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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14792, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616023

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency during critical periods of development could lead to persistent brain alterations. We aimed to assess the association between maternal vitamin D3, the major circulatory form of vitamin D, at pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes during childhood, namely: behavioural problems, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms, and social competence. This study included 2,107 mother-child pairs of a Spanish population-based birth cohort. Maternal plasma vitamin D3 was measured in pregnancy. The outcomes were measured through questionnaires at 5, 8, 14, and 18 years old. We ran multivariate regression models adjusted for potential confounding variables. We found that per each 10 ng/mL increment of maternal vitamin D3, children obtained higher social competence scores (coefficient = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.19, 1.35) at 5 years old. However, we observed null associations between maternal vitamin D3 and total behavioural problems and ADHD and ASD symptoms in children from 5 to 18 years old. Further studies carried out in countries where the population is exposed to lower vitamin D levels are needed.

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need to test the fetal programming theoretical framework in nutritional epidemiology. We evaluated whether maternal seafood intake during pregnancy was associated with 8-year-old attention outcomes after adjusting for previous child seafood intake and cognitive function. We also explored effect modification by several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism. METHODS: Our final analyses included 1644 mother-child pairs from the prospective INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) cohort study (Spain, recruitment between 2003 and 2008). We used food frequency questionnaires to assess prenatal and postnatal seafood consumption of the mother-child pairs. We evaluated attention function of the children through the computer-based Attention Network Test (ANT) and we used the number of omission errors and the hit reaction time standard error (HRT-SE). Parents reported child attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Revised Conners' Parent Rating Scale Short Form (CPRS-R: S). We measured seven candidate SNPs in a subsample of 845 children. We estimated associations using regression models, adjusting for family characteristics, child seafood intake and cognitive functions at early ages, and to explore SNP effect modifications. RESULTS: Higher total seafood intake during early pregnancy was associated with a reduction of child ANT omission errors, 5th quintile (median = 854 g/week) vs 1st quintile (median = 195 g/week), incidence risk ratio (IRR) 0.76; 95% CI = 0.61, 0.94. Similar results were observed after adjusting the models for child seafood intake and previous cognitive status. Lean, large and small fatty fish showed similar results, and generally similar but less robust associations were observed with the other attention outcomes. Shellfish and canned tuna showed weaker associations. The association patterns were weaker in late pregnancy and null in child seafood consumption. Child rs1260326 (glucokinase regulator, GCKR) and child/maternal rs2281591 (fatty acid elongase 2, ELOVL2) polymorphisms showed nominal P-value for interactions <0.10 between total seafood intake and ANT outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for previous child cognitive functions and child seafood intake, high pregnancy consumption (total, lean, small and large fatty fish) was independently associated with improvements of some 8-year-old attention outcomes. Genetic effect modification analyses suggest PUFA intake from seafood as a potential biological mechanism of such association.

3.
Environ Int ; 131: 104927, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution exposure and emotional and behavioural problems in children is unclear. We aimed to assess prenatal and postnatal exposure to several air pollutants and child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in children of 7-11 years. METHODS: We analysed data of 13182 children from 8 European population-based birth cohorts. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤10 µm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and between 10 and 2.5 µm (PMcoarse), the absorbance of PM2.5 filters (PM2.5abs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated at residential addresses of each participant. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and aggressive symptoms were assessed at 7-11 years of age using parent reported tests. Children were classified in borderline/clinical range or clinical range using validated cut offs. Region specific models were adjusted for various socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics and then combined using random effect meta-analysis. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting methods were applied to correct for potential attrition bias. RESULTS: A total of 1896 (14.4%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range, and 1778 (13.4%) as having aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range. Overall, 1108 (8.4%) and 870 (6.6%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in the clinical range, respectively. Prenatal exposure to air pollution was not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.02 [95%CI 0.95 to 1.10] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2) nor with aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.96 to 1.12] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2). Similar results were observed for the symptoms in the clinical range, and for postnatal exposures to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution is not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms or aggressive symptoms in children of 7 to 11 years old.

