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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 70(1): 62-6, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26017660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns remain regarding the cancer risk associated with perinatal antiretroviral (ARV) exposure among infants. No excessive cancer risk has been found in short-term studies. METHODS: Children born to HIV-infected women (HIV-exposed) in New Jersey from 1995 to 2008 were identified through the Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System and cross-referenced with data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry to identify new cases of cancer among children who were perinatally exposed to ARV. Matching of individuals in the Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System to the New Jersey State Cancer Registry was conducted based on name, birth date, Social Security number, residential address, and sex using AutoMatch. Age- and sex-standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and exact 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using New Jersey (1979-2005) and US (1999-2009) cancer rates. RESULTS: Among 3087 children (29,099 person-years; median follow-up: 9.8 years), 4 were diagnosed with cancer. Cancer incidence among HIV-exposed children who were not exposed to ARV prophylaxis (22.5 per 100,000 person-years) did not differ significantly from the incidence among children who were exposed to any perinatal ARV prophylaxis (14.3 per 100,000 person-years). Furthermore, the number of cases observed among individuals exposed to ARV did not differ significantly from cases expected based on state (SIR = 1.21; 95% CI: 0.25 to 3.54) and national (SIR = 1.27; 95% CI: 0.26 to 3.70) reference rates. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are reassuring that current use of ARV for perinatal HIV prophylaxis does not increase cancer risk. We found no evidence to alter the current federal guidelines of 2014 that recommend ARV prophylaxis of HIV-exposed infants.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Quimioprevenção/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , New Jersey/epidemiologia
3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 49(1): 102-6, 2008 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18667924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a large proportion of HIV diagnoses in Western Europe occur in African-born persons, analyses of US HIV surveillance data do not routinely assess the proportion of diagnoses occurring in African-born US residents. OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of newly reported HIV diagnoses occurring in African-born persons in selected areas of the United States with large African-born immigrant populations. METHODS: We collated and analyzed aggregate data on persons diagnosed with HIV in 2003-2004 and reported to HIV surveillance units in the states of California, Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New Jersey and in King County, Washington; New York City; and the portion of Virginia included in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. RESULTS: African-born persons accounted for 0.6% of the population and 3.8% of HIV diagnoses in participating areas (HIV diagnoses range: 1%-20%). Across all areas, up to 41% of diagnoses in women (mean: 8.4%, range: 4%-41%) and up to 50% of diagnoses in blacks (mean: 8.0%, range: 2%-50%) occurred among African-born individuals. CONCLUSIONS: In some areas, classifying HIV cases among foreign-born blacks as occurring in African Americans dramatically alters the epidemiological picture of HIV. Country of birth should be consistently included in local and national analyses of HIV surveillance data.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
N J Med ; 100(9 Suppl): 7-10; quiz 61-2, 2003 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14556596

RESUMO

Public Health Surveillance is critical to the management of programs designed to control the epidemic of HIV-AIDS. Surveillance defines changing trends, helps to formulate preventive initiatives and evaluate their effectiveness, and to allocate resources. Collaboration between clinical medicine and public health is essential to achieve reliable surveillance.


Assuntos
Medicina Clínica , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Relações Interinstitucionais , Vigilância da População , Comportamento Cooperativo , Notificação de Doenças , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , New Jersey/epidemiologia
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