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1.
Liver Int ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is the second most frequent liver cancer. The overall survival of iCCA and other biliary tract cancers (BTC) remains poor. Recently, the ABC-06 trial reported the superiority of FOLFOX vs clinical observation as a second-line treatment. Still, the survival benefit was less than expected. We hypothesized that the pattern of progression of iCCA can drive post-progression survival (PPS), similar to hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Multicentre retrospective evaluation of consecutive iCCA patients who progressed after frontline systemic treatment with gemcitabine as monotherapy or in combination with platinum. Radiological assessment of progression was evaluated according to RECIST 1.1. The progression pattern was divided according to the presence/absence of new extrahepatic lesions (NEH). RESULTS: We included 206 patients from 5 centres. The median OS was 14.1 months and its independent predictors (hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI]) were previous surgery 0.699 [0.509-0.961], performance status >2.445 [1.788-3.344], permanent first-line discontinuation 16.072 [5.102-50.633], registration of ascites 2.226 [1.448-3.420] or bilirubin >3 mg/dl 3.004 [1.935-4.664] during the follow-up, and disease progression 2.523 [1.261-5.050]. The appearance of NEH independently predicted OS 2.18 [1.55-3.06] in patients with radiological progression. Amongst 138 patients eligible for second-line treatment, PPS was 16.8 and 5.9 months in cases without and with NEH, respectively (P = .001). Progression owing to NEH lesions was an independent predictor of PPS 1.873 [1.333-2.662], together with performance status, time to progression to the frontline treatment, bilirubin >3 mg/dl and ascites. CONCLUSIONS: PPS of iCCA is influenced by progression pattern, with important implications for second-line trial design and analysis.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830949

RESUMO

Image-guided locoregional therapies (LRTs) are a crucial asset in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which has proven to be characterized by an impaired antitumor immune status. LRTs not only directly destroy tumor cells but also have an immunomodulating role, altering the tumor microenvironment with potential systemic effects. Nevertheless, the immune activation against HCC induced by LRTs is not strong enough on its own to generate a systemic significant antitumor response, and it is incapable of preventing tumor recurrence. Currently, there is great interest in the possibility of combining LRTs with immunotherapy for HCC, as this combination may result in a mutually beneficial and synergistic relationship. On the one hand, immunotherapy could amplify and prolong the antitumoral immune response of LRTs, reducing recurrence cases and improving outcome. On the other hand, LTRs counteract the typical immunosuppressive HCC microenvironment and status and could therefore enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy. Here, after reviewing the current therapeutic options for HCC, we focus on LRTs, describing for each of them the technique and data on its effect on the immune system. Then, we describe the current status of immunotherapy and finally report the recently published and ongoing clinical studies testing this combination.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) are biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, their performance in patients with cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) treated with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) is unknown. AIM: To evaluate PIVKA-II and AFP as HCC predictors in DAA-treated patients with HCV-related cirrhosis METHODS: In this single centre study, patients with cirrhosis from chronic HCV infection and with a sustained virological response (SVR) to DAA were tested for PIVKA-II and AFP (Fujirebio, Japan) at the start of DAA treatment (baseline), end of treatment (EOT) and at HCC diagnosis. RESULTS: We included 400 patients with mean age 65 (24-92); 56% were men. From baseline to EOT, PIVKA-II did not change (35 vs 35 mAU/mL, P = 0.43) while AFP significantly decreased (12 vs 6 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). After 52 (3-66) months from baseline, 34 (8.5%) patients developed de novo HCC; median AFP 9 (2-12 868) ng/mL and PIVKA-II 80 (22-1813) mAU/mL. EOT-PIVKA-II (HR 3.05, P < 0.0001) and AFP (HR 2.77, P = 0.001) independently predicted HCC together with diabetes (HR 6.12, P < 0.001) and GGT (HR 1.01, P = 0.03). The 4-year cumulative probability of HCC was 24% vs 2% in patients with EOT-PIVKA-II > or ≤41 mAU/mL (P < 0.0001), and 26% vs 9% for EOT-AFP > or ≤15 ng/mL (P = 0.02). By combining EOT-PIVKA-II and AFP, the 4-year probabilities of HCC were 3% in patients testing negative for both markers, 18% in patients positive for both, and 38% in patients positive for at least one (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HCV-related cirrhosis treated with DAA, PIVKA-II and AFP independently predicted HCC, while their combination improved risk stratification.