4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(7): 661-673, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062119

RESUMO

There is scientific evidence on the protective effects of nut intake against cognitive decline in the elderly; however, this effect has been less explored in child neurodevelopment and no studies have explored the potential longitudinal association with nut intake during pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the association of maternal nut intake during pregnancy with child neuropsychological outcomes. We included 2208 mother-child pairs from a population-based birth cohort in four regions of Spain. The follow up settings were during pregnancy (first and third trimesters), birth, 1.5, 5 and 8 years. Neuropsychological examinations were based on Bayley Scales of Infant Development (1.5 years), McCarthy scales of Children's Abilities (5 year), Attention Network Test (ANT, 8 year) and N-Back test (8 year). Nut intake in pregnancy was reported through a validated food frequency questionnaire during the first and the third trimester. Multivariable regressions analyzed associations after controlling for priori selected confounders notably maternal education, social class, body mass index, energy intake, fish intake, omega-3 supplements, alcohol consumption and smoking habits during pregnancy. Children within the highest tertile of maternal nut consumption during first pregnancy trimester (> 32 g/week) had a decrease of 13.82 ms [95% confidence interval (CI) - 23.40, - 4.23] in the ANT-hit reaction time standard error, compared to the first tertile (median 0 g/w). A similar protective association pattern was observed with the other cognitive scores at the different child ages. After correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni familywise error rate (FWER), Hochberg FWER and Simes false discovery rate, ANT-hit reaction time standard error remained significant. Final model estimates by inverse probability weighting did not change results. Third pregnancy trimester nut intake showed weaker associations. These data indicate that nut intake during early pregnancy is associated with long-term child neuropsychological development. Future cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this association pattern in order to further extend nutrition guidelines among pregnant women.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Mães , Nozes , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
5.
Environ Res ; 174: 114-121, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollutants including particulate matter (<2.5 µm of diameter,PM2.5)and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been identified as a potential risk factor for neuropsychological developmental and mental health disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the associations between prenatal PM2.5 and NO2 exposure and cognitive functions in children at 4-6 years of age, including sex differences, and the modification effect of the duration predominant breastfeeding these associations. DESIGN: This study was conducted as part of the INMA project, a population-based birth cohort study in Spain (n = 1119). Each of the pregnant mothers was assigned a prenatal exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 for their whole pregnancy based on their place of residence. At the 4-6 year-old follow-up, infants' neuropsychological development was assessed using McCarthy scales: Verbal, Perceptive-Manipulative, Numeric, General Cognitive, Memory and Motor (gross and fine). Between 6 and 14 months of age, information concerning breastfeeding was gathered with a questionnaire. Regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between exposure and outcomes, accounting for potential confounders. The analyses were stratified by child sex and breastfeeding duration. RESULTS: The majority of coefficients for the different cognitive domains were negative either for PM2.5 and NO2, though none was statistically significant. After stratifying by sex, the associations become even more negative for boys, with some of the associations becoming statistically significant (memory both for PM2.5 and NO2), and global cognition and verbal for NO2. Duration of predominant breastfeeding was not found to have a modifying effect. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a sex-dependent effects on neuropsychological development at 4-6 years of age, with a greater vulnerability in boys, specifically in domains related to memory, verbal and general cognition. No modifying effect was observed for duration of predominant breastfeeding.

