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2.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199571

RESUMO

Spin-to-charge conversion is a central process in the emerging field of spintronics. One of its main applications is the electrical detection of spin currents, and for this, the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) has become one of the preferred methods. We studied the thickness dependence of the ISHE in iridium oxide (IrO2) thin films, producing spin currents by means of the spin Seebeck effect in γ-Fe2O3/IrO2 bilayers prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The observed ISHE charge current density, which features a maximum as a consequence of the spin diffusion length scale, follows the typical behaviour of spin-Hall-related phenomena. By fitting to the theory developed by Castel et al., we find that the spin Hall angle θSH scales proportionally to the thin film resistivity, θSH∝ρc, and obtains a value for the spin diffusion length λIrO2 of λIrO2=3.3(7) nm. In addition, we observe a negative θSH for every studied thickness and temperature, unlike previously reported works, which brings the possibility of tuning the desired functionality of high-resistance spin-Hall-based devices. We attribute this behaviour to the textured growth of the sample in the context of a highly anisotropic value of the spin Hall conductivity in this material.

3.
Nanoscale ; 12(26): 14076-14086, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583829

RESUMO

The development of reproducible protocols to synthesize hard/soft nano-heterostructures (NHSs) with tailored magnetic properties is a crucial step to define their potential application in a variety of technological areas. Thermal decomposition has proved to be an effective tool to prepare such systems, but it has been scarcely used so far for the synthesis of Co-based metal/ferrite NHSs, despite their intriguing physical properties. We found a new approach to prepare this kind of nanomaterial based on a simple one-pot thermal decomposition reaction of metal-oleate precursors in the high boiling solvent docosane. The obtained NHSs are characterized by the coexistence of Co metal and Co doped magnetite and are highly stable in an air atmosphere, thanks to the passivation of the metal with a very thin oxide layer. The investigation of the influence of the metal precursor composition (a mixed iron-cobalt oleate), of the ligands (oleic acid and sodium oleate) and of the reaction time on the chemical and structural characteristics of the final product, allowed us to rationalize the reaction pathway and to determine the role of each parameter. In particular, the use of sodium oleate is crucial to obtain a metal phase in the NHSs. In such a way, the one-pot approach proposed here allows the fine control of the synthesis, leading to the formation of stable, high performant, metal/ferrite NHSs with tailored magnetic properties. For instance, the room temperature maximum energy product was increased up to 19 kJ m-3 by tuning the Co content in the metal precursor.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2211, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101815

RESUMO

The interaction among magnetic moments screened by conduction electrons drives quantum phase transitions between magnetically ordered and heavy-fermion ground states. Here, starting from isolated magnetic impurities in the Kondo regime, we investigate the formation of the finite size analogue of a heavy Fermi liquid. We build regularly-spaced chains of Co adatoms on a metallic surface by atomic manipulation. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy is used to obtain maps of the Kondo resonance intensity with sub-atomic resolution. For sufficiently small interatomic separation, the spatial distribution of Kondo screening does not coincide with the position of the adatoms. It also develops enhancements at both edges of the chains. Since we can rule out any other interaction between Kondo impurities, this is explained in terms of the indirect hybridization of the Kondo orbitals mediated by a coherent electron gas, the mechanism that causes the emergence of heavy quasiparticles in the thermodynamic limit.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3992, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850704

RESUMO

The Linear Response Theory (LRT) is a widely accepted framework to analyze the power absorption of magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. Its validity is restricted to low applied fields and/or to highly anisotropic magnetic nanoparticles. Here, we present a systematic experimental analysis and numerical calculations of the specific power absorption for highly anisotropic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticles with different average sizes and in different viscous media. The predominance of Brownian relaxation as the origin of the magnetic losses in these particles is established, and the changes of the Specific Power Absorption (SPA) with the viscosity of the carrier liquid are consistent with the LRT approximation. The impact of viscosity on SPA is relevant for the design of MNPs to heat the intracellular medium during in vitro and in vivo experiments. The combined numerical and experimental analyses presented here shed light on the underlying mechanisms that make highly anisotropic MNPs unsuitable for magnetic hyperthermia.