5.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: As the long-term benefits of a sustained virological response (SVR) in HCV-related cirrhosis following direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment remain undefined, we assessed the incidence and predictors of liver-related events (LREs), non-liver-related events (NLREs) and mortality in DAA-treated patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Consecutive patients with cirrhosis and SVR were enrolled in a longitudinal, single-center study, and divided into 3 cohorts: Cohort A (Child-Pugh A without a previous LRE), Cohort B (Child-Pugh B or Child-Pugh A with prior non-hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC] LREs), Cohort C (previous HCC). RESULTS: A total of 636 patients with cirrhosis (median 65 years-old, 58% males, 89% Child-Pugh A) were followed for 51 (8-68) months (Cohort A n = 480, Cohort B n = 89, Cohort C n = 67). The 5-year estimated cumulative incidences of LREs were 10.4% in Cohort A vs. 32.0% in Cohort B (HCC 7.7% vs. 19.7%; ascites 1.4% vs. 8.6%; variceal bleeding 1.3% vs. 7.8%; encephalopathy 0 vs. 2.5%) vs. 71% in Cohort C (HCC only) (p <0.0001). The corresponding figures for NLREs were 11.7% in Cohort A vs. 17.9% in Cohort B vs. 17.5% in Cohort C (p = 0.32). The 5-year estimated probabilities of liver-related vs. non-liver-related deaths were 0.5% vs. 4.5% in Cohort A, 16.2% vs. 8.8% in Cohort B and 12.1% vs. 7.7% in Cohort C. The all-cause mortality rate in Cohort A was similar to the rate expected for the general population stratified by age, sex and calendar year according to the Human Mortality Database, while it was significantly higher in Cohort B. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cirrhosis and an SVR on DAAs face risks of liver-related and non-liver-related events and mortality; however, their incidence is strongly influenced by pre-DAA patient history. LAY SUMMARY: In this large single-center study enrolling patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis cured by direct-acting antivirals, pre-treatment liver disease history strongly influenced long-term outcomes. In patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma was the most frequent liver-related complication after viral cure. Due to improved long-term outcomes, patients with cirrhosis after HCV cure are exposed to a significant proportion of non-liver-related events.

6.
Liver Transpl ; 27(12): 1767-1778, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388851

RESUMO

Safety of regorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) has been recently demonstrated. We aimed to assess the survival benefit of regorafenib compared with best supportive care (BSC) in LT patients after sorafenib discontinuation. This observational multicenter retrospective study included LT patients with HCC recurrence who discontinued first-line sorafenib. Group 1 comprised regorafenib-treated patients, whereas the control group was selected among patients treated with BSC due to unavailability of second-line options at the time of sorafenib discontinuation and who were sorafenib-tolerant progressors (group 2). Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) of group 1 compared with group 2. Secondary endpoints were safety and OS of sequential treatment with sorafenib + regorafenib/BSC. Among 132 LT patients who discontinued sorafenib included in the study, 81 were sorafenib tolerant: 36 received regorafenib (group 1) and 45 (group 2) received BSC. Overall, 24 (67%) patients died in group 1 and 40 (89%) in group 2: the median OS was significantly longer in group 1 than in group 2 (13.1 versus 5.5 months; P < 0.01). Regorafenib treatment was an independent predictor of reduced mortality (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.89; P = 0.02). Median treatment duration with regorafenib was 7.0 (95% CI, 5.5-8.5) months; regorafenib dose was reduced in 22 (61%) patients for adverse events and discontinued for tumor progression in 93% (n = 28). The median OS calculated from sorafenib start was 28.8 months (95% CI, 17.6-40.1) in group 1 versus 15.3 months (95% CI, 8.8-21.7) in group 2 (P < 0.01). Regorafenib is an effective second-line treatment after sorafenib in patients with HCC recurrence after LT.

