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1.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 21(11): 1203-1206, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2021 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary Cancers Symposium represents an unmissable event for oncologists who deal with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). AIM AND RESULTS: This article describes the main acquisitions of RCC management, including the advent of a new combo (pembrolizumab+lenvatinib) as first-line therapy, the confirmation of an OS advantage of ICI plus VEGFR-TKI combinations over sunitinib at longer follow-up, the persistent benefit from these combinations in particular subgroups (clear cell mRCC tumors with sarcomatoid differentiation), and possible new approaches in subsequent lines of therapy (including the HIF-2α inhibitor belzutifan). CONCLUSIONS: This 2021 ASCO Genitourinary Cancer Symposium laid the foundations for further knowledge development necessary for an increasingly personalized management of mRCC.

2.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 21(11): 1207-1210, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is a heterogeneous disease that requires a personalized treatment approach for proper patient management. AIM: We analyzed a selected overview of the most important news recently presented at the 2021 ASCO genitourinary cancer symposium. RESULTS: In particular, we focused on the identification of predictive biomarkers as potential targets for therapy. Molecular signatures of increased T cell activity, proliferation, and hormone dependence were associated with greater probability of response to apalutamide in non-metastatic CRPC. Pathogenic variants of DDR genes mutations detected with circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis, which had a high concordance with tumor tissue analysis, might represent a useful way for selecting mutated patients for poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors therapy. Loss of PTEN could be a target for ipatasertib (a pan-AKT inhibitor) associated with abiraterone in mCRPC patients. CONCLUSIONS: The 2021 ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium significantly contributed to the complex research goal of intimately understanding PC carcinogenesis with the ultimate aim of improving patient outcomes.

3.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 21(9): 1029-1054, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445927

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Altered receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling contributes to tumorigenesis and suppression of immune-mediated destruction of cancer cells. Cabozantinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits several RTKs involved in tumorigenesis, and is approved for the treatment of patients with progressive metastatic medullary thyroid cancer, advanced renal cell carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma that has been previously treated with sorafenib. AREAS COVERED: We present an up-to-date evaluation of preclinical evidence for RTK inhibition with cabozantinib, specifically VEGFR, MET, KIT, RET, AXL, FLT3, and associated antitumor effects. Preclinical investigations of cabozantinib in combination with other anticancer drugs are also reviewed. EXPERT OPINION: Preclinical evidence shows that cabozantinib has antitumor activity against various cancer cells and exhibits synergy with other anticancer agents, including immune checkpoint inhibitors and hormone receptor or metabolic pathway inhibitors. Further optimization of cabozantinib treatment requires the identification of biomarkers of response and resistance, and exploration of complementary drug targets. Investigation of mechanisms of adaptive resistance, such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (cancer intrinsic) and immunomodulation by the tumor microenvironment (cancer extrinsic), as well as identification of novel drug targets based on characterization of cancer stem cell metabolomic phenotypes, appear to be promising approaches.

4.
Target Oncol ; 16(5): 625-632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a highly aggressive form of kidney cancer. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the outcomes of patients treated with cabozantinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 16 worldwide centers. Overall survival and progression-free survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: We collected data from 66 patients with metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma receiving cabozantinib as second-line (51%) or third-line (49%) therapy. The median progression-free survival from the start of cabozantinib was 7.59 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.75-17.49) and was longer in male patients (8.81 vs 5.95 months, p = 0.042) and in patients without bone metastases (7.59 vs 5.11 months, p = 0.010); the median overall survival was 9.11 months (95% CI 7.13-23.80). At the multivariate analysis, female sex (hazard ratio = 1.81; 95% CI 1.02-3.37, p = 0.046), bone metastases (hazard ratio = 2.62; 95% CI 1.34-5.10, p = 0.005), and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria (hazard ratio = 3.04; 95% CI 1.54-5.99, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of worse overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that cabozantinib is active in pretreated patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Biomarkers are needed in this field to select patients for multi-kinase inhibitors or other options.

