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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4174, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234105

RESUMO

The folding of ß-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in Gram-negative bacteria is catalysed by the ß-barrel assembly machinery (BAM). How lateral opening in the ß-barrel of the major subunit BamA assists in OMP folding, and the contribution of membrane disruption to BAM catalysis remain unresolved. Here, we use an anti-BamA monoclonal antibody fragment (Fab1) and two disulphide-crosslinked BAM variants (lid-locked (LL), and POTRA-5-locked (P5L)) to dissect these roles. Despite being lethal in vivo, we show that all complexes catalyse folding in vitro, albeit less efficiently than wild-type BAM. CryoEM reveals that while Fab1 and BAM-P5L trap an open-barrel state, BAM-LL contains a mixture of closed and contorted, partially-open structures. Finally, all three complexes globally destabilise the lipid bilayer, while BamA does not, revealing that the BAM lipoproteins are required for this function. Together the results provide insights into the role of BAM structure and lipid dynamics in OMP folding.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Hidrolases/genética , Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolases/ultraestrutura , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipossomos/ultraestrutura , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Proteolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteolipídeos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2791, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990582

RESUMO

Insect pests are a major cause of crop losses worldwide, with an estimated economic cost of $470 billion annually. Biotechnological tools have been introduced to control such insects without the need for chemical pesticides; for instance, the development of transgenic plants harbouring genes encoding insecticidal proteins. The Vip3 (vegetative insecticidal protein 3) family proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis convey toxicity to species within the Lepidoptera, and have wide potential applications in commercial agriculture. Vip3 proteins are proposed to exert their insecticidal activity through pore formation, though to date there is no mechanistic description of how this occurs on the membrane. Here we present cryo-EM structures of a Vip3 family toxin in both inactive and activated forms in conjunction with structural and functional data on toxin-membrane interactions. Together these data demonstrate that activated Vip3Bc1 complex is able to insert into membranes in a highly efficient manner, indicating that receptor binding is the likely driver of Vip3 specificity.


Assuntos
Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Animais , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Sítios de Ligação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Variação Genética , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Lipossomos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Proteólise , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína
3.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 766, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318620

RESUMO

The ß-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) catalyses the folding and insertion of ß-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) into the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria by mechanisms that remain unclear. Here, we present an ensemble of cryoEM structures of the E. coli BamABCDE (BAM) complex in lipid nanodiscs, determined using multi-body refinement techniques. These structures, supported by single-molecule FRET measurements, describe a range of motions in the BAM complex, mostly localised within the periplasmic region of the major subunit BamA. The ß-barrel domain of BamA is in a 'lateral open' conformation in all of the determined structures, suggesting that this is the most energetically favourable species in this bilayer. Strikingly, the BAM-containing lipid nanodisc is deformed, especially around BAM's lateral gate. This distortion is also captured in molecular dynamics simulations, and provides direct structural evidence for the lipid 'disruptase' activity of BAM, suggested to be an important part of its functional mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas , Lipídeos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Nanoestruturas , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Catálise , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteolipídeos/metabolismo
4.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(11): 1094, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037421

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

5.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(11): 1048-1056, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929282

RESUMO

Aggregation of the peptide hormone amylin into amyloid deposits is a pathological hallmark of type-2 diabetes (T2D). While no causal link between T2D and amyloid has been established, the S20G mutation in amylin is associated with early-onset T2D. Here we report cryo-EM structures of amyloid fibrils of wild-type human amylin and its S20G variant. The wild-type fibril structure, solved to 3.6-Å resolution, contains two protofilaments, each built from S-shaped subunits. S20G fibrils, by contrast, contain two major polymorphs. Their structures, solved at 3.9-Å and 4.0-Å resolution, respectively, share a common two-protofilament core that is distinct from the wild-type structure. Remarkably, one polymorph contains a third subunit with another, distinct, cross-ß conformation. The presence of two different backbone conformations within the same fibril may explain the increased aggregation propensity of S20G, and illustrates a potential structural basis for surface-templated fibril assembly.