6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(4): 47007, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exposome is defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards. It calls for providing a holistic view of environmental exposures and their effects on human health by evaluating multiple environmental exposures simultaneously during critical periods of life. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of the urban exposome with birth weight. METHODS: We estimated exposure to the urban exposome, including the built environment, air pollution, road traffic noise, meteorology, natural space, and road traffic (corresponding to 24 environmental indicators and 60 exposures) for nearly 32,000 pregnant women from six European birth cohorts. To evaluate associations with either continuous birth weight or term low birth weight (TLBW) risk, we primarily relied on the Deletion-Substitution-Addition (DSA) algorithm, which is an extension of the stepwise variable selection method. Second, we used an exposure-by-exposure exposome-wide association studies (ExWAS) method accounting for multiple hypotheses testing to report associations not adjusted for coexposures. RESULTS: The most consistent statistically significant associations were observed between increasing green space exposure estimated as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and increased birth weight and decreased TLBW risk. Furthermore, we observed statistically significant associations among presence of public bus line, land use Shannon's Evenness Index, and traffic density and birth weight in our DSA analysis. CONCLUSION: This investigation is the first large urban exposome study of birth weight that tests many environmental urban exposures. It confirmed previously reported associations for NDVI and generated new hypotheses for a number of built-environment exposures. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3971.

7.
J Pediatr ; 209: 204-211.e4, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether higher omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma is associated with more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at 4 and 7 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: This study was based on a population-based birth cohort in Spain. N-6 arachidonic acid and n-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were measured in cord plasma. At 4 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by teachers through the ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed checklist (n = 580). At 7 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by parents through the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised (short form; n = 642). The ADHD variable was treated as continuous (score) and as dichotomous (symptom diagnostic criteria). Child and family general characteristics were prospectively collected through questionnaires. We applied pooled zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regressions adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: A higher omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma was associated with a higher ADHD index (incidence rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.23) at 7 years old. The association was not observed at 4 years old (incidence rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.92-1.18). No associations were found using ADHD symptom diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: High prenatal omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio preceded the appearance of subclinical ADHD symptoms during mid-childhood. Our findings suggest that maternal diet during pregnancy may modulate the risk to develop long-term ADHD symptoms in the offspring.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 5957-5967, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920622

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Although the consequences of severe iodine deficiency are beyond doubt, the effects of mild to moderate iodine deficiency in pregnancy on child neurodevelopment are less well established. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between maternal iodine status during pregnancy and child IQ and identify vulnerable time windows of exposure to suboptimal iodine availability. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of individual participant data from three prospective population-based birth cohorts: Generation R (Netherlands), INMA (Spain), and ALSPAC (United Kingdom); pregnant women were enrolled between 2002 and 2006, 2003 and 2008, and 1990 and 1992, respectively. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: 6180 mother-child pairs with measures of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations in pregnancy and child IQ. Exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancies, fertility treatment, medication affecting the thyroid, and preexisting thyroid disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Child nonverbal and verbal IQ assessed at 1.5 to 8 years of age. RESULTS: There was a positive curvilinear association of urinary iodine/creatinine ratio (UI/Creat) with mean verbal IQ only. UI/Creat <150 µg/g was not associated with lower nonverbal IQ (-0.6 point; 95% CI: -1.7 to 0.4 points; P = 0.246) or lower verbal IQ (-0.6 point; 95% CI: -1.3 to 0.1 points; P = 0.082). Stratified analyses showed that the association of UI/Creat with verbal IQ was only present up to 14 weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal brain development is vulnerable to mild to moderate iodine deficiency, particularly in the first trimester. Our results show that potential randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of iodine supplementation in women with mild to moderate iodine deficiency on child neurodevelopment should begin supplementation not later than the first trimester.

9.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As a component of thyroid hormones, adequate iodine intake is essential during pregnancy for fetal neurodevelopment. Across Europe, iodine deficiency is common in pregnancy, but data are lacking on the predictors of iodine status at this life stage. We, therefore, aimed to explore determinants of iodine status during pregnancy in three European populations of differing iodine status. METHODS: Data were from 6566 pregnant women from three prospective population-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom (ALSPAC, n = 2852), Spain (INMA, n = 1460), and The Netherlands (Generation R, n = 2254). Urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat, µg/g) was measured in spot-urine samples in pregnancy (≤ 18-weeks gestation). Maternal dietary intake, categorised by food groups (g/day), was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Multivariable regression models used dietary variables (energy-adjusted) and maternal characteristics as predictors of iodine status. RESULTS: Median UI/Creat in pregnant women of ALSPAC, INMA, and Generation R was 121, 151, and 210 µg/g, respectively. Maternal age was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts (P < 0.001), while UI/Creat varied by ethnicity only in Generation R (P < 0.05). Of the dietary predictors, intake of milk and dairy products (per 100 g/day) was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts [ALSPAC (B = 3.73, P < 0.0001); INMA (B = 6.92, P = 0.002); Generation R (B = 2.34, P = 0.001)]. Cohort-specific dietary determinants positively associated with UI/Creat included fish and shellfish in ALSPAC and INMA, and eggs and cereal/cereal products in Generation R. CONCLUSIONS: The cohort-specific dietary determinants probably reflect not only dietary habits but iodine-fortification policies; hence, public-health interventions to improve iodine intake in pregnancy need to be country-specific.