5.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 56-63, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical data suggest that docetaxel and enzalutamide interfere with androgen receptor translocation and signalling. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of their concurrent administration in the first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase II trial, previously untreated mCRPC patients were randomised 1:1 to receive eight 21-d courses of docetaxel 75 mg/m2, oral prednisone 5 mg twice daily and oral enzalutamide 160 mg/d (arm DE), or the same treatment without enzalutamide (arm D). The primary end-point was the percentage of patients without investigator-assessed disease progression 6 months after the first docetaxel administration. RESULTS: The 246 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive docetaxel, prednisone and enzalutamide (n = 120) or docetaxel and prednisone (n = 126). The 6-month progression rate was 12.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-20.6) in arm DE and 27.8% (95% CI 22.8-39.4) in arm D (chi-squared test 10.01; P = 0.002). The most frequent grade III-IV adverse events were fatigue (12.5% in arm DE versus 5.6% in arm D), febrile neutropenia (9.3% versus 4.0%) and neutropenia (7.6% versus 5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of enzalutamide and docetaxel appears to be more clinically beneficial than docetaxel alone in previously untreated mCRPC patients, although serious adverse events were more frequent. Our findings suggest that first-line treatment with this combination could lead to an additional clinical benefit when prompt and prolonged disease control is simultaneously required. Clearly, these results should be considered cautiously because of the study's phase II design and the absence of an overall survival benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2014-000175-43 - NCT02453009.

6.
Ther Adv Urol ; 13: 17562872211022870, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211586

RESUMO

Currently, conventional treatments for metastatic RCC (mRCC) include immune-based combination regimens and/or targeted therapies, the latter mainly acting on angiogenesis, a key element of the process of tumor growth and spread. Although these agents proved able to improve patients' outcomes, drug resistance and disease progression are still experienced by a substantial number of VEGFR-TKIs-treated mRCC patients. Following the inhibition of the VEGF/VEGFRs axis, two strategies have emerged: either specifically targeting resistance pathways, at the same time continuing to inhibit angiogenesis, or using a completely different approach aimed at re-activating the immune system through the use of inhibitors of specific negative immune checkpoints. These two approaches, practically represented by the use of either cabozantinib or nivolumab, seem to remain a rational therapeutic approach also when first-line immune-based combinations are used. The objective of this study is to design a preferential therapeutic pathway for the second-line treatment of mRCC. The procedure applied in this project was a group discussion, based on the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) method in a meeting session, aimed at defining the therapeutic choice for the second-line treatment of mRCC. The NGT process defined the most relevant parameters that, according to the interviewed panelists, clinicians should consider for the selection of the second-line therapy in the context of advanced renal cell carcinoma of mRCC. The algorithm developed for the treatment selection as a result of this process should thus be considered by clinicians as reference for therapy selection. Plain language summary: The result of this paper was the definition of an algorithm intended to suggest a preferential therapeutic pathway considering both the outputs of the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) process and the actual clinical practice and the experience of selected panelists. During the NGT process and the discussion phase, panelists defined the most important parameters to be included in the algorithm that are important for the treatment definition. Cabozantinib and nivolumab are identified as the most reasonable therapeutic options for patients progressing after first-line treatment and are the medication options included in the algorithm for therapy selection.

