/classificação , Anisakis/ultraestrutura , Brasil , Tipagem Molecular/métodos
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(2): 186-193, Mar. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-617063

RESUMO

Taking into account the difficulties of taxonomic identification of larval anisakid nematodes based on morphological characters, genetic analyses were performed, together with those usually applied, in order to identify anisakid larvae found in the flounder Paralichthys isosceles from the littoral of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis of 1,820 larvae revealed a new species, similar to Hysterothylacium MD, Hysterothylacium 2, Hysterothylacium KB and Hysterothylacium sp regarding the absence of the larval tooth, an excretory pore situated below the nerve ring level, and slender lateral alae. Moreover, the new species differs from Hysterothylacium fortalezae and Hysterothylacium reliquens with regard to the number and size of spines present on the tail end and from Hysterothylacium patagonicus by the absence of interlabia. The maximum parsimony and neighbour joining tree topologies based on the 18S ribosomal DNA gene, complete internal transcribed spacer region and cytochrome oxidase 2 (COII) gene demonstrated that the Brazilian larvae belong to Raphidascarididae and represent a unique genetic entity, confirmed as a new Hysterothylacium species. Furthermore, the new species presents COII genetic signatures and shares polymorphisms with Raphidascarididae members. This is the first description of a new anisakid species from Brazil through the integration of morphological and molecular taxonomy data.


Assuntos
Animais , Anisakis/anatomia & histologia , Anisakis/genética , Linguado/parasitologia , Anisakis/classificação , Anisakis/ultraestrutura , Brasil , Tipagem Molecular/métodos
19.
Infect Genet Evol ; 12(4): 642-8, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21896337

RESUMO

Paleogenetic analysis for tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on bone and sediment samples dating from the 17th to 19th centuries from the archeological site of Nossa Senhora do Carmo Church in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Forty samples were analyzed, corresponding to 32 individuals from 28 burials, 22 of primary type and 6 of secondary type. The samples were collected following strict paleogenetic investigation guidelines and submitted to ancient DNA (aDNA) extraction. In order to detect TB infection, aDNA hybridizations with the molecular targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) IS6110 and IS1081 were applied. Additionally, the ancestry of individuals was assessed by human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) sequence polymorphisms. The results of aDNA hybridizations demonstrated varying levels of MTC intensity in 17/32 individuals (53.1%), using the IS6110 target. The IS1081 MTC target showed lower sensitivity, confirming TB positivity in 10/32 (31.2%) individuals. The mtDNA analysis allowed the recovery of HVS-I sequences in 23/32 individuals (71.8%). The majority of these individuals (21/23, 91.3%) were of European ancestry, especially in primary burials. Haplogroups U, J, V, T, K, N, H and R, were identified with haplogroup U being the most frequent at 6/23 (26.1%). African and Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were observed in two individuals in secondary burials. In spite of the ecclesiastic and aristocratic bias of the population of the study, human ancestry analysis revealed the prominent contribution of Europeans in the introduction or spread of TB in the New World.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/história , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/história , DNA Mitocondrial/história , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 5(4): e1038, 2011 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21532745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It has been estimated that 10-20 million people are infected worldwide, but no successful treatment is available. Recently, the epidemiology of this virus was addressed in blood donors from Maputo, showing rates from 0.9 to 1.2%. However, the origin and impact of HTLV endemic in this population is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the HTLV-1 molecular epidemiology in Mozambique and to investigate their relationship with HTLV-1 lineages circulating worldwide. METHODS: Blood donors and HIV patients were screened for HTLV antibodies by using enzyme immunoassay, followed by Western Blot. PCR and sequencing of HTLV-1 LTR region were applied and genetic HTLV-1 subtypes were assigned by the neighbor-joining method. The mean genetic distance of Mozambican HTLV-1 lineages among the genetic clusters were determined. Human mitochondrial (mt) DNA analysis was performed and individuals classified in mtDNA haplogroups. RESULTS: LTR HTLV-1 analysis demonstrated that all isolates belong to the Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype. Mozambican HTLV-1 sequences had a high inter-strain genetic distance, reflecting in three major clusters. One cluster is associated with the South Africa sequences, one is related with Middle East and India strains and the third is a specific Mozambican cluster. Interestingly, 83.3% of HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection was observed in the Mozambican cluster. The human mtDNA haplotypes revealed that all belong to the African macrohaplogroup L with frequencies representatives of the country. CONCLUSIONS: The Mozambican HTLV-1 genetic diversity detected in this study reveals that although the strains belong to the most prevalent and worldwide distributed Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype, there is a high HTLV diversity that could be correlated with at least 3 different HTLV-1 introductions in the country. The significant rate of HTLV-1a/HIV-1C co-infection, particularly in the Mozambican cluster, has important implications for the controls programs of both viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Infecções por HTLV-I/virologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/classificação , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Doadores de Sangue , Western Blotting , Análise por Conglomerados , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Epidemiologia Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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