10.
Environ Res ; 169: 501-509, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530090

RESUMO

Given that regardless of actual exposure levels, high-risk perceptions of electromagnetic fields of non-ionizing radiation (EMF-NIR) may cause health effects, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind perceptions in the general population. The aims of this study were to assess perceptions of both exposure and health-risk among mothers of the INMA (Environment and childhood)-Gipuzkoa child cohort; to explore possible determinants that explain such perceptions; and to evaluate whether providing information on exposure levels has any effect on perceptions. Overall, 387 mothers completed a questionnaire composed of four questions on perceived exposure and perceived health-risk of exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) fields answered on a Likert-type scale from 0 to 10. Later, measurements of ELF and RF fields were conducted in the houses of a subsample of 104 participants. All measured levels were far below the levels established by the European Council recommendation. This was explained in the individual reports sent to the families. After reading the results, mothers completed the aforementioned questionnaire a second time, plus two additional questions regarding the role of public health bodies in risk communication. The association between perceived and measured levels as categorical variables was assessed with a chi-square test. Multiple linear regressions were conducted for each of the questions related to perceived exposure and health-risk perceptions. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted to assess the effect of receiving information. Both exposure and health risk were perceived to be very high for both ELF and RF fields, with mean and medians of 7 on a 10-point scale. Reporting higher perception levels was not associated with higher levels of exposure measured at home. Variables that were repeatedly associated with higher perceptions included: manual social class, not having the feeling of living in a good neighborhood, difficulty getting by financially, not having a television antenna within 600 m, being younger and having fewer devices at home. Providing information on EMF-NIR exposure levels at home did not alter health-risk perceptions, but mean perceived RF exposure decreased significantly (by 0.7 points). Most of the participants claimed to have received no or insufficient information regarding exposure and health-risks of EMF-NIR from public bodies and considered it very important that they should.

11.
Eur J Public Health ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462218

RESUMO

Background: The health of pregnant women and their fetuses are especially sensitive to socioeconomic conditions. This study analyzes the impact of maternal socioeconomic status (SES), evaluated by occupation and maternal education level, in preterm births (PTBs) and in small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, considering the effect of the potential mediating factors on the SES and birth outcomes. Methods: A total of 2497 mother/newborn dyads from the INMA-Spain project were studied. We examined maternal occupation and education in relation to PTB and SGA along with covariate data, using logistic regression analysis. Adjusted models for each of the outcome variables in relation to SES indicators were estimated, considering potential mediating factors. Results: About 4.7% of babies were PTB and 9.7% SGA. Full adjusted logistic regression models showed similar odds ratio (OR) for SGA in both SES indicators. Manual working women or without university studies had higher risk of SGA than their counterpart groups (OR = 1.39% CI = 1.03-1.88 and OR = 1.39% CI = 1.00-2.00, respectively). Likewise, mothers with a manual occupation were at more risk of PTB than those with a non-manual occupation (OR = 1.74 95% CI = 1.13-2.74), but there was no association between education and PTB. Smoking, pre-pregnancy BMI and underweight gain during pregnancy were significantly associated to SGA births. The mother's age, presence of complications and overweight gain during pregnancy were related to PTB. Conclusion: The mother's socioeconomic disadvantage was consistently associated with birth outcomes giving rise to intergenerational transmission of health inequalities. Reducing inequalities requires eliminating the upstream causes of poverty itself.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(22): 13469-13480, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285427