7.
Eur Urol ; 80(4): 497-506, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the CARD study (NCT02485691), cabazitaxel significantly improved median radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS) versus abiraterone/enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who had previously received docetaxel and progressed ≤12 mo on the alternative agent (abiraterone/enzalutamide). OBJECTIVE: To assess cabazitaxel versus abiraterone/enzalutamide in older (≥70 yr) and younger (<70 yr) patients in CARD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients with mCRPC were randomized 1:1 to cabazitaxel (25 mg/m2 plus prednisone and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) versus abiraterone (1000 mg plus prednisone) or enzalutamide (160 mg). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Analyses of rPFS (primary endpoint) and safety by age were prespecified; others were post hoc. Treatment groups were compared using stratified log-rank or Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of the 255 patients randomized, 135 were aged ≥70 yr (median 76 yr). Cabazitaxel, compared with abiraterone/enzalutamide, significantly improved median rPFS in older (8.2 vs 4.5 mo; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.89; p = 0.012) and younger (7.4 vs 3.2 mo; HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.30-0.74; p < 0.001) patients. The median OS of cabazitaxel versus abiraterone/enzalutamide was 13.9 versus 9.4 mo in older patients (HR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.41-1.06; p = 0.084), and it was 13.6 versus 11.8 mo in younger patients (HR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.41-1.08; p = 0.093). Progression-free survival, prostate-specific antigen, and tumor and pain responses favored cabazitaxel, regardless of age. Grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 58% versus 49% of older patients receiving cabazitaxel versus abiraterone/enzalutamide and 48% versus 42% of younger patients. In older patients, cardiac adverse events were more frequent with abiraterone/enzalutamide; asthenia and diarrhea were more frequent with cabazitaxel. CONCLUSIONS: Cabazitaxel improved efficacy outcomes versus abiraterone/enzalutamide in patients with mCRPC after prior docetaxel and abiraterone/enzalutamide, regardless of age. TEAEs were more frequent among older patients. The cabazitaxel safety profile was manageable across age groups. PATIENT SUMMARY: Clinical trial data showed that cabazitaxel improved survival versus abiraterone/enzalutamide with manageable side effects in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had previously received docetaxel and the alternative agent (abiraterone/enzalutamide), irrespective of age.

8.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046089

RESUMO

Background: Despite the survival advantage, not all metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients achieve a long-term benefit from immunotherapy. Moreover, the identification of prognostic biomarkers is still an unmet clinical need. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study investigated the prognostic role of peripheral-blood inflammatory indices and clinical factors to develop a novel prognostic score in mRCC patients receiving at least second-line nivolumab. The complete blood count before the first cycle of therapy was assessed by calculating neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI). Clinical factors included pre-treatment International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score, line of therapy, and metastatic sites. Results: From October 2015 to November 2019, 571 mRCC patients received nivolumab as second- and further-line treatment in 69% and 31% of cases. In univariable and multivariable analyses all inflammatory indices, IMDC score, and bone metastases significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The multivariable model with NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had the highest c-index (0.697) and was chosen for the developing of the score (Schneeweiss scoring system). After internal validation (bootstrap re-sampling), the final index (Meet-URO score) composed by NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had a c-index of 0.691. It identified five categories with distinctive OSs: group 1 (median OS - mOS = not reached), group 2 (mOS = 43.9 months), group 3 (mOS = 22.4 months), group 4 (mOS = 10.3 months), and group 5 (mOS = 3.2 months). Moreover, the Meet-URO score allowed for a fine risk-stratification across all three IMDC groups. Conclusion: The Meet-URO score allowed for the accurate stratification of pretreated mRCC patients receiving nivolumab and is easily applicable for clinical practice at no additional cost. Future steps include its external validation, the assessment of its predictivity, and its application to first-line combinations.

9.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801914

RESUMO

Understanding the distribution of prostate cancer (PC) at various clinical stages of disease is of utmost importance to quantify the cancer care needs of patients and to adequately plan health services. The aim of this analysis is thus to provide a model-based estimation of the number of prevalent PC patients at different clinical stages in the Italian setting. A simulation model of patient transitions was constructed on a yearly basis using data obtained through a literature review on the incidence, prevalence, progression and mortality of PC, with specific focus on disease stage. A total of 462,570 prevalent PC patients were estimated at 1 January 2019. According to the model, 94.8% of them had non-metastatic PC and 5.2% had metastatic disease. Among the non-metastatic patients, most had T1/T2 PC (85.6%), followed by T3/T4 (10.9%) and T0/Tx PC (3.6%). About 20% of the T3/T4 patients had biochemically recurrent PC. Among the metastatic PC patients, 66.1% had castration-resistant PC and 33.9% had hormone-sensitive PC. This study provided original information on the distribution of PC according to different clinical stages that may be useful to define strategies, understand the PC disease pathway, estimate treatment-related needs and, possibly, plan targeted interventions for public health management of prostate cancer in Italy.