Assuntos
Amiloide/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/genética , Amiloide/química , Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/química , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação Puntual , Conformação Proteica
6.
IUCrJ ; 6(Pt 6): 1024-1031, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709058

RESUMO

Structural biology generally provides static snapshots of protein conformations that can provide information on the functional mechanisms of biological systems. Time-resolved structural biology provides a means to visualize, at near-atomic resolution, the dynamic conformational changes that macromolecules undergo as they function. X-ray free-electron-laser technology has provided a powerful tool to study enzyme mechanisms at atomic resolution, typically in the femtosecond to picosecond timeframe. Complementary to this, recent advances in the resolution obtainable by electron microscopy and the broad range of samples that can be studied make it ideally suited to time-resolved approaches in the microsecond to millisecond timeframe to study large loop and domain motions in biomolecules. Here we describe a cryo-EM grid preparation device that permits rapid mixing, voltage-assisted spraying and vitrification of samples. It is shown that the device produces grids of sufficient ice quality to enable data collection from single grids that results in a sub-4 Šreconstruction. Rapid mixing can be achieved by blot-and-spray or mix-and-spray approaches with a delay of ∼10 ms, providing greater temporal resolution than previously reported mix-and-spray approaches.

7.
Nat Protoc ; 14(1): 100-118, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487656

RESUMO

The dramatic growth in the use of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to generate high-resolution structures of macromolecular complexes has changed the landscape of structural biology. The majority of structures deposited in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) at higher than 4-Å resolution were collected on Titan Krios microscopes. Although the pipeline for single-particle data collection is becoming routine, there is much variation in how sessions are set up. Furthermore, when collection is under way, there are a range of approaches for efficiently moving and pre-processing these data. Here, we present a standard operating procedure for single-particle data collection with Thermo Fisher Scientific EPU software, using the two most common direct electron detectors (the Thermo Fisher Scientific Falcon 3 (F3EC) and the Gatan K2), as well as a strategy for structuring these data to enable efficient pre-processing and on-the-fly monitoring of data collection. This protocol takes 3-6 h to set up a typical automated data collection session.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Macromoleculares/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/instrumentação , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4517, 2018 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375379

RESUMO

All amyloid fibrils contain a cross-ß fold. How this structure differs in fibrils formed from proteins associated with different diseases remains unclear. Here, we combine cryo-EM and MAS-NMR to determine the structure of an amyloid fibril formed in vitro from ß2-microglobulin (ß2m), the culprit protein of dialysis-related amyloidosis. The fibril is composed of two identical protofilaments assembled from subunits that do not share ß2m's native tertiary fold, but are formed from similar ß-strands. The fibrils share motifs with other amyloid fibrils, but also contain unique features including π-stacking interactions perpendicular to the fibril axis and an intramolecular disulfide that stabilises the subunit fold. We also describe a structural model for a second fibril morphology and show that it is built from the same subunit fold. The results provide insights into the mechanisms of fibril formation and the commonalities and differences within the amyloid fold in different protein sequences.


Assuntos
Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Amiloidose/metabolismo , Microglobulina beta-2/ultraestrutura , Amiloide/metabolismo , Amiloidose/etiologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Dobramento de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Microglobulina beta-2/metabolismo
9.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol ; 19(12): 755-773, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237470

RESUMO

The aggregation of proteins into amyloid fibrils and their deposition into plaques and intracellular inclusions is the hallmark of amyloid disease. The accumulation and deposition of amyloid fibrils, collectively known as amyloidosis, is associated with many pathological conditions that can be associated with ageing, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, type II diabetes and dialysis-related amyloidosis. However, elucidation of the atomic structure of amyloid fibrils formed from their intact protein precursors and how fibril formation relates to disease has remained elusive. Recent advances in structural biology techniques, including cryo-electron microscopy and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, have finally broken this impasse. The first near-atomic-resolution structures of amyloid fibrils formed in vitro, seeded from plaque material and analysed directly ex vivo are now available. The results reveal cross-ß structures that are far more intricate than anticipated. Here, we describe these structures, highlighting their similarities and differences, and the basis for their toxicity. We discuss how amyloid structure may affect the ability of fibrils to spread to different sites in the cell and between organisms in a prion-like manner, along with their roles in disease. These molecular insights will aid in understanding the development and spread of amyloid diseases and are inspiring new strategies for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Amiloide/metabolismo , Amiloide/fisiologia , Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Amiloidose/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Placa Amiloide/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/fisiopatologia
10.
J Vis Exp ; (132)2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443097

RESUMO

Negative stain electron microscopy (EM) allows relatively simple and quick observation of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes through the use of contrast enhancing stain reagent. Although limited in resolution to a maximum of ~18 - 20 Å, negative stain EM is useful for a variety of biological problems and also provides a rapid means of assessing samples for cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The negative stain workflow is straightforward method; the sample is adsorbed onto a substrate, then a stain is applied, blotted, and dried to produce a thin layer of electron dense stain in which the particles are embedded. Individual samples can, however, behave in markedly different ways under varying staining conditions. This has led to the development of a large variety of substrate preparation techniques, negative staining reagents, and grid washing and blotting techniques. Determining the most appropriate technique for each individual sample must be done on a case-by-case basis and a microscopist must have access to a variety of different techniques to achieve the highest-quality negative stain results. Detailed protocols for two different substrate preparation methods and three different blotting techniques are provided, and an example of a sample that shows markedly different results depending on the method used is shown. In addition, the preparation of some common negative staining reagents, and two novel Lanthanide-based stains, is described with discussion regarding the use of each.


