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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849691

RESUMO

AIMS : To evaluate the association of ultra-processed food (UPF) intake and mortality among individuals with history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and analyse some biological pathways possibly relating UPF intake to death. METHODS AND RESULTS : Longitudinal analysis on 1171 men and women (mean age: 67 ± 10 years) with history of CVD, recruited in the Moli-sani Study (2005-10, Italy) and followed for 10.6 years (median). Food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. UPF was defined using the NOVA classification according to degree of processing and categorized as quartiles of the ratio (%) between UPF (g/day) and total food consumed (g/day). The mediating effects of 18 inflammatory, metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal biomarkers were evaluated using a logistic regression model within a counterfactual framework. In multivariable-adjusted Cox analyses, higher intake of UPF (Q4, ≥11.3% of total food), as opposed to the lowest (Q1, UPF <4.7%), was associated with higher hazards of all-cause (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.91) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.07-2.55). A linear dose-response relationship of 1% increment in UPF intake with all-cause and CVD mortality was also observed. Altered levels of cystatin C explained 18.3% and 16.6% of the relation between UPF (1% increment in the diet) with all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. CONCLUSION : A diet rich in UPF is associated with increased hazards of all-cause and CVD mortality among individuals with prior cardiovascular events, possibly through an altered renal function. Elevated UPF intake represents a major public health concern in secondary CVD prevention.

2.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021440, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries adopted restrictive measures to mitigate infection spread, which might have influenced people's lifestyle and dietary habits. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the impact of national lockdowns on adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD). METHODS: Studies were identified searching Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Studies published until 4th May 2021 were included. We only considered studies reporting original data from quantitative analysis and assessing changes in adherence to the MD, using validated dietary scores, or in consumption of MD food items. Data extraction, pooling, and quality appraisal of included studies were conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Forty-two studies were retrieved. After screening, 12 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review, of which 4 (33%) were longitudinal studies. Six (85.7%) of the seven studies that measured changes in MD adherence before-during lockdown reported an increase (rate of change of high-adherence to MD ranged between +3.3% and +21.9%). Evidence indicates that consumption of MD food items increased during lockdown but is heterogeneous in study design, quality, and findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest adherence to the MD during lockdown might have increased in some settings, while the determinants of such a trend are to be further explored. We raise awareness of the need to research further the impacts and long-term consequences of COVID-19 containment measures on dietary and lifestyle habits.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta Mediterrânea , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825788

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a complicated relationship with the heart, leading to many adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CKD and the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) along with mortality as a competing risk in general population cohorts. We also included an assessment of baseline biomarkers of inflammation, myocardial injury, and left ventricular dysfunction with risk of AF and HF, respectively, to shed light on the potential underlying pathophysiology. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was conducted within the BiomarCaRE project using harmonized data from 12 European population-based cohorts (n = 48 518 participants). Renal function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate estimated using the combined Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation with standardized serum creatinine (Cr) and non-standardized serum cystatin C (CysC). Incidence of AF and HF respectively, during a median follow-up of 8 years was recorded. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for the incidence of AF and HF in CKD and the competing risk of mortality after adjustment for covariates. The mean age at baseline was 51.4 (standard deviation 12.1) years, 49% were men. Overall, 4.3% of subjects had CKD at baseline. The rate for AF was 3.8 per 1000 person-years during follow-up. The HR for AF in patients with CKD compared with patients without CKD was 1.28 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.54) after adjustment for covariates. The rate for incident HF was 4.1 per 1000 person-years and the HR of CKD for HF was 1.71 (95% confidence interval 1.45-2.01. In subjects with CKD, N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) showed an association with AF, whereas NT-proBNP and C-reactive protein were associated with HF. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for subsequent AF and is even more closely associated with HF. In these relatively young participants with CKD, NT-proBNP was strongly associated with subsequent risk of AF. For HF, in addition, elevated levels of hs-C-reactive protein at baseline were related to incident events.