6.
Nanoscale ; 11(7): 3164-3172, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520920

RESUMO

We report a simple and effective way to control the heat generation of a magnetic colloid under alternate magnetic fields by changing the shell composition of bimagnetic core-shell Fe3O4/ZnxCo1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles. The core-shell structure constitutes a magnetically-coupled biphase system, with an effective anisotropy that can be tuned by the substitution of Co2+ by Zn2+ ions in the shell. Magnetic hyperthermia experiments of nanoparticles dispersed in hexane and butter oil showed that the magnetic relaxation is dominated by Brown relaxation mechanism in samples with higher anisotropy (i.e., larger concentration of Co within the shell) yielding high specific power absorption values in low viscosity media as hexane. Increasing the Zn concentration of the shell, diminishes the magnetic anisotropy, which results in a change to a Néel relaxation that dominates the process when the nanoparticles are dispersed in a high-viscosity medium. We demonstrate that tuning the Zn contents at the shell of these exchange-coupled core/shell nanoparticles provides a way to control the magnetic anisotropy without loss of saturation magnetization. This ability is an essential prerequisite for most biomedical applications, where high viscosities and capturing mechanisms are present.

7.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8627, 2017 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819156

RESUMO

We present evidence on the effects of exogenous heating by water bath (WB) and magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) on a glial micro-tumor phantom. To this, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of 30-40 nm were designed to obtain particle sizes for maximum heating efficiency. The specific power absorption (SPA) values (f = 560 kHz, H = 23.9 kA/m) for as prepared colloids (533-605 W/g) dropped to 98-279 W/g in culture medium. The analysis of the intracellular MNPs distribution showed vesicle-trapped MNPs agglomerates spread along the cytoplasm, as well as large (~0.5-0.9 µm) clusters attached to the cell membrane. Immediately after WB and MHT (T = 46 °C for 30 min) the cell viability was ≈70% and, after 4.5 h, decreased to 20-25%, demonstrating that metabolic processes are involved in cell killing. The analysis of the cell structures after MHT revealed a significant damage of the cell membrane that is correlated to the location of MNPs clusters, while local cell damage were less noticeable after WB without MNPs. In spite of the similar thermal effects of WB and MHT on the cell viability, our results suggest that there is an additional mechanism of cell damage related to the presence of MNPs at the intracellular space.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Campos Magnéticos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Microglia/citologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Coloides/química , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Magnetismo , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Microglia/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula
8.
Nano Lett ; 17(7): 4047-4054, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605918

RESUMO

We show that the chemical inhomogeneity in ternary three-dimensional topological insulators preserves the topological spin texture of their surface states against a net surface magnetization. The spin texture is that of a Dirac cone with helical spin structure in the reciprocal space, which gives rise to spin-polarized and dissipation-less charge currents. Thanks to the nontrivial topology of the bulk electronic structure, this spin texture is robust against most types of surface defects. However, magnetic perturbations break the time-reversal symmetry, enabling magnetic scattering and loss of spin coherence of the charge carriers. This intrinsic incompatibility precludes the design of magnetoelectronic devices based on the coupling between magnetic materials and topological surface states. We demonstrate that the magnetization coming from individual Co atoms deposited on the surface can disrupt the spin coherence of the carriers in the archetypal topological insulator Bi2Te3, while in Bi2Se2Te the spin texture remains unperturbed. This is concluded from the observation of elastic backscattering events in quasiparticle interference patterns obtained by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The mechanism responsible for the protection is investigated by energy resolved spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, and it is ascribed to the distorted adsorption geometry of localized magnetic moments due to Se-Te disorder, which suppresses the Co hybridization with the surface states.

9.
Biomaterials ; 114: 62-70, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846403

RESUMO

Magnetic hyperthermia is a new type of cancer treatment designed for overcoming resistance to chemotherapy during the treatment of solid, inaccessible human tumors. The main challenge of this technology is increasing the local tumoral temperature with minimal side effects on the surrounding healthy tissue. This work consists of an in vitro study that compared the effect of hyperthermia in response to the application of exogenous heating (EHT) sources with the corresponding effect produced by magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) at the same target temperatures. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were loaded with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and packed into dense pellets to generate an environment that is crudely similar to that expected in solid micro-tumors, and the above-mentioned protocols were applied to these cells. These experiments showed that for the same target temperatures, MHT induces a decrease in cell viability that is larger than the corresponding EHT, up to a maximum difference of approximately 45% at T = 46 °C. An analysis of the data in terms of temperature efficiency demonstrated that MHT requires an average temperature that is 6 °C lower than that required with EHT to produce a similar cytotoxic effect. An analysis of electron microscopy images of the cells after the EHT and MHT treatments indicated that the enhanced effectiveness observed with MHT is associated with local cell destruction triggered by the magnetic nano-heaters. The present study is an essential step toward the development of innovative adjuvant anti-cancer therapies based on local hyperthermia treatments using magnetic particles as nano-heaters.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Terapia de Campo Magnético/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Campos Magnéticos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Sci Rep ; 6: 38733, 2016 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27924942