Assuntos
Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Coloração Negativa/métodos
11.
Sci Rep ; 6: 38644, 2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27995962

RESUMO

Uncontrolled self-association is a major challenge in the exploitation of proteins as therapeutics. Here we describe the development of a structural proteomics approach to identify the amino acids responsible for aberrant self-association of monoclonal antibodies and the design of a variant with reduced aggregation and increased serum persistence in vivo. We show that the human monoclonal antibody, MEDI1912, selected against nerve growth factor binds with picomolar affinity, but undergoes reversible self-association and has a poor pharmacokinetic profile in both rat and cynomolgus monkeys. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange and cross-linking-mass spectrometry we map the residues responsible for self-association of MEDI1912 and show that disruption of the self-interaction interface by three mutations enhances its biophysical properties and serum persistence, whilst maintaining high affinity and potency. Immunohistochemistry suggests that this is achieved via reduction of non-specific tissue binding. The strategy developed represents a powerful and generic approach to improve the properties of therapeutic proteins.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Cromatografia em Gel , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Propriedades de Superfície , Viscosidade
12.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12865, 2016 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27686148

RESUMO

The ß-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) is a ∼203 kDa complex of five proteins (BamA-E), which is essential for viability in E. coli. BAM promotes the folding and insertion of ß-barrel proteins into the outer membrane via a poorly understood mechanism. Several current models suggest that BAM functions through a 'lateral gating' motion of the ß-barrel of BamA. Here we present a cryo-EM structure of the BamABCDE complex, at 4.9 Å resolution. The structure is in a laterally open conformation showing that gating is independent of BamB binding. We describe conformational changes throughout the complex and interactions between BamA, B, D and E, and the detergent micelle that suggest communication between BAM and the lipid bilayer. Finally, using an enhanced reconstitution protocol and functional assays, we show that for the outer membrane protein OmpT, efficient folding in vitro requires lateral gating in BAM.

13.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21078, 2016 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26867957

RESUMO

Structure determination for amyloid fibrils presents many challenges due to the high variability exhibited by fibrils and heterogeneous morphologies present, even in single samples. Mass per unit length (MPL) estimates can be used to differentiate amyloid fibril morphologies and provide orthogonal evidence for helical symmetry parameters determined by other methods. In addition, MPL data can provide insight on the arrangement of subunits in a fibril, especially for more complex fibrils assembled with multiple parallel copies of the asymmetric unit or multiple twisted protofilaments. By detecting only scattered electrons, which serve as a relative measure of total scattering, and therefore protein mass, dark field imaging gives an approximation of the total mass of protein present in any given length of fibril. When compared with a standard of known MPL, such as Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), MPL of the fibrils in question can be determined. The program suite MpUL-multi was written for rapid semi-automated processing of TB-TEM dark field data acquired using this method. A graphical user interface allows for simple designation of fibrils and standards. A second program averages intensities from multiple TMV molecules for accurate standard determination, makes multiple measurements along a given fibril, and calculates the MPL.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Software , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Peso Molecular
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(18): 5691-6, 2015 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25902516

RESUMO

Amyloid disorders cause debilitating illnesses through the formation of toxic protein aggregates. The mechanisms of amyloid toxicity and the nature of species responsible for mediating cellular dysfunction remain unclear. Here, using ß2-microglobulin (ß2m) as a model system, we show that the disruption of membranes by amyloid fibrils is caused by the molecular shedding of membrane-active oligomers in a process that is dependent on pH. Using thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, NMR, EM and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), we show that fibril disassembly at pH 6.4 results in the formation of nonnative spherical oligomers that disrupt synthetic membranes. By contrast, fibril dissociation at pH 7.4 results in the formation of nontoxic, native monomers. Chemical cross-linking or interaction with hsp70 increases the kinetic stability of fibrils and decreases their capacity to cause membrane disruption and cellular dysfunction. The results demonstrate how pH can modulate the deleterious effects of preformed amyloid aggregates and suggest why endocytic trafficking through acidic compartments may be a key factor in amyloid disease.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Amiloidose/metabolismo , Benzotiazóis , Endossomos/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Lisossomos/química , Monócitos/metabolismo , Muramidase/química , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Tiazóis/química , Microglobulina beta-2/química
15.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4521, 2014 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25088546