4.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750033

RESUMO

The results presently available from randomised clinical trials and their meta-analysis indicate that Hydroxychloroquine is not associated in COVID-19 patients with either decreased mortality or clinical worsening. Thus, the use of Hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients cannot at present be encouraged. However, the hypothesis that Hydroxychloroquine might have a beneficial role in subgroups of patients at low risk and/or when used at low dosage (≤ 400 mg/day) deserves to be tested in large, well designed randomised clinical trials.

5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846604

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between psychological distress resulting from the COVID-19 lockdown and dietary changes. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from 2 retrospective Italian cohorts recruited from May to September 2020: (1) The Moli-LOCK cohort consists of 1401 participants from the Moli-sani Study (n = 24,325) who were administered a telephone-based questionnaire to assess lifestyles and psychological factors during confinement; (2) the ALT RISCOVID-19 is a web-based survey of 1340 individuals distributed throughout Italy who self-responded to the same questionnaire using Google® forms. Psychological distress was measured by assessments of depression (PHQ-9 and depressive items from the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health- SQD-D), anxiety (GAD-7), stress (PSS-4), and post-traumatic stress disorder (SQD-P). Diet quality was assessed either as changes in consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) or adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD). RESULTS: In ALT RISCOVID-19, increased UPF intake was directly associated with depression (both PHQ-9 and SQD-D; p < 0.0001), anxiety (p < 0.0001), stress (p = 0.001) and SQD-P (p = 0.001); similar results were obtained in the Moli-LOCK cohort except for perceived stress. When psychometric scales were analysed simultaneously, only depression (SQD-D) remained associated with UPF (both cohorts). In both cohorts, psychological distress poorly influenced changes toward an MD, except for depression (SQD-D) that resulted inversely associated in the ALT RISCOVID-19 participants (ß = - 0.16; 95% CI - 0.26, - 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological distress from the COVID-19 confinement is directly associated with unhealthy dietary modifications in two Italian cohorts. In view of possible future restrictive measures to contain pandemic, public health actions are warranted to mitigate the impact of psychological distress on diet quality.

6.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741648

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nutrition is an important, modifiable, environmental factor affecting human health by modulating epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (5mC). Numerous studies investigated the association of nutrition with global and gene-specific DNA methylation and evidences on animal models highlighted a role in DNA hydroxymethylation (5hmC) regulation. However, a more comprehensive analysis of different layers of nutrition in association with global levels of 5mC and 5hmC is lacking. We investigated the association between global levels of 5mC and 5hmC and human nutrition, through the stratification and analysis of dietary patterns into different nutritional layers: adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD), main food groups, macronutrients and micronutrients intake. METHODS: ELISA technique was used to measure global 5mC and 5hmC levels in 1080 subjects from the Moli-sani cohort. Food intake during the 12 months before enrolment was assessed using the semi-quantitative EPIC food frequency questionnaire. Complementary approaches involving both classical statistics and supervised machine learning analyses were used to investigate the associations between global 5mC and 5hmC levels and adherence to Mediterranean diet, main food groups, macronutrients and micronutrients intake. RESULTS: We found that global DNA methylation, but not hydroxymethylation, was associated with daily intake of zinc and vitamin B3. Random Forests algorithms predicting 5mC and 5hmC through intakes of food groups, macronutrients and micronutrients revealed a significant contribution of zinc, while vitamin B3 was reported among the most influential features. CONCLUSION: We found that nutrition may affect global DNA methylation, suggesting a contribution of micronutrients previously implicated as cofactors in methylation pathways.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a lack of knowledge on the association of dietary factors and Lumbar Spinal Stenosis (LSS). We evaluated the association of a Mediterranean diet (MD), its major food components and ultra-processed food (UPF) with the risk of LSS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were recruited from the Neurosurgery Department of the IRCCS Neuromed, Italy. The study sample consisted of 156 cases of LSS, and 312 controls matched 1:2 for sex, age (±6 months) and physical activity, without a history or clinical evidence of LSS who were identified from the general population. Adherence to MD was assessed by the Mediterranean Diet Score based on 9 food groups. UPF was defined according to NOVA classification and calculated as the ratio (%) of UPF (g/d) on total food consumed (g/d). In multivariable-adjusted analysis, a 2-point increase in the MD score was not associated with LSS risk (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.72-1.46). An increment of 10 g/d of fruits and nuts, cereals or fish led to lower odds of LSS (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99; OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.82-0.94; OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99, respectively). Additionally, 1% increment in the consumption of UPF in the diet was independently associated with higher LSS risk (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.14). CONCLUSION: A diet rich in fruits, cereals, fish is associated with lower risk of LSS while a large dietary share of UPF increases the risk of this disease. Further studies with a prospective design and larger sample sizes are warranted.