7.
Infect Immun ; 89(11): e0037621, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460287

RESUMO

Liver transplantation (LT) is a life-saving strategy for patients with end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and acute liver failure. LT success can be hampered by several short-term and long-term complications. Among them, bacterial infections, especially those due to multidrug-resistant germs, are particularly frequent, with a prevalence between 19 and 33% in the first 100 days after transplantation. In the last decades, a number of studies have highlighted how the gut microbiota (GM) is involved in several essential functions to ensure intestinal homeostasis, becoming one of the most important virtual metabolic organs. The GM works through different axes with other organs, and the gut-liver axis is among the most relevant and investigated ones. Any alteration or disruption of the GM is defined as dysbiosis. Peculiar phenotypes of GM dysbiosis have been associated with several liver conditions and complications, such as chronic hepatitis, fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, there is growing evidence of the crucial role of the GM in shaping the immune response, both locally and systemically, against pathogens. This paves the way to the manipulation of the GM as a therapeutic instrument to modulate infectious risk and outcome. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the interplay between the gut microbiota and the immune system in liver transplant recipients and the role of the former in infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Disbiose , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Liver Cancer ; 10(4): 370-379, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414124

RESUMO

Introduction: Cabozantinib has been approved by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) previously treated with sorafenib. Cabozantinib is also being tested in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors in the frontline setting. Real-life clinical data of cabozantinib for HCC are still lacking. Moreover, the prognostic factors for HCC treated with cabozantinib have not been investigated. Methods: We evaluated clinical data and outcome of HCC patients who received cabozantinib in the legal context of named patient use in Italy. Results: Ninety-six patients from 15 centres received cabozantinib. All patients had preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A), mostly with an advanced HCC (77.1%) in a third-line setting (75.0%). The prevalence of performance status (PS) > 0, macrovascular invasion (MVI), extrahepatic spread, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) >400 ng/mL was 50.0, 30.2, 67.7, and 44.8%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were 12.1 (95% confidence interval 9.4-14.8) and 5.1 (3.3-6.9) months, respectively. Most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were fatigue (67.7%), diarrhoea (54.2%), anorexia (45.8%), HFSR (43.8%), weight loss (24.0%), and hypertension (24.0%). Most common treatment-related Grade 3-4 AEs were fatigue (6.3%), HFSR (6.3%), and increased aminotransferases (6.3%). MVI, ECOG-PS > 0, and AFP >400 ng/mL predicted a worse OS. Discontinuation for intolerance and no new extrahepatic lesions at the progression were associated with better outcomes. Conclusions: In a real-life Western scenario (mostly in a third-line setting), cabozantinib efficacy and safety data were comparable with those reported in its registration trial. Data regarding the prognostic factors might help in patient selection and design of clinical trials.

9.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lenvatinib is a standard of care option in first-line therapy of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we aim to identify, in patients with HCC treated with lenvatinib, a possible association between occurrence and grading of adverse events (AEs) and outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 606 Japanese and Italian patients treated with lenvatinib in first-line setting and investigated the possible correlation between the onset of AEs, toxicity grade (G) and outcome measures such as overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: The appearance of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 independently predicted prolonged OS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.93, P = .0188], whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 independently predicted decreased OS (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.25-2.32, P = .0007) by multivariate analysis. Appearance of hand-foot skin reaction independently predicted prolonged PFS (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.93, P = .0149), whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicted decreased PFS (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.77, P = .0277). CONCLUSIONS: Our main findings are that the occurrence of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 is a predictor of longer survival, whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicts for a poor prognosis. A careful management of AEs under lenvatinib treatment for HCC is required, to improve patients' quality of life, minimize the need for treatment discontinuation and achieve optimal outcome.

11.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 9379-9389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992463

RESUMO

Background: Lenvatinib has been approved in Italy since October 2019 as a first-line therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to date data on effectiveness and safety of lenvatinib are not available in our region. To fill this gap, we performed a multicentric analysis of the real-world treatment outcomes with the propensity score matching in a cohort of Italian patients with unresectable HCC who were treated with either sorafenib or lenvatinib. Aims and Methods: To evaluate the effectiveness of sorafenib and lenvatinib as primary treatment of advanced HCC in clinical practice we performed a multicentric analysis of the treatment outcomes of 288 such patients recruited in 11 centers in Italy. A propensity score was used to mitigate confounding due to referral biases in the assessment of mortality and progression-free survival. Results: Over a follow-up period of 11 months the Cox regression model showed 48% reduction of death risk for patients treated with lenvatinib (95% CI: 0.34-0.81; p = 0.0034), compared with those treated with sorafenib. The median PFS was 9.0 and 4.9 months for lenvatinib and sorafenib arm, respectively. Patients treated with lenvatinib showed a higher percentage of response rate (29.4% vs 2.8%; p < 0.00001) compared with patients treated with sorafenib. Sorafenib was shown to be correlated with more HFSR, diarrhea and fatigue, while lenvatinib with more hypertension and fatigue. Conclusion: Our study highlighted for the first time the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in an Italian cohort of patients.