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental pollutants, particularly during pregnancy, can have adverse consequences on child development but little is known about the effects of pollutant mixtures on endogenous metabolism in pregnant women. We aimed to identify urinary metabolic signatures associated with low level exposure to multiple environmental pollutants in pregnant women from the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort (Spain, N = 750). 35 chemical exposures were quantified in first trimester blood samples (organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PFAS), in cord blood (mercury), and twice in urine at 12 and 32 weeks of pregnancy (metals, phthalates, bisphenol A). 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolic profiles of urine were acquired in the same samples as pollutants. We explored associations between exposures and metabolism through an exposome-metabolome wide association scan and multivariate O2PLS modeling. Novel and reproducible associations were found across two periods of pregnancy for three nonpersistent pollutants and across two subcohorts for four of the persistent pollutants. We found novel metabolic signatures associated with arsenic exposure: TMAO and dimethylamine possibly related to gut microbial methylamine metabolism and homarine related to fish intake. Tobacco smoke exposure was related to coffee metabolism and PCBs with 3-hydroxyvaleric acid, usually released under ketoacidosis. These findings will have implications for further understanding of maternal-fetal health, and health across the life-course.

13.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 32(5): 418-424, sept.-oct. 2018. tab, mapas, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174188

RESUMO

Objetivo: Estimar la ingesta de flúor en mujeres embarazadas y sus hijos/as de la cohorte INMA-Gipuzkoa a través del consumo de agua de la red municipal y comparar estas ingestas con los valores recomendados. En Euskadi, la fluoración del agua de consumo es obligatoria en abastecimientos de más de 30.000 habitantes. Método: Se han incluido 575 mujeres embarazadas (reclutamiento en 2006-2008) y 424 niños/as de 4 años (seguimiento en 2010-2012). Las concentraciones de fluoruros en el agua se obtuvieron del sistema de información de aguas de consumo de Euskadi (EKUIS). Los hábitos de consumo de agua y las variables socioeconómicas se obtuvieron mediante cuestionario. Resultados: El 74,9% de las mujeres y el 87,7% de los/las niños/as consumían agua de red municipal. En agua fluorada, el valor medio de fluoruro fue de 0,805mg/l (desviación estándar [DE]: 0,194) durante el periodo de reclutamiento, y de 0,843mg/l (DE: 0,080) durante el seguimiento de los/las niños/as. La ingesta media de flúor y el percentil 95 en las zonas fluoradas fueron de 0,015 y 0,026mg/kg al día en las mujeres y de 0,033 y 0,059mg/kg al día en los/las niños/as. Considerando solo el flúor aportado por el agua, el 8,71% de los/las niños/as residentes en zonas con fluoración superaban la ingesta de 0,05mg/kg al día recomendada por la European Food Safety Authority. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las ingestas de flúor a través del agua de consumo pueden superar lo recomendado en población infantil, y propician futuros estudios que aporten evidencias que puedan ayudar en las políticas de fluoración de las aguas de consumo público


Objective: To estimate fluoride intake through consumption of water from the municipal network in pregnant women and their children from the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort and to compare these intakes with recommended levels. In Euskadi (Spain), fluoridation of drinking water is compulsory in water supplies for more than 30,000 inhabitants. Method: 575 pregnant women (recruitment, 2006-2008) and 424 4-year-old children (follow-up, 2010-2012) have been included. Fluoride levels in drinking water were obtained from the water consumption information system of the Basque Country (EKUIS). Water consumption habits and socioeconomic variables were obtained by questionnaire. Results: 74.9% and 87.7% of women and children consumed water from the municipal network. Average fluoride levels in fluoridated water were 0.805 (SD: 0.194) mg/L during baseline recruitment and 0.843 (SD: 0.080) mg/L during follow up, at 4 years old of the children. Average and 95th percentile of fluoride intake were 0.015 and 0.026mg/kg per day in women and 0.033 and 0.059mg/kg per day in children. Considering only fluoride provided by drinking water, 8.71% of children living in fluoridated areas exceeded intake level recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, consisting in 0.05mg/kg per day. Conclusion: The results show that ingested levels of fluoride through consumption of municipal water can exceed the recommended levels in children and encourages further studies that will help in fluoridation policies of drinking water in the future


