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1.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 13-25, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077141

RESUMO

The government in Saudi Arabia in 2016 declared the necessity to overcome the ancestral oil-based economy and move towards a more diversified model. One of the significant steps to achieve this goal is to empower Saudi women, who form half of the Saudi population, to actively contribute their much-needed talents and skills to the Saudi labour market. However, there is a scarcity of existing scales to measure women empowerment in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to construct and validate a reliable novel scale for the empowerment of Saudi women employed in higher education institutions. A methodological study was conducted from January to April 2020 among Saudi women academic and administrative staff (n=160) working in the higher educational institutions located in the northwestern and southern regions of Saudi Arabia. The tool underwent content and face validity as well as factor analyses. Internal consistency was analyzed through Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient. The data analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS version 23. A Cronbach's alpha value of 0.94 was obtained in reliability analysis. The results showed that the total women empowerment scale had an exceptional internal consistency (>9). The three domains of the scale and total woman empowerment scale had a score close to 1, indicating a high Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, and showed a high similarity between values at the second and third measurements. Self-esteem and self-efficacy subscales were the most important indicators of women's' personal empowerment. Furthermore, a highly positive correlation (p <0.01) was found between the total domains of empowerment scale. A novel women empowerment tool was developed and validated in Saudi women working as academic and administrative staff. This can serve as a reliable tool to measure women's empowerment in higher education institutions. It will eventually enable the formulation of strategies that facilitate women's empowerment and pave the path for a strong foundation for the development of the country.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Poder Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Arábia Saudita , Autoeficácia
2.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 26-35, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077142

RESUMO

Academic women in the Arab world, especially Saudi women, have numerous barriers inhibiting their leadership power at the workplace. The current study explores the perceived and real barriers to workplace empowerment among women at Saudi universities. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at 15 Saudi governmental universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was followed to select (5587 participants) The data collection started from the beginning of April to the beginning of September 2020. SPSS 23.0 was used to analyze data using descriptive statistics. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the real barriers to women empowerment at the workplace. The study showed that 52.1% of the study participants had moderate workplace empowerment, and only 10.2% have a low level. Regarding perceived barriers to workplace empowerment, 42.6% of the participants agree that male dominance was a barrier. Moreover, 36.2% of the participants agreed and strongly agree that the customs and traditions are a barrier to women empowerment at the workplace. Multiple linear regression showed that age, followed by years of experience (p <0.000), were the most significant demographic predictors of women empowerment at the workplace. Moreover, positive attitude, high self-esteem, and good knowledge (p <0.000) were considered other variables that positively predict women's empowerment at the workplace. The experience of gender-based violence (p <0.000) was a negative predictor of women empowerment at the workplace. The study concluded that around 62.3% of Saudi female academics and administrative staff have moderate or low workplace empowerment at Saudi Universities. Male dominance is perceived as the highest barrier.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Autonomia Pessoal , Poder Psicológico , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita , Universidades
3.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 36-49, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077143

RESUMO

Hearing loss affects many people worldwide, and it hinders speech, language, and social development. Consanguineous marriage is the most prevalent social custom that leads to an increased prevalence of congenital anomalies. Premarital Counseling and Genetic Screening (PMSGC) educational program is urgently needed to empower deaf and hard hearing girls. This study aimed to investigate the effect of educational intervention based on the empowerment model on deaf and hard hearing females' self-efficacy, knowledge, and attitude toward PMSGC. A Quasi-experimental research design was conducted on 64 deaf and hard hearing female students. The data collection instrument comprised four parts: basic data and personal/family history, PMSGC quiz, Likert attitude scale, and general self-efficacy scale. Data were collected from September to December 2020. The empowerment educational intervention was conducted in four sequential phases; needs assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The intervention addressed the students' knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy. The results showed that 76.6% of the study participants had consanguineous marriage between their parents, 64.1% had a history of hereditary deafness in first-degree relatives. There were statistically significant differences between the total knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy before and after intervention (p <0.001). In detail, 76.6% of the participants had good knowledge after the intervention compared to only 12.5% before it. Besides, 81.3% of the study participants had a positive attitude toward PMSGC before the intervention compared to 95.3% after it. Self-efficacy was low (25.0%) or moderate (75%) before the intervention compared to moderate (45.3%) or high (42.2%) after the intervention. Educational intervention based on the empowerment model significantly increased the deaf and hard hearing population's self-efficacy, knowledge, and attitude toward PMSGC. The use of the empowerment model in health education should be encouraged and taught to the medical and paramedical students.