10.
Minerva Urol Nephrol ; 73(3): 342-348, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to analyze adverse events (AEs) associated with radium-223 using real life data from Eudra-Vigilance (EV) database. METHODS: EV database is the system for managing and analyzing information on suspected adverse reactions to medicines which have been authorized or being studied in clinical trials in the European economic area (EEA). We recorded number of AEs for radium-223 per category and severity from 2013 to May 2019. We recorded AEs per age group (<65 years old; between 65 and 85 years; >85 years old) pooled relative risk (PRR) were used to compare groups. The number of individual cases identified in EV database was 4339. RESULTS: According to the registry study the most frequent AEs in patients treated with radium-223 were hematological, general and gastrointestinal disorders and they were confirmed as the most frequent AEs in the EV database. In the EV database over 90% of the reported AEs were defined as serious and 8% were fatal. Older patients (>85 years) treated with radium-223 were at increased risk of cardiac, infectious, and metabolism disorders when compared to younger patients (<65). However, we have no information on the number of patients under treatment in the EV database. CONCLUSIONS: EV database highlights several AEs which are not reported in registry studies as well as different AEs profiles according to age. Clinicians should consider these data when treating patients with radium-223.


Assuntos
Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Rádio (Elemento)/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacovigilância , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
11.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(2): 102-105, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527754

RESUMO

AIMS: Bladder EpiCheck is one of several urinary tests studied to identify bladder tumours and analyses 15 methylation biomarkers determining bladder cancer presence on the basis of methylation profile. METHODS: 374 patients diagnosed with high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer were treated and followed for 1 year with voided urine cytology and white-light cystoscopy and biopsies according to European Association of Urology Guidelines. 268 cases were diagnosed with high-grade papillary carcinoma, while 106 cases were carcinoma in situ. Bladder EpiCheck test was performed together with cytology in all cases. RESULTS: Comparing cytological categories of negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (NHGUC) and atypical urothelial cells (AUCs), we found that an EpiScore <60 correlates with NHGUC (p=0.0003, Fisher's exact test), while comparing AUC and suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (SHGUC) or SHGUC and high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC) categories, an EpiScore ≥60 correlates with SHGUC and HGUC, respectively (p=0.0031 and p=0.0027, Fisher's exact test). In each TPS category, we found that sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predicitve Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of the Bladder EpiCheck test in HGUC category were higher than those observed in SHGUC group (sensitivity=98%, specificity=100%, NPV=85.7%, PPV=100% vs sensitivity=86.6%, specificity=52.3%, NPV=84.6%, PPV=56.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Analysing methylation study results, we demonstrated that different TPS cytological categories also carry a distinct molecular signature. Moreover, our results confirm that cytological categories SHGUC and HGUC are different entities also from a molecular point of view and should continue to represent distinct groups in TPS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/urina , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/diagnóstico , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/urina , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina
12.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 4(2): 274-281, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From 10% to 26% of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) experience rapidly progressive disease (PD) on treatment with sunitinib. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the benefit of subsequent treatment with another tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) or a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor in such primary refractory patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 150 mRCC patients with rapidly PD on first-line sunitinib (within two cycles, n=93, or four cycles, n=57) were identified: median age 59yr; nephrectomy 86%; histological subtypes: clear cell (77.8%), papillary (14%), and sarcomatoid features (18%); according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and French classifications: good risk (11% and 7%, respectively), intermediate (68% and 63%, respectively), and poor (21% and 29%, respectively). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were retrospectively collected by a questionnaire from 19 European oncology centers between March 2005 and March 2011. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated (Kaplan-Meier method). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Median OS from the start of first-line treatment was 7.4mo. Second-line treatment was administered to 86 (57%) patients (44 mTOR inhibitors: 23 everolimus and 21 temsirolimus; 39 TKIs alone or in combination; three chemotherapy). Second-line PFS was not significantly different between TKIs and mTOR inhibitors (2.0 vs 0.9mo; p=0.536). Median OS from the start of second-line treatment was 5.0mo for mTOR inhibitors and 6.6mo for TKIs (p=0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with further TKIs or mTOR inhibitors for mRCC patients primarily refractory to first-line sunitinib in the observed time period achieved very minimal benefit, suggesting avoiding TKI rechallenge and possibly preferring alternative strategies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, after PD to a treatment line including a TKI in this setting. PATIENT SUMMARY: The present work collected data about 150 patients affected by metastatic renal cell carcinoma, who received one of the current standard of care as first-line treatment, namely, the antiangiogenic drug sunitinib, and experienced rapid worsening of the disease. We investigated and described the subsequent outcome of such patients treated with two different types of drug, administered as second-line therapy, to better understand the best strategy to adopt for patients who got no benefit from sunitinib and to describe the current therapeutic approach in such cases.