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Líquidos , Água Potável/análise , Flúor/administração & dosagem , Fluoretação/normas , Purificação da Água , Exposição Materna/normas , Troca Materno-Fetal , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos
14.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e021311, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Essential to exposome research is the collection of data on many environmental exposures from different domains in the same subjects. The aim of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) study was to measure and describe multiple environmental exposures during early life (pregnancy and childhood) in a prospective cohort and associate these exposures with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Here, we describe recruitment, measurements available and baseline data of the HELIX study populations. PARTICIPANTS: The HELIX study represents a collaborative project across six established and ongoing longitudinal population-based birth cohort studies in six European countries (France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain and the UK). HELIX used a multilevel study design with the entire study population totalling 31 472 mother-child pairs, recruited during pregnancy, in the six existing cohorts (first level); a subcohort of 1301 mother-child pairs where biomarkers, omics signatures and child health outcomes were measured at age 6-11 years (second level) and repeat-sampling panel studies with around 150 children and 150 pregnant women aimed at collecting personal exposure data (third level). FINDINGS TO DATE: Cohort data include urban environment, hazardous substances and lifestyle-related exposures for women during pregnancy and their offspring from birth until 6-11 years. Common, standardised protocols were used to collect biological samples, measure exposure biomarkers and omics signatures and assess child health across the six cohorts. Baseline data of the cohort show substantial variation in health outcomes and determinants between the six countries, for example, in family affluence levels, tobacco smoking, physical activity, dietary habits and prevalence of childhood obesity, asthma, allergies and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. FUTURE PLANS: HELIX study results will inform on the early life exposome and its association with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Cohort data are accessible for future research involving researchers external to the project.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027417

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to understand the association between prenatal, newborn and postnatal head circumference (HC) and preschool neurodevelopment in a large population-based birth cohort. The INMA project followed 1795 children from 12 weeks of pregnancy to preschool years. HC measurements were carried out prospectively, and following a standardized protocol during pregnancy (12, 20 and 34 weeks), birth, and child ages of 1-1.5 and 4 years old; and z-scores were further estimated. Prenatal head growth was assessed using conditional z-scores between weeks 12-20 and 20-34. Several neuropsychological tests [MSCA (cognition), CPT (attention)] and behavioral rating scales [DSM-IV-ADHD, CAST (autism), CPSCS (social competence)] were carried out during the last follow-up (5 years old). Multivariable models adjusted for family and child characteristics were applied to analyze associations between HC and neurodevelopment. In fully adjusted models, prenatal HC and head growth showed little or no associations with the neurodevelopment outcomes. Independent associations were observed between HC z-scores at birth, 1-1.5 years and 4 years and MSCA global cognitive scores and DSM-IV inattention symptoms. Specifically, z-score at birth was positively associated with general cognitive scores [ß 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59, 1.85], and we observed a protective association with ADHD-DSM-IV total symptoms, mean ratio (MR) 0.85 (0.75, 0.96). Prenatal HC and head growth measurements gave little information about child cognitive abilities and behavior at preschool years. However, HC at birth and early childhood was positively associated with a range of neuropsychological outcomes, including protective associations with ADHD symptoms.