Assuntos
Surdez , Aconselhamento Genético , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Perda Auditiva , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Exames Pré-Nupciais , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Empoderamento , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/genética , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 50-59, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077144

RESUMO

The KSA 2030 vision makes special reference to women's empowerment as an important strategy for Saudi community transformation. Studies related to women's empowerment, especially in the Saudi context, are still not enough and unclear. The current study explored the predictors of women empowerment knowledge and attitudes among Saudi academic and administrative staff. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 15 Saudi government-owned universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 5587 participants during the period April to September 2020. The study instrument consisting of three main parts; basic demographic data, questionnaire assessed the knowledge regarding women's empowerment, and women empowerment attitude scale. The results showed good knowledge of empowerment among the women with 75.5% of the participants demonstrating good knowledge. The total women empowerment attitude was positive among 65.9% of the participants. The association between demographic data and women empowerment knowledge and attitude showed a significant association with marital status, residence, education, and occupation (p <0.05). Linear regression on marital status, education, residence, and occupation, are confirmed as significant predictors of women empowerment knowledge and attitude (p <0.05). Mother's education level is shown as a predictor for women empowerment attitude (p>0.005). Three-quarters of Saudi academic and administrative staff have a good women empowerment knowledge score, and more than two-thirds have a positive attitude. Demographic characteristics are important predictors for women empowerment knowledge and attitude. The results of this study will help decision-makers to design and implement goal-directed women empowerment programs.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Empoderamento , Docentes/psicologia , Poder Psicológico , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
5.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 60-68, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077145

RESUMO

Women in Saudi Arabia constitute nearly 50% of the population, but their participation in economic and social activities are far below the kingdom's potential. According to the 2030 vision, women empowerment is an essential requirement for community transformation and development. The study aims to explore women empowerment among academic and administrative staff in Saudi Universities. A cross-sectional research design was conducted at 15 Saudi governmental universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was followed to select 5587 participants. The data collection starts from April to September 2020. The current study results illustrate statistically significant differences between academic and administrative staff in the total women empowerment score and all of its dimensions (p <0.05). The majority of academic staff (84.4%) have high personal empowerment compared to 73.7% of the administrative staff. The study concluded that women empowerment is higher among academics compared to administrative staff in Saudi Universities.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Empoderamento , Docentes/psicologia , Poder Psicológico , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Arábia Saudita , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
6.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 69-78, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077146

RESUMO

The study aimed to explore the role of self-esteem and self-efficacy in women empowerment among academic and administrative staff at Saudi universities. A cross-sectional design was carried out at 15 governmental universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 5587 participants. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the predictive relation. Data collection included socio-demographic variables, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, general self-efficacy scale, and women empowerment scale. The results indicated that study participants' self-esteem was equally distributed between moderate (49.8%) and high (50.2%). Also, 66.9% of the participants had high self-efficacy, and 86.8% had high total women's empowerment. Regression coefficient showed that self-esteem (B=0.521, b=0.127, t=13.785 and p <0.001) and self-efficacy (B=2.388, b=0.702, t=76.049 and p <0.001) are important predictors of the total women empowerment. However, self-efficacy was observed to be the most dominant predictor (t=76.049). The total model summary shows that 73.4% of the women empowerment level can be predicted through self-esteem and self-efficacy. The study results can be used as a base to build women empowerment programs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and help to achieve the 2030 KSA vision regarding women empowerment.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Autoimagem , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(1): 81-89, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077114

RESUMO

Maternal position is one of the most important factors to be considered during Non-Stress Test (NST). It should be a part of practice guidelines, where the appropriate maternal position reduces test-related errors and false-positive results. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different maternal positions during NST on maternal hemodynamic parameters, satisfaction, and fetal Cardiotocographic (CTG) pattern. A quasi-experimental research design was conducted at NST clinic, outpatient department/ Maternal and Children hospital at Najran city, Saudi Arabia. The study comprised a convenience sample of 118 low-risk pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected from January to June 2020. All women were assessed in the three different positions; supine, left lateral, and semi-fowler position concerning CTG pattern, maternal hemodynamic parameters, and satisfaction. The study results indicated a higher Fetal Heart Rate (FHR), increased accelerations, and fetal movement in the left lateral position, followed by a semi-fowler position compared to the supine position with statistically significant differences. No statistically significant differences (P>0.05) were observed regarding FHR variability and NST reactivity in the three positions. In addition, there were statistically significant differences (P <0.05) between the different maternal positions regarding maternal heart rate, systolic Blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and maternal satisfaction. The current study concluded that left lateral and semi- fowler positions were associated with a more favorable CTG pattern, maternal hemodynamic parameters, and satisfaction than the supine position. Left lateral and semi-fowler positions during the NST test should be standardized to reduce practical variations among health care providers, which, in turn, may reduce the need for unnecessary, expensive, and even hazardous interventions.