RESUMO

This work aims to demonstrate the need for in silico design via numerical simulation to produce optimal Fe3O4-based magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for magnetic hyperthermia by minimizing the impact of intracellular environments on heating efficiency. By including the relevant magnetic parameters, such as magnetic anisotropy and dipolar interactions, into a numerical model, the heating efficiency of as prepared colloids was preserved in the intracellular environment, providing the largest in vitro specific power absorption (SPA) values yet reported. Dipolar interactions due to intracellular agglomeration, which are included in the simulated SPA, were found to be the main cause of changes in the magnetic relaxation dynamics of MNPs under in vitro conditions. These results pave the way for the magnetism-based design of MNPs that can retain their heating efficiency in vivo, thereby improving the outcome of clinical hyperthermia experiments.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(43): 23967-77, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26462710

RESUMO

A novel mechanism of ferroelectricity driven by off-centering magnetic Mn(4+) ions was proposed in (Sr1-xBax)MnO3, in its ideal perovskite phase, which yields enormous expectations in the search for strong magnetoelectric materials. Still, the desired perovskite phase has never been stabilized in thin films due to its extremely metastable character. Here, we report on a thorough study of the perovskite phase stabilization of (Sr1-xBax)MnO3 thin films, 0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.5, grown by pulsed laser deposition onto (001)-oriented perovskite substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements and scanning transmission electron microscopy reveal that, under appropriate deposition conditions, the perovskite phase is fully stabilized over the nonferroelectric hexagonal phase, despite the latter being increasingly favored on increasing Ba-content. Moreover, we have managed to grow epitaxial coherent cube-on-cube (Sr1-xBax)MnO3 films upon strains ranging from 0% to 4%. Our results become a milestone in further studying perovskite (Sr1-xBax)MnO3 thin films and pave the way for tailoring ferroic and magnetoelectric properties either by strain engineering or Ba-doping.

12.
Nano Lett ; 15(1): 492-7, 2015 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25474731

RESUMO

Epitaxial strain alters the physical properties of thin films grown on single crystal substrates. Thin film oxides are particularly apt for strain engineering new functionalities in ferroic materials. In the case of La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO(3) (LCMO) thin films, here we show the first experimental images obtained by electron holography demonstrating that epitaxial strain induces the segregation of a flat and uniform nonferromagnetic layer with antiferromagnetic (AFM) character at the top surface of a ferromagnetic (FM) layer, the whole film being chemical and structurally homogeneous at room temperature. For different substrates and growth conditions the tetragonality of LCMO at room temperature, defined as τ = |c - a|/a, is the driving force for a phase coexistence above an approximate critical value of τC ≈ 0.024. Theoretical calculations prove that the increased tetragonality changes the energy balance of the FM and AFM ground states in strained LCMO, enabling the formation of magnetically inhomogeneous states. This work gives the key evidence that opens a new route to synthesize strain-induced exchanged-biased FM-AFM bilayers in single thin films, which could serve as building blocks of future spintronic devices.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(12): 9100-10, 2014 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24853082

RESUMO

For several years now, nanoscaled materials have been implemented in biotechnological applications related to animal (in particular human) cells and related pathologies. However, the use of nanomaterials in plant biology is far less widespread, although their application in this field could lead to the future development of plant biotechnology applications. For any practical use, it is crucial to elucidate the relationship between the nanomaterials and the target cells. In this work we have evaluated the behavior of two types of nanomaterials, quantum dots and superparamagnetic nanoparticles, on Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species that infects an enormous range of crops causing important economic losses and is also an opportunistic human pathogen. Our results indicated that both nanomaterials rapidly interacted with the fungal hypha labeling the presence of the pathogenic fungus, although they showed differential behavior with respect to internalization. Thus, whereas magnetic nanoparticles appeared to be on the cell surface, quantum dots were significantly taken up by the fungal hyphae showing their potential for the development of novel control approaches of F. oxysporum and related pathogenic fungi following appropriate functionalization. In addition, the fungal germination and growth, accumulation of ROS, indicative of cell stress, and fungal viability have been evaluated at different nanomaterial concentrations showing the low toxicity of both types of nanomaterials to the fungus. This work represents the first study on the behavior of quantum dots and superparamagnetic particles on fungal cells, and constitutes the first and essential step to address the feasibility of new nanotechnology-based systems for early detection and eventual control of pathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Nanopartículas/química , Plantas/microbiologia , Pontos Quânticos , Animais , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Humanos , Nanotecnologia
14.
Biomaterials ; 35(24): 6389-99, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24816288