13.
J Clin Pathol ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144356

RESUMO

AIMS: According to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), around 9% of bladder carcinomas usually show abnormalities of the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene, but a few studies have been investigated them. We profiled MDM2 gene amplification in a series of urothelial carcinomas (UC) considering the molecular subtypes and expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). METHODS: 117 patients with muscle-invasive UC (pT2-3) without (N0) or with (N+) lymph-node metastases were revised. Only cases with availability of in toto specimens and follow-up were studied. Tissue microarray was built. p53, ER, RB1, GATA-3, CK20, CK5/6, CD44 and PD-L1 (clone sp263) immunoexpression was evaluated. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation was assessed by using the HER-2/neu, FGFR-3, CDKN2A and MDM2 probes. True (ratio 12q/CEP12 >2) MDM2 gene amplification was distinguished from polyploidy/gains (ratio <2, absolute copy number of MDM-2 >2). MDM2 and PD-L1 values were correlated to the TCGA molecular phenotypes. Statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: 6/50 (12%) cases (5 N0 and 1 N+) were amplified for MDM2 without matching to molecular phenotypes. Of 50, 14 (37%) cases expressed PD-L1 at 1% cut-off; 3/50 (9%) at >50% cut-off; of these, 2 cases on side of neoplasia among inflammatory cells. Only one out of six (17%) cases amplified for MDM2 showed expression (>50% cut-off) of PD-L1. MDM2 amplification was independent to all documented profiles (k test=0.3) and was prevalent in recurrent UC. CONCLUSION: MDM2 amplification has been seen in both PD-L1 positive and negative muscle-invasive bladder UC independently from the TCGA molecular phenotypes. MDM2 and PD-L1 might be assessed in order to predict a better response to combo/single targeted therapies.

14.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 92(3)2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016051