16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(7): 077005, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The urban exposome is the set of environmental factors that are experienced in the outdoor urban environment and that may influence child development. OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to describe the urban exposome among European pregnant women and understand its socioeconomic determinants. METHODS: Using geographic information systems, remote sensing and spatio-temporal modeling we estimated exposure during pregnancy to 28 environmental indicators in almost 30,000 women from six population-based birth cohorts, in nine urban areas from across Europe. Exposures included meteorological factors, air pollutants, traffic noise, traffic indicators, natural space, the built environment, public transport, facilities, and walkability. Socioeconomic position (SEP), assessed at both the area and individual level, was related to the exposome through an exposome-wide association study and principal component (PC) analysis. RESULTS: Mean±standard deviation (SD) NO2 levels ranged from 13.6±5.1 µg/m3 (in Heraklion, Crete) to 43.2±11 µg/m3 (in Sabadell, Spain), mean±SD walkability score ranged from 0.22±0.04 (Kaunas, Lithuania) to 0.32±0.07 (Valencia, Spain) and mean±SD Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ranged from 0.21±0.05 in Heraklion to 0.51±0.1 in Oslo, Norway. Four PCs explained more than half of variation in the urban exposome. There was considerable heterogeneity in social patterning of the urban exposome across cities. For example, high-SEP (based on family education) women lived in greener, less noisy, and less polluted areas in Bradford, UK (0.39 higher PC1 score, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31, 0.47), but the reverse was observed in Oslo (-0.57 PC1 score, 95% CI: -0.73, -0.41). For most cities, effects were stronger when SEP was assessed at the area level: In Bradford, women living in high SEP areas had a 1.34 higher average PC1 score (95% CI: 1.21, 1.48). CONCLUSIONS: The urban exposome showed considerable variability across Europe. Pregnant women of low SEP were exposed to higher levels of environmental hazards in some cities, but not others, which may contribute to inequities in child health and development. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2862.

17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(4): 1082-1097, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912347

RESUMO

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing worldwide for reasons largely unknown and environmental chemicals with neurotoxic properties, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been proposed to play a role. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153), p-p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and ADHD in childhood. Methods: We pooled seven European birth cohort studies encompassing 4437 mother-child pairs from the general population with concentrations of PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB measured in cord blood, maternal blood or milk. We then calculated prenatal (birth) and postnatal (3, 6, 12 and 24 months) POP concentrations using a pharmacokinetic model. The operational definition of ADHD varied across cohorts and ranged from doctor diagnosis obtained from patient registries to maternal or teachers reports. We used multilevel (mixed) logistic regression models to estimate the associations between exposure to POPs at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months and ADHD. Results: The global prevalence of ADHD in our study was 6%. The mean age at assessment of ADHD was 5.8 years (range: 3.8-9.5 years). We found no association between exposure to PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB at any age point between birth and 24 months and ADHD, in the pooled analyses (pooled odds ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.01). A number of sensitivity analyses gave basically the same results. Conclusions: In the largest study to date of 4437 children in seven European birth cohorts, we did not observe any association between either pre- or postnatal exposure (up to 24 months) to PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB and the risk of ADHD before the age of 10 years.

18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(8): 2967-2979, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757392

RESUMO

Context: Low maternal free T4 (FT4) has been associated with poor child neurodevelopment in some single-center studies. Evidence remains scarce for the potential adverse effects of high FT4 and whether associations differ in countries with different iodine status. Objective: To assess the association of maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy with child neurodevelopment in countries with a different iodine status. Design, Setting, and Participants: Meta-analysis of individual participant data from 9036 mother-child pairs from three prospective population-based birth cohorts: INMA [Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood project) (Spain)], Generation R (Netherlands), and ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, United Kingdom). The exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancies, fertility treatments, thyroid-interfering medication usage, and known thyroid disease. Main Outcomes: Child nonverbal IQ at 5 to 8 years of age, verbal IQ at 1.5 to 8 years of age, and autistic traits within the clinical range at 5 to 8 years of age. Results: FT4 <2.5th percentile was associated with a 3.9-point (95% CI, -5.7 to -2.2) lower nonverbal IQ and a 2.1-point (95% CI, -4.0 to -0.1) lower verbal IQ. A suggestive association of hypothyroxinemia with a greater risk of autistic traits was observed. FT4 >97.5th percentile was associated with a 1.9-fold (95% CI, 1.0 to 3.4) greater risk of autistic traits. No independent associations were found with TSH. Conclusions: Low maternal FT4 was consistently associated with a lower IQ across the cohorts. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings of autistic traits and investigate the potential modifying role of maternal iodine status. FT4 seems a reliable marker of fetal thyroid state in early pregnancy, regardless of the type of immunoassay.