RESUMO

Nanoparticles engineered for biomedical applications are meant to be in contact with protein-rich physiological fluids. These proteins are usually adsorbed onto the nanoparticle's surface, forming a swaddling layer that has been described as a 'protein corona', the nature of which is expected to influence not only the physicochemical properties of the particles but also the internalization into a given cell type. We have investigated the process of protein adsorption onto different magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) when immersed in cell culture medium, and how these changes affect the cellular uptake. The role of the MNPs surface charge has been assessed by synthesizing two colloids with the same hydrodynamic size and opposite surface charge: magnetite (Fe3O4) cores of 25-30 nm were in situ functionalized with (a) positive polyethyleneimine (PEI-MNPs) and (b) negative poly(acrylic acid) (PAA-MNPs). After few minutes of incubation in cell culture medium the wrapping of the MNPs by protein adsorption resulted in a 5-fold increase of the hydrodynamic size. After 24 h of incubation large MNP-protein aggregates with hydrodynamic sizes of ≈1500 nm (PAA-MNPs) and ≈3000 nm (PEI-MNPs) were observed, each one containing an estimated number of magnetic cores between 450 and 1000. These results are consistent with the formation of large protein-MNPs aggregate units having a 'plum pudding' structure of MNPs embedded into a protein network that results in a negative surface charge, irrespective of the MNP-core charge. In spite of the similar negative ζ-potential for both MNPs within cell culture, we demonstrated that PEI-MNPs are incorporated in much larger amounts than the PAA-MNPs units. Quantitative analysis showed that SH-SY5Y cells can incorporate 100% of the added PEI-MNPs up to ≈100 pg/cell, whereas for PAA-MNPs the uptake was less than 50%. The final cellular distribution showed also notable differences regarding partial attachment to the cell membrane. These results highlight the need to characterize the final properties of MNPs after protein adsorption in biological media, and demonstrate the impact of these properties on the internalization mechanisms in neural cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Endocitose , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Eletricidade Estática , Resinas Acrílicas/síntese química , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Adsorção , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Coloides , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoimina/síntese química , Polietilenoimina/química , Termogravimetria
15.
Langmuir ; 30(18): 5238-47, 2014 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24694292

RESUMO

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with titanium dioxide have been synthesized, growing the titanium dioxide directly either on the magnetic nuclei or on magnetic nanoparticles previously coated with a semihydrophobic silica layer. Both coatings have been obtained by sol-gel. Since it is well-known that the existence of the intermediate silica layer influences the physicochemical properties of the material, a detailed characterization of both types of coatings has been carried out. The morphology, structure, and composition of the synthesized nanomatrices have been locally analyzed with subangstrom spatial resolution, by means of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and STEM-HAADF). Besides magnetization measurements, proton relaxivity experiments have been also performed on water suspensions of the as-synthesized nanoparticles to investigate the role of the silica interlayer in the relaxometric properties. The silica interlayer leads to nanoparticles with much higher water stability and to higher relaxivity of the suspensions.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Titânio/química
16.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 29(8): 810-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24131333

RESUMO

This review analyses the advances in the field of magnetically induced cell death using intracellular magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Emphasis has been given to in vitro research results, discussing the action of radiofrequency (RF) waves on biological systems as well as those results of thermally induced cell death in terms of MNP cell interactions. Our main goal has been to provide a unified depiction of many recent experiments and theoretical models relevant to the effect of applied electromagnetic fields on MNPs after cellular uptake and the cytotoxicity assessment of MNPs. We have addressed the effects of RF waves used for in vitro magnetic hyperthermia on eukaryotic cells regarding physical modifications of the cellular local environment and cell viability.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Nanopartículas , Animais , Morte Celular , Humanos , Fenômenos Magnéticos
17.
Biomaterials ; 34(31): 7744-53, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23850099