12.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly changed the activities and daily clinical scenarios, subverting organizational requirements of our Gastroenterology Units. AIM: to evaluate the clinical needs and outcomes of the gastroenterological ward metamorphosis during the COVID-19 outbreaks in a high incidence scenario. METHODS: we compared the pertinence of gastroenterological hospitalization, modality of access, mortality rate, days of hospitalization, diagnostic and interventional procedures, age, Charlson comorbidity index, and frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients and healthcare personnel across the first and the second COVID-19 outbreaks in a COVID-free gastroenterological ward in the metropolitan area of Milan, that was hit first and hardest during the first COVID-19 outbreak since March 2020. RESULTS: pertinence of gastroenterological hospitalization decreased both during the first and, to a lesser degree, the second SARS-CoV2 waves as compared to the pre-COVID era (43.6, 85.4, and 96.2%, respectively), as occurred to the admissions from domicile, while age, comorbidities, length of stay and mortality increased. Endoscopic and interventional radiology procedures declined only during the first wave. Hospitalized patients resulted positive to a SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab in 10.2% of cases during the first COVID-19 outbreak after a median of 7 days since admission (range 1-15 days) and only 1 out of 318 patients during the second wave (6 days after admission). During the first wave, 19.5% of healthcare workers tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: a sudden metamorphosis of the gastroenterological ward was observed during the first COVID-19 outbreak with a marked reduction in the gastroenterological pertinence at the admission, together with an increase in patients' age and multidisciplinary complexity, hospital stays, and mortality, and a substantial risk of developing a SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. This lesson paved the way for the efficiency of hospital safety protocols and admission management, which contributed to the improved outcomes recorded during the second COVID-19 wave.