Assuntos
Cardiotocografia/métodos , Monitorização Fetal/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal/fisiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Coração Fetal/fisiologia , Movimento Fetal/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal
8.
J Parasit Dis ; 44(4): 737-747, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184541

RESUMO

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the immunopathological response during Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection remains controversial. The amino acid, l-arginine is a NO precursor commonly used by athletes and bodybuilders as a protein supplement. As to our knowledge, there are no published studies which have tested the effect of l-arginine on the intestinal phase of experimental trichinellosis. The present work aims to investigate the effect of l-arginine on the enteral phase of experimental T. spiralis infection in albendazole-treated and untreated mice. Forty BALB/C mice infected orally with T. spiralis larvae were divided into 4 groups as follows: Group A were infected and untreated (control) mice, Group B received albendazole alone, Group C received l-arginine alone, and Group D received both l-arginine and albendazole. Compared to the control group, l-arginine supplementation showed; a significant increase in the intestinal adult worm burden, a significantly high inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, elevated immune markers; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and enhanced apoptosis. Albendazole treated-group had a significant reduction in the adult worm number (90.9%), while combined albendazole-arginine regimen showed a lower percentage of worm reduction (72.7%). During the enteral phase of T. spiralis infection, l-arginine supplementation should be taken cautiously, as it may modulate the proinflammatory immune response and subsequently affect the outcome of the infection and/or treatment.

9.
Biotechnol Lett ; 42(12): 2761-2762, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776304

RESUMO

In the original publication of the article, the reference citation style in the article was published incorrectly. The journal follows 'Name and Year' style for references. However, they were cited in numbering style incoherent to the references given in the Reference section which were placed in alphabetical order.

10.
Biotechnol Lett ; 42(8): 1597-1610, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430801

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the therapeutic and regenerative effects of MSCs derived exosomes in the treatment of type 1 DM and to compare its effects with MSCs themselves. The experiment was done on forty albino rats grouped as follows, group (1): Ten healthy rats, group (2): Ten induced type 1 DM rats, group (3): Ten induced type 1 DM rats received exosomes intraperitoneally, and group (4): Ten induced type 1 DM rats received MSCs intraperitoneally. Serum glucose and plasma insulin levels were assessed weekly. QRT-PCR was done to assess regeneration of pancreatic beta cells by measuring insulin, Pdx1, Smad2, Smad3 and TGFß genes. Additionally, histopathological and immune-histochemical examinations were done to confirm pancreatic tissue regeneration. RESULTS: Regarding the assessed genes (insulin, Pdx1, Smad2, Smad3 and Tgfß) gene expression in MSCs treated group showed significant increase compared to diabetic group (p value < 0.001) and gene expression in exosomes treated group was increased significantly compared to diabetic and MSCs treated groups (p value < 0.001). Histopathological and immune-histochemical examination revealed regeneration of pancreatic islets in both treated groups. CONCLUSION: MSCs Derived exosomes showed superior therapeutic and regenerative results than MSCs themselves.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Exossomos/química , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/química , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ratos , Proteína Smad1/metabolismo , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo
11.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 24(4): 164-172, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077081