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer is a condition characterized by a broad spectrum of histological variants and clinical courses. The morphological description of histological variants is becoming increasingly important. The 75% of cases of these cancers are classified as pure urothelial carcinoma, while the remaining 25% is represented by other histological variants. The clear cell carcinoma is part of urothelial group and is a very rare entity. Oncological outcomes of this variant are still uncertain, but seems to be worst than for patiens with pure urothelial carcinoma. Moreover it seems to metastasize more easily to the lymph nodes. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a Caucasian 73 year old woman who, after an episode of gross hematuria, underwent an ultrasound of the urinary system, a cystoscopy and a total body computed tomography (CT) which confirmed the presence of a bladder neoformation. A transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) was performed: the result of the histological examination was "poorly differentiated clear cell carcinoma". Given the rarity of histological characterization, we required a PET CT scan for more accurate staging, at which a suspected right pelvic lymph node was detected. We proposed a radical cystectomy with hysteroannessiectomy and extended lymphadenectomy. During the pre-hospitalization process, the patient developed anuria, with acute renal failure and bilateral hydronephrosis, which required the placement of bilateral nephrostomies; we performed the planned surgical procedure and the histological exam confirmed: high grade urothelial carcinoma with a high percentage (more than 70%) of clear cell carcinoma, with a strong local aggression and lymphnode metastates. We referred the patient to the oncologist who suggested a treatment plan within an immunotherapy based clinical trial and cisplatin. CONCLUSIONS: The morphological description of histological variants in bladder cancer is gaining increasing importance, especially for infiltrating and aggressive forms. The clear cell carcinoma is a very rare entity part of the urothelial group; they would seem more aggressive forms with an early lymph node involvement. This evidence is confirmed by the clinical case described, in which we have seen a large local aggression with an involvement of the lymph nodes of the right side of the pelvis of the pre-sacral ones. In these cases, the multimodal approach is crucial.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
15.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1513-1525, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the CARD study, cabazitaxel significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival versus abiraterone or enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel and the alternative androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. Here, we report the quality-of-life outcomes from the CARD study. METHODS: CARD was a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 4 study involving 62 clinical sites across 13 European countries. Patients (aged ≥18 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤2) with confirmed metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were randomly assigned (1:1) by means of an interactive voice-web response system to receive cabazitaxel (25 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks, 10 mg daily prednisone, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) versus abiraterone (1000 mg orally once daily plus 5 mg prednisone twice daily) or enzalutamide (160 mg orally daily). Stratification factors were ECOG performance status, time to disease progression on the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor, and timing of the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. The primary endpoint was radiographic progression-free survival; here, we present more detailed analyses of pain (assessed using item 3 on the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form [BPI-SF]) and symptomatic skeletal events, alongside preplanned patient-reported outcomes, assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) questionnaire and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions, 5 level scale (EQ-5D-5L). Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. Pain response was analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of BPI-SF item 3, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of either FACT-P or EQ-5D-5L (PRO population). Analyses of skeletal-related events were also done in the intention-to-treat population. The CARD study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02485691, and is no longer enrolling. FINDINGS: Between Nov 17, 2015, and Nov 28, 2018, of 303 patients screened, 255 were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel (n=129) or abiraterone or enzalutamide (n=126). Median follow-up was 9·2 months (IQR 5·6-13·1). Pain response was observed in 51 (46%) of 111 patients with cabazitaxel and 21 (19%) of 109 patients with abiraterone or enzalutamide (p<0·0001). Median time to pain progression was not estimable (NE; 95% CI NE-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·5 months (4·9-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (hazard ratio [HR] 0·55, 95% CI 0·32-0·97; log-rank p=0·035). Median time to symptomatic skeletal events was NE (95% CI 20·0-NE) with cabazitaxel and 16·7 months (10·8-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·59, 95% CI 0·35-1·01; log-rank p=0·050). Median time to FACT-P total score deterioration was 14·8 months (95% CI 6·3-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·9 months (6·3-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·72, 95% CI 0·44-1·20; log-rank p=0·21). There was a significant treatment effect seen in changes from baseline in EQ-5D-5L utility index score in favour of cabazitaxel over abiraterone or enzalutamide (p=0·030) but no difference between treatment groups for change from baseline in EQ-5D-5L visual analogue scale (p=0·060). INTERPRETATION: Since cabazitaxel improved pain response, time to pain progression, time to symptomatic skeletal events, and EQ-5D-5L utility index, clinicians and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer can be reassured that cabazitaxel will not reduce quality of life when compared with treatment with a second androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. FUNDING: Sanofi.


Assuntos
Androstenos/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/genética , Androstenos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 18(6): 477-488, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has brought clinical benefits to patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). Most patients tolerate immunotherapy but serious immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been reported. Some studies indicate a correlation between irAEs and clinical response in other cancer types (eg, lung cancer and melanoma). For patients with mRCC, the impact of irAE on clinical outcome is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 167 patients with mRCC treated with nivolumab as standard of care between March 2017 and January 2018 in 16 Italian centers was performed. irAEs were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.4.0. RESULTS: Any grade and grade 3/4 irAEs occurred in 46% and 8.9% of patients, respectively. The median time to appearance of irAEs was 10 weeks; 38.8% of patients required steroid treatment. The most common irAEs were cutaneous (33.7%) and gastrointestinal (23.3%). The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 20.13 and 7.86 months, respectively. Patients with irAEs showed a greater overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.63) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.29-0.66) benefit as well as better overall response rate (27.3% vs. 13.7%; odds ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.03-5.44) and disease control rate (68.8% vs. 48%; odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.23-4.67) if compared with those without irAEs. No correlation was found between steroid use and clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed that the appearance of irAEs was associated with better outcomes in patients treated with nivolumab. This data may be limited by sample size and the retrospective nature of the study.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4333, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859933