8.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685717

RESUMO

Defined as an index of platelet size heterogeneity, the platelet distribution width (PDW) is still a poorly characterized marker of platelet function in (sub)clinical disease. We presently validated PDW as a marker of P-selectin dependent platelet activation in the Moli-family cohort. Platelet-bound P-selectin and platelet/leukocyte mixed aggregates were measured by flow cytometry in freshly collected venous blood, both before and after in vitro platelet activation, and coagulation time was assessed in unstimulated and LPS- or TNFα-stimulated whole blood. Closure Times (CT) were measured in a Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100. Multivariable linear mixed effect regression models (with age, sex and platelet count as fixed and family structure as random effect) revealed PDW to be negatively associated with platelet P-selectin, platelet/leukocyte aggregates and von Willebrand factor (VWF), and positively with PFA-100 CT, and LPS- and TNF-α-stimulated coagulation times. With the exception of VWF, all relationships were sex-independent. In contrast, no association was found between mean platelet volume (MPV) and these variables. PDW seems a simple, useful marker of ex vivo and in vitro P-selectin dependent platelet activation. Investigations of larger cohorts will define the usefulness of PDW as a risk predictor of thrombo-inflammatory conditions where activated platelets play a contributing role.

9.
Ageing Res Rev ; 72: 101502, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700008

RESUMO

Estimators of biological age (BA) - defined as the hypothetical underlying age of an organism - have attracted more and more attention in the last years, especially after the advent of new algorithms based on machine learning and genetic markers. While different aging clocks reportedly predict mortality in the general population, very little is known on their overlap. Here we review the evidence reported so far to support the existence of a partial overlap among different BA acceleration estimators, both from an epidemiological and a genetic perspective. On the epidemiological side, we review evidence supporting shared and independent influence on mortality risk of different aging clocks - including telomere length, brain, blood and epigenetic aging - and provide an overview of how an important exposure like diet may affect the different aging systems. On the genetic side, we apply linkage disequilibrium score regression analyses to support the existence of partly shared genomic overlap among these aging clocks. Through multivariate analysis of published genetic associations with these clocks, we also identified the most associated variants, genes, and pathways, which may affect common mechanisms underlying biological aging of different systems within the body. Based on our analyses, the most implicated pathways were involved in inflammation, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, suggesting them as potential molecular targets for future anti-aging interventions. Overall, this review is meant as a contribution to the knowledge on the overlap of aging clocks, trying to clarify their shared biological basis and epidemiological implications.

10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3122-3130, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity defined by body mass index (BMI) is independently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Abdominal obesity, defined by waist circumference, is a predictor of cardiovascular events. Recently, relative fat mass (RFM) was proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk. We assessed the role of three different measures of obesity to predict unprovoked VTE in a longitudinal study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Moli-sani is a prospective cohort study carried out in the general population of the Molise region, Italy. A total of 23,538 individuals (48% men, age 55.4 years) enrolled between 2005 and 2010 were eligible. Patients on anticoagulant treatment were excluded. BMI ≥30 kg/m2 defined obesity, waist circumference >102 cm for men or 88 cm for women defined abdominal obesity, tertiles of RFM were compared. The long-term incidence of first unprovoked VTE during follow-up was assessed. Overall, 29.6% individuals were obese and 44.2% had abdominal obesity. A total of 66 first unprovoked VTE events were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 8.2 years. After multivariable Cox regression analysis, the risk of unprovoked VTE was significantly higher in obese participants (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.16-3.07) than in participants with BMI <30; in subjects with abdominal obesity than with normal waist circumference (HR 2.19, 1.26-3.81); and in subjects with third vs first RFM tertile index (HR 2.46, 1.15-5.28). The areas under the curves for the models including the three obesity indexes were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Three indexes of obesity based on BMI, waist circumference or RFM similarly predict first occurrence of unprovoked VTE.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico
11.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 4955-4968, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611421