14.
Hepatology ; 72(6): 1912-1923, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Genetic factors and steatosis predispose to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus; however, their impact in patients with cirrhosis cured by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) is still undefined. We assessed the association between a genetic risk score (GRS) of hepatic fat accumulation, combining variants in PNPLA3 (patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3), MBOAT7 (membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7), TM6SF2 (transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2), GCKR (glucokinase regulator), and HCC in patients treated with DAAs. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We considered 509 consecutive patients with HCV cirrhosis (defined histologically or when liver stiffness ≥12 kPa) treated with DAAs. HCC was diagnosed according to international recommendations. GRS was calculated from the weighted impact of single variants on hepatic fat content quantified by H1 spectrometry in the general population (Dallas Heart Study). During a median follow-up of 43 (3-57) months after DAA start, 36 of 452 (8%) patients developed de novo HCC, 4-year cumulative probability being 9% (95% confidence interval 7%-12%). Male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 2.54, P = 0.02), diabetes (HR 2.39, P = 0.01), albumin (HR 0.35, P = 0.001), and GRS score >0.597 (HR 2.30, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of de novo HCC. In contrast, single genetic risk variants were not useful in stratifying HCC risk. The proportion of patients who developed HCC according to the combination of the independent risk factors ranged from 11% to 67%. HCC recurred in 28 of 57 (49%) patients with previous history; diabetes and ethnicity were the only independent predictors of HCC recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of DAA-treated patients with cirrhotic HCV, GRS was associated with de novo HCC independently of classical risk factors, including liver disease severity. These data suggest that hepatic fat (i.e., lipotoxicity) promotes HCC in this setting and may represent a target for chemoprevention. Combination of clinical and genetic predictors may improve HCC risk stratification.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resposta Viral Sustentada
16.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(7): 947-956, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indications for liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma are evolving and so-called expanded criteria remain debated. Locoregional therapies are able to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma from beyond to within the Milan criteria. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of liver transplantation after successful hepatocellular carcinoma downstaging. METHODS: We did an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial designed in two phases, 2b and 3, at nine Italian tertiary care and transplantation centres. Patients aged 18-65 years with hepatocellular carcinoma beyond the Milan criteria, absence of macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread, 5-year estimated post-transplantation survival of at least 50%, and good liver function (Child-Pugh A-B7) were recruited and underwent tumour downstaging with locoregional, surgical, or systemic therapies according to multidisciplinary decision. After an observation period of 3 months, during which sorafenib was allowed, patients with partial or complete responses according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors were randomly assigned (1:1) by an interactive web-response system to liver transplantation or non-transplantation therapies (control group). A block randomisation (block size of 2), stratified by centre and compliance to sorafenib treatment, was applied. Liver transplantation was done with whole or split organs procured from brain-dead donors. The control group received sequences of locoregional and systemic treatment at the time of demonstrated tumour progression. The primary outcomes were 5-year tumour event-free survival for phase 2b and overall survival for phase 3. Analyses were by intention to treat. Organ allocation policy changed during the course of the study and restricted patient accrual to 4 years. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01387503. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2011, and March 31, 2015, 74 patients were enrolled. Median duration of downstaging was 6 months (IQR 4-11). 29 patients dropped out before randomisation and 45 were randomly assigned: 23 to the transplantation group versus 22 to the control group. At data cutoff on July 31, 2019, median follow-up was 71 months (IQR 60-85). 5-year tumour event-free survival was 76·8% (95% CI 60·8-96·9) in the transplantation group versus 18·3% (7·1-47·0) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·20, 95% CI 0·07-0·57; p=0·003). 5-year overall survival was 77·5% (95% CI 61·9-97·1) in the transplantation group versus 31·2% (16·6-58·5) in the control group (HR 0·32, 95% CI 0·11-0·92; p=0·035). The most common registered grade 3-4 serious adverse events were hepatitis C virus recurrence (three [13%] of 23 patients) and acute transplant rejection (two [9%]) in the transplantation group, and post-embolisation syndrome (two [9%] of 22 patients) in the control group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in four patients: two (8%) of 23 patients in the transplantation group (myocardial infarction and multi-organ failure) versus two (9%) of 22 patients in the control group (liver decompensation). INTERPRETATION: Although results must be interpreted with caution owing to the early closing of the trial, after effective and sustained downstaging of eligible hepatocellular carcinomas beyond the Milan criteria, liver transplantation improved tumour event-free survival and overall survival compared with non-transplantation therapies Post-downstaging tumour response could contribute to the expansion of hepatocellular carcinoma transplantation criteria. FUNDING: Italian Ministry of Health.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Hepatol ; 73(5): 1063-1071, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a major health threat to healthy individuals and those with comorbidities, but its impact on patients with cirrhosis is currently unknown. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on the clinical outcome of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: In this multicentre retrospective study, patients with cirrhosis and a confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were enrolled between 1st and 31th March 2020. Clinical and biochemical data at diagnosis of COVID-19 and at the last outpatient visit were obtained through review of medical records. RESULTS: Fifty patients with cirrhosis and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled (age 67 years, 70% men, 38% virus-related, 52% previously compensated cirrhosis). At diagnosis, 64% of patients presented fever, 42% shortness of breath/polypnea, 22% encephalopathy, 96% needed hospitalization or a prolonged stay if already in hospital. Respiratory support was necessary in 71%, 52% received antivirals, 80% heparin. Serum albumin significantly decreased, while bilirubin, creatinine and prothrombin time significantly increased at COVID-19 diagnosis compared to last available data. The proportion of patients with a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score ≥15 increased from 13% to 26% (p = 0.037), acute-on-chronic liver failure and de novo acute liver injury occurred in 14 (28%) and 10 patients, respectively. Seventeen patients died after a median of 10 (4-13) days from COVID-19 diagnosis, with a 30-day-mortality rate of 34%. The severity of lung and liver (according to CLIF-C, CLIF-OF and MELD scores) diseases independently predicted mortality. In patients with cirrhosis, mortality was significantly higher in those with COVID-19 than in those hospitalized for bacterial infections. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is associated with liver function deterioration and elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis. LAY SUMMARY: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a major health threat to healthy individuals and those with comorbidities. Herein, we assessed its impact on patients with cirrhosis. Infection with COVID-19 was associated with liver function deterioration and elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Cirrose Hepática , Testes de Função Hepática , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Testes de Função Hepática/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Oncol ; 10: 381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351877