19.
Environ Int ; 118: 60-69, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803802

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Radiofrequency (RF) fields are widely used and, while it is still unknown whether children are more vulnerable to this type of exposure, it is essential to explore their level of exposure in order to conduct adequate epidemiological studies. Personal measurements provide individualized information, but they are costly in terms of time and resources, especially in large epidemiological studies. Other approaches, such as estimation of time-weighted averages (TWAs) based on spot measurements could simplify the work. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess RF exposure in the Spanish INMA birth cohort by spot measurements and by personal measurements in the settings where children tend to spend most of their time, i.e., homes, schools and parks; to identify the settings and sources that contribute most to that exposure; and to explore if exposure assessment based on spot measurements is a valid proxy for personal exposure. METHODS: When children were 8 years old, spot measurements were conducted in the principal settings of 104 participants: homes (104), schools and their playgrounds (26) and parks (79). At the same time, personal measurements were taken for a subsample of 50 children during 3 days. Exposure assessment based on personal and on spot measurements were compared both in terms of mean exposures and in exposure-dependent categories by means of Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's kappa and McNemar test. RESULTS: Median exposure levels ranged from 29.73 (in children's bedrooms) to 200.10 µW/m2 (in school playgrounds) for spot measurements and were higher outdoors than indoors. Median personal exposure was 52.13 µW/m2 and median levels of assessments based on spot measurements ranged from 25.46 to 123.21 µW/m2. Based on spot measurements, the sources that contributed most to the exposure were FM radio, mobile phone downlink and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial, while indoor and personal sources contributed very little (altogether <20%). Similar distribution was observed with personal measurements. There was a bias proportional to power density between personal measurements and estimates based on spot measurements, with the latter providing higher exposure estimates. Nevertheless, there were no systematic differences between those methodologies when classifying subjects into exposure categories. Personal measurements of total RF exposure showed low to moderate agreement with home and bedroom spot measurements and agreed better, though moderately, with TWA based on spot measurements in the main settings where children spend time (homes, schools and parks; Kappa = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure assessment based on spot measurements could be a feasible proxy to rank personal RF exposure in children population, providing that all relevant locations are being measured.

20.
Matern Child Health J ; 22(5): 725-734, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29349652

RESUMO

Objective The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with non-initiation and cessation of predominant breastfeeding (PBF) in a mother-child cohort from Spain. Materials and Methods The analysis included 2195 mother-infant from birth to 14 months post- delivery recruited between 2004 and 2008. Maternal characteristics were collected during the pregnancy. Lactation data were obtained at 6 and 14 months after delivery. PBF was defined as intake of breast milk plus liquids like juices or water. The PBF cessation was calculated using the date that women started PBF and the date that she reported to start giving infant formula and/or food. The relationship between maternal variables and PBF initiation and cessation was modeled using logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results The prevalence of PBF at hospital discharge was 85.3, 53.4% at 3 months, 46.1% at 4 months and 7.2% at 6 month. Only two women continued PBF at 12 months and none at 14 months. The initiating of PBF was associated with higher levels of maternal education, being a first-time mother and worked in a non-manual occupation. Higher level of physical activity, not smoking and having a healthy BMI, were also positively associated with PBF initiation. PBF cessation was higher in young, obese women, who had had complications during the pregnancy, and who had lower levels of education and smoked. The employment status of women, in week 32 of pregnancy and also in month 14 post-delivery, determined likelihood of PBF cessation. Conclusions Healthier habits and education positively influenced PBF initiation and duration. Decrease in PBF duration rates in Spain can be interpreted in part as a consequence of women returning to work.

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