RESUMO

Background: Depression is a mood disorder characterized by a high rate of resistance to pharmacological treatments, which has often been linked to chronic inflammation. This can be influenced by different environmental factors, in particular pro-inflammatory diets. However, a mediating role of circulating inflammation has never been observed. Aim: To test the association between a dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and continuous depressive symptoms (adapted version of PHQ9) in an Italian population cohort (N=13,301), along with potential explanatory effect of a composite index (INFLA-score) based on four circulating inflammatory biomarkers: C-reactive protein, granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet and white blood cell counts. Results: Significant positive associations were observed between DII and total depressive symptoms (standardized ß (SE) = 0.038 (0.005), p < 0.001), and with two factors tagging somatic (0.012 (0.003), p < 0.001) and cognitive symptoms (0.012 (0.003), p < 0.001), after adjustment for different potential confounders (socioeconomic status, chronic health conditions and lifestyles). These associations were about twice as strong in women than in men. INFLA-score explained a small but significant proportion of the association with total depressive symptoms (0.90-2.30%, p < 0.05), which was mainly driven by granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (1.18-1.65%). This effect was even stronger for the somatic (2.66-4.66%) but not for the cognitive factor (0%). Conclusion: These findings support a strong link between inflammatory diet and depression, especially with somatic symptoms and within women. Moreover, they provide novel evidence for a potential explanatory role of circulating inflammation in this association, suggesting new paths for prevention and treatment of major and atypical depression.

12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 195, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of heart failure among diabetic individuals is high, even under tight glycemic control. The correlates and mediators of heart failure risk in individuals with diabetes need more elucidation in large population-based cohorts with long follow-up times and a wide panel of biologically relevant biomarkers. METHODS: In a population-based sample of 3834 diabetic and 90,177 non-diabetic individuals, proportional hazards models and mediation analysis were used to assess the relation of conventional heart failure risk factors and biomarkers with incident heart failure. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 13.8 years, a total of 652 (17.0%) and 5524 (6.1%) cases of incident heart failure were observed in participants with and without diabetes, respectively. 51.4% were women and the mean age at baseline was 48.7 (standard deviation [SD] 12.5) years. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for heart failure among diabetic individuals was 2.70 (95% confidence interval, 2.49-2.93) compared to non-diabetic participants. In the multivariable-adjusted Cox models, conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as smoking (diabetes: HR 2.07 [1.59-2.69]; non-diabetes: HR 1.85 [1.68-2.02]), BMI (diabetes: HR 1.30 [1.18-1.42]; non-diabetes: HR 1.40 [1.35-1.47]), baseline myocardial infarction (diabetes: HR 2.06 [1.55-2.75]; non-diabetes: HR 2.86 [2.50-3.28]), and baseline atrial fibrillation (diabetes: HR 1.51 [0.82-2.80]; non-diabetes: HR 2.97 [2.21-4.00]) had the strongest associations with incident heart failure. In addition, biomarkers for cardiac strain (represented by nT-proBNP, diabetes: HR 1.26 [1.19-1.34]; non-diabetes: HR 1.43 [1.39-1.47]), myocardial injury (hs-TnI, diabetes: HR 1.10 [1.04-1.16]; non-diabetes: HR 1.13 [1.10-1.16]), and inflammation (hs-CRP, diabetes: HR 1.13 [1.03-1.24]; non-diabetes: HR 1.29 [1.25-1.34]) were also associated with incident heart failure. In general, all these associations were equally strong in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. However, the strongest mediators of heart failure in diabetes were the direct effect of diabetes status itself (relative effect share 43.1% [33.9-52.3] and indirect effects (effect share 56.9% [47.7-66.1]) mediated by obesity (BMI, 13.2% [10.3-16.2]), cardiac strain/volume overload (nT-proBNP, 8.4% [-0.7-17.4]), and hyperglycemia (glucose, 12.0% [4.2-19.9]). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the main mediators of heart failure in diabetes are obesity, hyperglycemia, and cardiac strain/volume overload. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors are strongly related to incident heart failure, but these associations are not stronger in diabetic than in non-diabetic individuals. Active measurement of relevant biomarkers could potentially be used to improve prevention and prediction of heart failure in high-risk diabetic patients.