RESUMO

Diarrhoea is one of the most burdensome and common adverse events of chemotherapeutics, and has no standardised therapy to date. Increasing evidence suggests that the gut microbiome can influence the development of chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea. Here we report findings from a randomised clinical trial of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to treat diarrhoea induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04040712). The primary outcome is the resolution of diarrhoea four weeks after the end of treatments. Twenty patients are randomised to receive FMT from healthy donors or placebo FMT (vehicle only). Donor FMT is more effective than placebo FMT in treating TKI-induced diarrhoea, and a successful engraftment is observed in subjects receiving donor faeces. No serious adverse events are observed in both treatment arms. The trial meets pre-specified endpoints. Our findings suggest that the therapeutic manipulation of gut microbiota may become a promising treatment option to manage TKI-dependent diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/complicações , Diarreia/terapia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Tirosina/metabolismo , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Tratamento Farmacológico , Disbiose , Fezes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doadores de Tecidos
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 136: 195-203, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC) represents a rare form of renal cell carcinoma marked by an aggressive biology, poor prognosis and little benefit from anti-angiogenic targeted therapy. More promising results come from the recent therapeutic strategy based on immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE/PubMed, the Cochrane Library and American Society of Medical Oncology (ASCO) Meeting abstracts for phase II or III randomised clinical trials. Data extraction was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. The hazard ratios (HRs) for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with the relative 95% confidence intervals were extracted from studies. Summary HRs were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. RESULTS: Four studies were selected for final analysis, including 467 patients (226 treated in with ICI combinations and 241 received sunitinib in the control arms). ICI-based combinations were associated with an improved PFS and OS compared with sunitinib, with a reduction of more than 40% of progression (HR = 0.56; p < 0.0001) and mortality (HR = 0.56; p = 0.001) risk. Moreover, ICI-based combinations are associated with a objective response rate (ORR) of more than 50% (versus 20% with sunitinib), corresponding to a doubled risk of achieving an ORR compared with controls (relative risk [RR] = 2.15; p < 0.00001). Finally, immunotherapy significantly increased the possibility to obtain complete responses (RR = 8.15, p = 0.0002) with an incidence of 11%. CONCLUSION: Our data support the efficacy of ICI-based combinations for sRCC therapy, redefining the first-line treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Indução de Remissão , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(4): 654-660, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related pain, usually associated with bone metastases, is a frequent and debilitating morbidity in patients with prostate cancer. To date there are only limited data regarding the prognostic role of pain in men with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). The objective of our analysis was to assess if the presence of pain can be considered an independent prognostic factor in mCSPC patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with mCSPC referring to six oncology centers in Italy. Clinical and pathological features were recorded. Patients were considered to have pain if this was reported within the patient's file or in case of a chronic analgesic therapy was found among the concomitant medications. Survivals were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and compared across groups using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard models, stratified according to the baseline characteristics, were used to estimate hazard ratios for overall survival (OS). All the variables were significant if p < 0.05. RESULTS: Data about pain were available for 365 cases and pain was present in 34.8% of patients. Pain was mainly associated with high value of prostate-specific antigen, metastatic bone extension regardless of the site, and lymph node involvement. mCSPC patients with pain had in most of the cases high-volume or Hr disease, and significant shorter OS (27.0 vs. 58.2 months, p < 0.001) and PFS (10.1 vs. 17.4 months, p < 0.001) compared to those without pain. The negative impact of pain on OS remained significant even if adjusted for CHAARTED or LATITUDE classification, and other significant baseline prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis supports the poor prognostic role of cancer-related pain in the setting of mCSPC patients. A prospective validation is required.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/sangue , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Dor do Câncer/diagnóstico , Dor do Câncer/mortalidade , Dor do Câncer/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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