RESUMO

Up to now, functionalized gold nanoparticles have been optimized as an effective intracellular in vitro delivery vehicle for siRNAs to interfere with the expression of specific genes by selective targeting, and provide protection against nucleases. Few examples however of suchlike in vivo applications have been described so far. In this study, we report the use of siRNA/RGD gold nanoparticles capable of targeting tumor cells in a lung cancer syngeneic orthotopic murine model. Therapeutic RGD-nanoparticle treatment resulted in successful targeting evident from significant c-myc oncogene down-regulation followed by tumor growth inhibition and prolonged survival of lung tumor bearing mice, possibly via αvß3 integrin interaction. Our results suggest that RGD gold nanoparticles-mediated delivery of siRNA by intratracheal instillation in mice leads to successful suppression of tumor cell proliferation and respective tumor size reduction. These results reiterate the capability of functionalized gold nanoparticles for targeted delivery of siRNA to cancer cells towards effective silencing of the specific target oncogene. What is more, we demonstrate that the gold-nanoconjugates trigger a complex inflammatory and immune response that might promote the therapeutic effect of the RNAi to reduce tumor size with low doses of siRNA.


Assuntos
Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Ouro/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Técnicas In Vitro , Integrina alfaVbeta3/genética , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Interferente Pequeno/química
18.
ACS Nano ; 7(5): 4006-13, 2013 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23600708

RESUMO

Spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (SR-EELS) using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) allows the identification and determination of the spatial distribution of the components/elements of immuno-functionalized core-shell superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles. Here, we report that SR-EELS measurements allow the direct identification and study of the biological moieties (protein G and anti-HRP antibody) in complex bionanocarriers of relevance for biomedical applications. Our findings show that the biomacromolecules are located on specific areas on the nanoparticles' surface. In addition, efficiency of this functionalization was evaluated by means of biochemical techniques.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Imobilizados/análise , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Elétrons , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Análise Espectral , Anticorpos Imobilizados/imunologia , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/imunologia , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Sci Rep ; 3: 1492, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23512183

RESUMO

Control of the motion of domain walls in magnetic nanowires is at the heart of various recently proposed three-dimensional (3D) memory devices. However, fabricating 3D nanostructures is extremely complicated using standard lithography techniques. Here we show that highly pure 3D magnetic nanowires with aspect-ratios of ~100 can be grown using focused electron-beam-induced-deposition. By combining micromanipulation, Kerr magnetometry and magnetic force microscopy, we determine that the magnetisation reversal of the wires occurs via the nucleation and propagation of domain walls. In addition, we demonstrate that the magnetic switching of individual 3D nanostructures can be directly probed by magneto-optical Kerr effect.

20.
J Mater Chem B ; 1(29): 3607-3616, 2013 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32261175

RESUMO

We report a one-step synthesis protocol for obtaining polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) engineered for uploading neural cells. Polyethyleneimine-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (PEI-MNPs) with sizes of 25 ± 5 nm were prepared by oxidation of Fe(OH)2 by nitrate in basic aqueous media and adding PEI in situ during synthesis. The obtained PEI-MNP cores displayed a neat octahedral morphology and high crystallinity. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with a thin polymer layer of about 0.7-0.9 nm, and displayed a saturation magnetization value MS = 58 A m2 kg-1 at 250 K (64 A m2 kg-1 for T = 10 K). Cell uptake experiments on a neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cell line were undertaken over a wide time and MNP concentration range. The results showed a small decrease in cell viability for 24 h incubation (down to 70% viability for 100 µg ml-1), increasing the toxic effects with incubation time (30% cell survival at 100 µg ml-1 for 7 days of incubation). On the other hand, primary neuronal cells displayed higher sensitivity to PEI-MNPs, with a cell viability reduction of 44% of the control cells after 3 days of incubation with 50 µg ml-1. The amount of PEI-MNPs uploaded by SH-SY5Y cells was found to have a linear dependence on concentration. The intracellular distribution of the PEI-MNPs analyzed at the single-cell level by the dual-beam (FIB/SEM) technique revealed the coexistence of both fully incorporated PEI-MNPs and partially internalized PEI-MNP-clusters crossing the cell membrane. The resulting MNP-cluster distributions open the possibility of using these PEI-MNPs for magnetically driven axonal re-growth in neural cells.

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