13.
J Intern Med ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with angina is common, but its prognosis is debated. We investigated outcomes of such patients to identify predictors of cardiovascular events. METHODS: We selected 1014 patients with angina, evidence of myocardial ischemia at the electrocardiogram (ECG) exercise test or imaging stress tests, and non-obstructive CAD (absence of lumen diameter reduction ≥50%) at coronary angiography between 1999 and 2015. Note that, 1905 age- and risk factors-matched asymptomatic subjects served as "real-world" comparators. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of all-cause death or myocardial infarction. RESULTS: At 6-years median follow-up (Interquartile range, 3-9 years), the primary endpoint occurred in 53 patients (5.5%, 0.92/100 person-years). Besides similar event rates compared with asymptomatic subjects (Hazard ratio [HR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-1.15, p = 0.28), the index population showed a very heterogeneous prognosis. Patients with non-obstructive CAD (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.02-3.37, p = 0.04, compared with "normal" coronary arteries) and with ischemia at imaging tests (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.07-4.14, p = 0.03, compared with ischemia detected only at the ECG exercise test) were at higher risk and those with both these components showing even >10-fold event rates as compared with the absence of both. Three hundred and twenty-five patients (34%) continued to experience angina, 69 (7.2%) underwent repeat coronary angiography, and 14 (1.5%) had consequent coronary revascularization for atherosclerosis progression. CONCLUSION: Apart from the impaired quality of life, angina without obstructive CAD has an overall benign but very heterogeneous prognosis. Non-obstructive CAD and myocardial ischemia at imaging tests both confer a higher risk.

14.
Diabetes Care ; 44(11): 2527-2535, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations are increased in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) but are associated with a lower diabetes risk. We investigated associations of N-terminal pro-B-type NP (NT-proBNP) and midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) with incident type 2 diabetes stratified by the presence of CVD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) Consortium, we included 45,477 participants with NT-proBNP measurements (1,707 developed type 2 diabetes over 6.5 years of median follow-up; among these, 209 had CVD at baseline) and 11,537 participants with MR-proANP measurements (857 developed type 2 diabetes over 13.8 years of median follow-up; among these, 106 had CVD at baseline). The associations were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: Both NPs were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (hazard ratios [95% CI] per 1-SD increase of log NP: 0.84 [0.79; 0.89] for NT-proBNP and 0.77 [0.71; 0.83] for MR-proANP). The inverse association between NT-proBNP and type 2 diabetes was significant in individuals without CVD but not in individuals with CVD (0.81 [0.76; 0.86] vs. 1.04 [0.90; 1.19]; P multiplicative interaction = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the association of MR-proANP with type 2 diabetes between individuals without and with CVD (0.75 [0.69; 0.82] vs. 0.81 [0.66; 0.99]; P multiplicative interaction = 0.236). CONCLUSIONS: NT-proBNP and MR-proANP are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes. However, the inverse association of NT-proBNP seems to be modified by the presence of CVD. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