RESUMO

The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is the largest collection of structurally related membrane proteins that transport a wide array of substrates. The proton-coupled sugar transporter XylE is the first member of the MFS that has been structurally characterized in multiple transporting conformations, including both the outward and inward-facing states. Here we report the crystal structure of XylE in a new inward-facing open conformation, allowing us to visualize the rocker-switch movement of the N-domain against the C-domain during the transport cycle. Using molecular dynamics simulation, and functional transport assays, we describe the movement of XylE that facilitates sugar translocation across a lipid membrane and identify the likely candidate proton-coupling residues as the conserved Asp27 and Arg133. This study addresses the structural basis for proton-coupled substrate transport and release mechanism for the sugar porter family of proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/química , Prótons , Simportadores/química , Xilose/química , Arginina/química , Ácido Aspártico/química , Transporte Biológico , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Expressão Gênica , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Simportadores/genética , Termodinâmica
16.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 47(Pt 3): 1140-1145, 2014 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24904248

RESUMO

Electron diffraction of extremely small three-dimensional crystals (MicroED) allows for structure determination from crystals orders of magnitude smaller than those used for X-ray crystallography. MicroED patterns, which are collected in a transmission electron microscope, were initially not amenable to indexing and intensity extraction by standard software, which necessitated the development of a suite of programs for data processing. The MicroED suite was developed to accomplish the tasks of unit-cell determination, indexing, background subtraction, intensity measurement and merging, resulting in data that can be carried forward to molecular replacement and structure determination. This ad hoc solution has been modified for more general use to provide a means for processing MicroED data until the technique can be fully implemented into existing crystallographic software packages. The suite is written in Python and the source code is available under a GNU General Public License.

17.
Elife ; 2: e01345, 2013 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24252878

RESUMO

We demonstrate that it is feasible to determine high-resolution protein structures by electron crystallography of three-dimensional crystals in an electron cryo-microscope (CryoEM). Lysozyme microcrystals were frozen on an electron microscopy grid, and electron diffraction data collected to 1.7 Å resolution. We developed a data collection protocol to collect a full-tilt series in electron diffraction to atomic resolution. A single tilt series contains up to 90 individual diffraction patterns collected from a single crystal with tilt angle increment of 0.1-1° and a total accumulated electron dose less than 10 electrons per angstrom squared. We indexed the data from three crystals and used them for structure determination of lysozyme by molecular replacement followed by crystallographic refinement to 2.9 Å resolution. This proof of principle paves the way for the implementation of a new technique, which we name 'MicroED', that may have wide applicability in structural biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01345.001.


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Proteínas/química
18.
Curr Protoc Protein Sci ; Chapter 17: Unit17.15, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23546618

RESUMO

Electron cryomicroscopy, or cryoEM, is an emerging technique for studying the three-dimensional structures of proteins and large macromolecular machines. Electron crystallography is a branch of cryoEM in which structures of proteins can be studied at resolutions that rival those achieved by X-ray crystallography. Electron crystallography employs two-dimensional crystals of a membrane protein embedded within a lipid bilayer. The key to a successful electron crystallographic experiment is the crystallization, or reconstitution, of the protein of interest. This unit describes ways in which protein can be expressed, purified, and reconstituted into well-ordered two-dimensional crystals. A protocol is also provided for negative stain electron microscopy as a tool for screening crystallization trials. When large and well-ordered crystals are obtained, the structures of both protein and its surrounding membrane can be determined to atomic resolution.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Cristalografia/métodos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Coloração Negativa/métodos , Conformação Molecular
19.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 19(9): 925-9, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22885327

RESUMO

Chromosomes must be accurately partitioned to daughter cells to prevent aneuploidy, a hallmark of many tumors and birth defects. Kinetochores are the macromolecular machines that segregate chromosomes by maintaining load-bearing attachments to the dynamic tips of microtubules. Here, we present the structure of isolated budding-yeast kinetochore particles, as visualized by EM and electron tomography of negatively stained preparations. The kinetochore appears as an ~126-nm particle containing a large central hub surrounded by multiple outer globular domains. In the presence of microtubules, some particles also have a ring that encircles the microtubule. Our data, showing that kinetochores bind to microtubules via multivalent attachments, lay the foundation to uncover the key mechanical and regulatory mechanisms by which kinetochores control chromosome segregation and cell division.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Cinetocoros/ultraestrutura , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/ultraestrutura , Cinetocoros/química , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , Saccharomycetales/química , Saccharomycetales/ultraestrutura
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