RESUMO

Sedentary lifestyle is very high in the Saudi population in general and significantly high among females. Furthermore, some postpartum tradition imposes limited activities during postpartum periods. For women to be active during the postpartum period, they should have enough self-efficacy (SE) to overcome perceived barriers (BP). This study aimed to evaluate postnatal exercises' PB and SE among postpartum women. A descriptive cross-sectional research design was followed in this study. This study was conducted at the outpatient department/ Maternal and Child hospital in Najran city, KSA. The study comprised a convenience sample of 368 postnatal women. Data collection was done using a questionnaire composed of three parts; socio-demographic data and obstetric history, exercise benefits/barriers scale and exercise self-efficacy scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23.0. The relationships between variables were assessed using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The correlations were assessed using Pearson correlation. The study results illustrated that 52.4% of the postpartum women had moderate SE to exercise, and 71.5% had moderate PB. Also, there were statistically significant relationships between the study participants' SE and PB and their educational level and nationality (p <0.05). In addition, significant negative correlations existed between the participants' SE and their Body Mass Index (BMI), age, gravidity, parity, number of children, and PB (p <0.05). On the other hand, significant positive correlations were observed between the participants' PB and their BMI, age, gravidity, parity, and number of children. This study concluded that about two-thirds of the postpartum women in Najran had low or moderate SE to practice postnatal exercises, and the majority of them had moderate or high BP. Efforts to enhance postnatal exercises should be directed to increase SE to overcome BP concerning postnatal exercises.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 24(s1): 78-86, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077057

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of an educational intervention based on the health belief model (HBM) about COVID- 19 on nursing students' awareness and health beliefs. A true-experimental research design was conducted at nursing college, Najran University, KSA. A comprehensive sampling was followed to include all female students at the colleges (164 students). The sample was divided randomly into intervention (82) and control group (82). The educational intervention was designed and conducted based on the HBM through four sequential phases: assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The current study results indicated no statistically significant differences between intervention and control groups concerning their demographic characteristic, awareness, and health beliefs before intervention. After intervention, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between intervention and control groups in their awareness and all HBM constructs regarding COVID19. There were positive, statistically significant correlations (P < 0.05) between participants' total HBM score and their total awareness score. This study concluded that HBM is effective in increasing nursing students' awareness regarding COVID-19. It also increases their perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits. Besides, it may increase their self-efficacy to overcome perceived barriers to practice protective and preventive actions while dealing with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Modelo de Crenças de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Características de Residência , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Stem Cells ; 12(3): 400-409, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474025

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The release of microvesicles (MVs) from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been implicated in intercellular communication, and may contribute to beneficial paracrine effects of stem cell-based therapies. We investigated the effect of administration of MSC-MVs on the therapeutic potential of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced liver fibrosis in rats. Methods: Our work included: isolation and further identification of bone marrow MSC-MVs by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by CCl4 followed by injection of prepared MSC-MVs in injured rats. The effects of MSC-MVs were evaluated by biochemical analysis of liver functions, RNA gene expression quantitation for collagen-1α, transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by real time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) techniques. Finally histopathological examination of the liver tissues was assessed for all studied groups. Results: BM-MSC-MVs treated group showed significant increase in serum albumin levels, VEGF quantitative gene expression (p<0.05), while it showed a significant decrease in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) enzyme levels, quantitative gene expression of TGF-ß, collagen-1α, IL-1ß compared to CCL4 fibrotic group (p<0.05). Additionally, the histopathological assessment of the liver tissues of BM-MSC-MVs treated group showed marked decrease in the collagen deposition & improvement of histopathological picture in comparison with CCL4 fibrotic group. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that BM-MSC-MVs possess anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and pro-angiogenic properties which can promote the resolution of CCL4 induced liver fibrosis in rats.

14.
Future Med Chem ; 10(5): 493-509, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431476

RESUMO

AIM: Computer-aided drug design techniques were adopted to design three series of 2-substituted-5-nitrobenzimidazole derivatives hybridized with piperzine 5a,b, oxadiazole 7a,b, 9, 14a-c and triazolo-thiadiazole moieties 12a-d, as VEGFR-2/c-Met kinase inhibitors. MATERIALS & METHODS: The designed compounds were synthesized adopting the chemical pathways outlined in schemes 1 and 2 to afford the desired three series followed by evaluating their inhibitory activities against VEGFR-2 and c-Met and in vitro anticancer activities. RESULT: Analogs bearing substituted phenyl ring attached to oxadiazole ring 14a showed the greatest inhibitory activities against non-small-cell lung cancer NCI-H522 and melanoma SK-MEL-2 with inhibition percent of 48.70 and 42.62, respectively. Moreover, unsubstituted phenoxymethyl derivative 12d exhibited promising inhibitory activity against VEGFR-2 and c-Met (35.88 and 88.48%), respectively. CONCLUSION: The above results revealed that 2-substituted-5-nitrobenzimidazole hybridized with various heterocyclic scaffolds could be a potential anticancer agent.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Benzimidazóis/síntese química , Benzimidazóis/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
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