15.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main aim was to examine age-specific risk factor associations with incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and their attributable fraction in a large European cohort. Additionally, we aimed to examine risk of stroke and mortality in relation to new-onset AF across age. METHODS: We used individual-level data (n=66 951, 49.1% men, age range 40-98 years at baseline) from five European cohorts of the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph Consortium. The participants were followed for incident AF for up to 10 years and the association with modifiable risk factors from the baseline examinations (body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, daily smoking, alcohol consumption and history of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI)) was examined. Additionally, the participants were followed up for incident stroke and all-cause mortality after new-onset AF. RESULTS: AF incidence increased from 0.9 per 1000 person-years at baseline age 40-49 years, to 17.7 at baseline age ≥70 years. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models showed that higher BMI, hypertension, high alcohol consumption and a history of stroke or MI were associated with increased risk of AF across age groups (p<0.05). Between 30% and 40% of the AF risk could be attributed to BMI, hypertension and a history of stroke or MI. New-onset AF was associated with a twofold increase in risk of stroke and death at ages≥70 years (p≤0.001). CONCLUSION: In this large European cohort aged 40 years and above, risk of AF was largely attributed to BMI, high alcohol consumption and a history MI or stroke from middle age. Thus, preventive measures for AF should target risk factors such as obesity and hypertension from early age and continue throughout life.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453631

RESUMO

Deep Neural Networks (DNN) have been recently developed for the estimation of Biological Age (BA), the hypothetical underlying age of an organism, which can differ from its chronological age (CA). Although promising, these population-specific algorithms warrant further characterization and validation, since their biological, clinical and environmental correlates remain largely unexplored. Here, an accurate DNN was trained to compute BA based on 36 circulating biomarkers in an Italian population (N = 23,858; age ≥ 35 years; 51.7% women). This estimate was heavily influenced by markers of metabolic, heart, kidney and liver function. The resulting Δage (BA-CA) significantly predicted mortality and hospitalization risk for all and specific causes. Slowed biological aging (Δage < 0) was associated with higher physical and mental wellbeing, healthy lifestyles (e.g. adherence to Mediterranean diet) and higher socioeconomic status (educational attainment, household income and occupational status), while accelerated aging (Δage > 0) was associated with smoking and obesity. Together, lifestyles and socioeconomic variables explained ~48% of the total variance in Δage, potentially suggesting the existence of a genetic basis. These findings validate blood-based biological aging as a marker of public health in adult Italians and provide a robust body of knowledge on its biological architecture, clinical implications and potential environmental influences.

17.
Med Lav ; 112(4): 268-278, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High pulse wave velocity (PWV) and low ankle brachial index (ABI) have been proposed as surrogate end-points for cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: In a cross-sectional setting, we aimed at assessing the distributions of PWV and ABI among occupational classes (OC) in a population-based ever-employed salaried sample. METHODS: We enrolled 1388 salaried CVD-free workers attending a CVD population-based survey, the RoCAV study, and classified them into four OC, based on current or last job title: manager/director (MD), non-manual (NMW), skilled-manual (SMW) and (UMW) unskilled-manual workers. We derived brachial-ankle PWV and ABI from four-limb blood pressures measurements, then carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV) was estimated. We estimated the OC gradients in cfPWV and ABI using linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Compared to MD (reference category), UMW had higher age- and BMI-adjusted cfPWV mean values both in men (0.63 m/s; 95%CI:0.11-1.16) and women (1.60 m/s; 0.43-2.77), only marginally reduced when adjusting for CVD risk factors. Decreased ABI mean values were also detected in lower OC. The overall detection rate of abnormal cfPWV (≥12 m/s) or ABI (≤0.9) values was 28%. Compared to MD, the prevalence of abnormal cfPWV or ABI was higher in NMW (OR=1.77; 95%CI:1.12-2.79), SMW (1.71; 1.05-2.78) and UMW (2.72; 1.65-4.50). Adjustment for CVD risk factors used in risk score equations did not change the results. DISCUSSION: We found a higher prevalence of abnormal values of arterial stiffness measures in lower OC, and these differences were not explained by traditional CVD risk factors. These may be presumably determined by additional work- and environmental-related risk factors.