RESUMO

Background and aim: Liver transplantation (LT) is a validated treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC recurrence occurred between 8 and 20% of patients and lung is the most frequent site. Pulmonary metastases resection (PMR) prolongs survival, however in LT-setting the impact on survival is unclear. To give new lights on this issue, we report the experience of three Italian LT Centers. Methods: All consecutive HCC transplanted patients in three Italian LT Centers, who developed pulmonary metastasis from HCC (PM-HCC), as first metastasis, from 2008 to 2018, were included whenever treated with PMR. Results: Twenty-five patients were enrolled (median age 58 yrs, 84% male, 3% cirrhotics). HCC recurred after 34 months (9-306) since LT and PMR was performed after 2.4 months (0-43.1). A total of 28 PMR (19 single resections; 9 multiple resections; 16 right; 2 left) have been performed on 24 patients while in one case percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) was preferred. Four patients have been re-operated due to pulmonary HCC-recurrence after surgery. The majority of surgical resection type was wedge resection (26, 89%). Surgical access was: video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) in 17 cases (59%); thoracotomy in 11 (38%); MWA in 1 (3%). The 48% of nodule was in right lower lobe. Perioperative in-hospital mortality and 30 days mortality were nil; median surgical time 90 min (50-365); median post-operative overall stay 5 days (2-11). Post-operative ICU treatment was necessary in 1 case (3%) for 3 days; blood transfusions in 2 cases (7%). Overall, 5 complications (2 bleeding; 1 AKI; 1 major cardiac; 1 wound dehiscence) occurred, with an overall complications rate of 23%. Eight (32%) patients died during a follow-up after HCC recurrence of 32 months (7-213): 7 for HCC progression, 1 for severe liver failure due to chronic rejection. The 1 and 5 year cumulative probability of OS from recurrence were 100 and 43% (95%CI 12-74), respectively, with a median OS of 51 months (95%CI 24-78). Conclusion: Selected patients with isolated pulmonary HCC-recurrence after LT and with preserved hepatic function showed that a pulmonary metastasectomy could be efficacious in managing a PM-HCC and could give an opportunity for long-term survival.

19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(16): 1888-1900, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390700

RESUMO

During the last decades, further knowledge of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) molecular mechanisms has led to development of effective systemic treatments including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe first and second line systemic treatment options for advanced HCC. Several trials have evaluated new drugs for the treatment of HCC patients: In first line, lenvatinib resulted non-inferior to sorafenib and it can be used as alternative, even in the lack of evidence for sequential treatment options in second line after lenvatinib. Recently, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab have shown superiority over sorafenib in first-line. Sorafenib-regorafenib sequential administration in selected patients has opened a new paradigm of treatment in advanced HCC with a life expectancy exceeding two years. Other TKIs for second line treatment include cabozantinib and ramucirumab (specifically for patients with Alpha-fetoprotein values ≥ 400 ng/mL). The combination of TKIs with immunotherapy may represent a big step forward for these patients in the near future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Liver Int ; 40(8): 1987-1996, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) has been suggested as a serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asian hepatitis B virus (HBV)-treated subjects but no studies tested it in Caucasian cirrhotics long-term nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs)-treated. We assessed the detection accuracy of PIVKA-II alone or in combination with alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) in patients under surveillance. METHODS: This cross-sectional, single centre case-control study was conducted in 212 NUC-treated cirrhotics: 64 HCC and 148 HCC-free controls for 84 (60-107) months. PIVKA-II was determined by a CMIA immunoassay (Abbott; limit of quantification: 8.2 mAU/mL). RESULTS: Protein induced by vitamin K absence or agonist II (PIVKA-II) and AFP levels were significantly higher in HCC patients [Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system stage 0/A in 91%, diameter 20 (6-50) mm] compared to controls: 109 (17-12 157) vs 31 (13-82) mAU/mL and 5 (1-1163) vs 2 (1-7) ng/mL (P < .001 for both markers), with a cut-off of 48 mAU/mL and 4.2 ng/mL by AUROC analysis. The PIVKA-II 82 mAU/mL and AFP 7 ng/mL cut-offs showed 100% specificity, with the former more sensitive (54% vs 42%), accurate (86% vs 83%), with higher negative predictive value (80% vs 76%) compared to AFP for HCC detection. PIVKA-II more frequently than AFP levels exceeded the cut-off 6-18 months before HCC diagnosis. Combining PIVKA-II with AFP increased sensitivity, accuracy and negative predictive values to 67%, 90% and 85%, preserving 100% specificity. PIVKA-II was associated with lesions >20 mm or neoplastic thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of PIVKA-II and AFP increases the detection rate for HCC in NUC-treated HBV Caucasian cirrhotics, a potential new approach for surveillance.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Precursores de Proteínas , Protrombina , Curva ROC , alfa-Fetoproteínas
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