Assuntos
Doenças Vasculares , Rigidez Vascular , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco
18.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(18): 6258-6271, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and its socio-demographic, psychosocial and behavioural correlates in a general population of Italian children, adolescents and adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone-based survey. SETTING: Italy, 2010-2013. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 9078 participants (5-97 years) from the Italian Nutrition & Health Survey. Dietary intakes were collected by a 1-d 24-h dietary recall. UPF was defined by the NOVA classification and expressed as percentage of total energies. RESULTS: Average energy intake from UPF (95 % CI) was 17·3 % (17·1 %, 17·6 %) among adults and 25·9 % (24·8 %, 27·0 %) in children/adolescents. Top sources of UPF were processed meats (32·5 %) and bread substitutes (16·7 %). Among adults, age (ß = -3·10; 95 % CI (-4·40, -1·80) for >65 years v. 20-40 years; ßs are dimensionless) and residing in Southern Italy (ß = -0·73; 95 % CI (-1·32, -0·14) v. Northern) inversely associated with UPF. Screen view during meals was directly linked to UPF, as well as poor self-rated health (ß = 5·32; 95 % CI (2·66, 7·99)), adverse life events (ß = 2·33; 95 % CI (1·48, 3·18)) and low sleep quality (ß = 2·34; 95 % CI (1·45, 3·23)). Boys consumed two-point percent more UPF of the total energy than girls (ß = 2·01; 95 % CI (0·20, 3·82)). For all ages, a Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with UPF (ß = -4·86; 95 % CI (-5·53, -4·20) for good v. poor adherence in adults and (ß = -5·08; 95 % CI (-8·38, -1·77) for kids). CONCLUSIONS: UPF contributes a modest proportion of energy to the diets of Italian adults while being one-quarter of the total energies in children/adolescents. UPF was associated with several psychosocial factors and eating behaviours. Increased adherence to Mediterranean diet would possibly result in lower UPF consumption.

19.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199192

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of coffee on human diseases are well documented, but the molecular mechanisms of its bioactive compounds on cancer are not completely elucidated. This is likely due to the large heterogeneity of coffee preparations and different coffee-based beverages, but also to the choice of experimental models where proliferation, differentiation and immune responses are differently affected. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of one of the most interesting bioactive compounds in coffee, i.e., caffeine, using a cellular model of melanoma at a defined differentiation level. A preliminary in silico analysis carried out on public gene-expression databases identified genes potentially involved in caffeine's effects and suggested some specific molecular targets, including tyrosinase. Proliferation was investigated in vitro on human melanoma initiating cells (MICs) and cytokine expression was measured in conditioned media. Tyrosinase was revealed as a key player in caffeine's mechanisms of action, suggesting a crucial role in immunomodulation through the reduction in IL-1ß, IP-10, MIP-1α, MIP-1ß and RANTES secretion onto MICs conditioned media. The potent antiproliferative effects of caffeine on MICs are likely to occur by promoting melanin production and reducing inflammatory signals' secretion. These data suggest tyrosinase as a key player mediating the effects of caffeine on melanoma.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Melaninas/metabolismo , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia
20.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202377

RESUMO

Mushroom cell walls are rich in ß-glucans, long or short-chain polymers of glucose subunits with ß-1,3 and ß-1,6 linkages, that are responsible for the linear and branching structures, respectively. ß-glucans from cereals, at variance, have no 1,6 linkages nor branching structures. Both immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of mushrooms have been described using purified ß-glucans or fungi extracts on cellular and experimental models; their potential clinical use has been tested in different conditions, such as recurrent infections of the respiratory tract or complications of major surgery. Another promising application of ß-glucans is on cancer, as adjuvant of conventional chemotherapy. ß-glucans may protect the cardiovascular system, ameliorating glucose, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure: these activities, observed for oat and barley ß-glucans, require confirmation in human studies with mushroom ß-glucans. On the other hand, mushrooms may also protect the cardiovascular system via a number of other components, such as bioactive phenolic compounds, vitamins, and mineral elements. The growing knowledge on the mechanism(s) and health benefits of mushrooms is encouraging the development of a potential clinical use of ß-glucans, and also to further document their role in preserving health and prevent disease in the context of healthy lifestyles.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Humanos
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