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1.
Biomedicines ; 10(4)2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453605

RESUMO

This editorial article is dedicated to the memory of the Nerio Ceroni, the grandfather of the first author [...].

2.
Support Care Cancer ; 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bone metastases (BM) are still the main cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients, not only because of their complications, defined as skeletal-related events (SREs), but also because of the negative impact bone pain has on quality of life (QoL) and survival, especially when opioid analgesics and locoregional treatments fail. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center prospective study was carried out on 12 patients with symptomatic BM treated with MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU). The primary endpoint was the effectiveness of MR-HIFU in reducing current and breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) scores. The main secondary aims were the evaluation of circulating markers at different time-points and their relation to pain and procedure efficacy. Other secondary objectives included temporal evolution of pain response, evaluation of QoL, and side effects of the treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate primary and secondary endpoints. Questionnaires on pain and QoL completed at baseline and at 30 days were compared using appropriate statistical tests with exploratory intent. RESULTS: MR-HIFU was successfully completed in all 12 patients enrolled between September 2015 and December 2018. On day 30, 6 (50.0%) patients showed a complete response of current pain and 6 a partial response, while 5 (41.7%) obtained a complete BTCP response. A partial response of BM evaluated by MD Anderson criteria was obtained in 9 (81.8%) patients. Only one patient progressed in the target lesion after MR-HIFU. No treatment-related adverse events were recorded. Bone turnover markers CTX/RANK-L (P) do not demonstrate any significant change with the pain or BM response. CONCLUSION: In our patients, targeted therapy of painful BM with MRI-guided focused ultrasound ablation was safe and showed encouraging early-onset and functional results.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328661

RESUMO

In the clinical management of solid tumors, the possibility to successfully couple the regeneration of injured tissues with the elimination of residual tumor cells left after surgery could open doors to new therapeutic strategies. In this work, we present a composite hydrogel-electrospun nanofiber scaffold, showing a modular architecture for the delivery of two pharmaceutics with distinct release profiles, that is potentially suitable for local therapy and post-surgical treatment of solid soft tumors. The composite was obtained by coupling gelatin hydrogels to poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(butylene terephthalate) block copolymer nanofibers. Results of the scaffolds' characterization, together with the analysis of gelatin and drug release kinetics, displayed the possibility to modulate the device architecture to control the release kinetics of the drugs, also providing evidence of their activity. In vitro analyses were also performed using a human epithelioid sarcoma cell line. Furthermore, publicly available expression datasets were interrogated. Confocal imaging showcased the nontoxicity of these devices in vitro. ELISA assays confirmed a modulation of IL-10 inflammation-related cytokine supporting the role of this device in tissue repair. In silico analysis confirmed the role of IL-10 in solid tumors including 262 patients affected by sarcoma as a negative prognostic marker for overall survival. In conclusion, the developed modular composite device may provide a key-enabling technology for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma.


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Alcenos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Óxido de Etileno , Gelatina , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Interleucina-10 , Óxidos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Poliésteres , Polietilenoglicóis , Polietilenotereftalatos , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
4.
Biomedicines ; 10(2)2022 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35203581

RESUMO

Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) and desmoplastic fibroma (DF) are bone sarcomas with intermediate malignant behavior and unpredictable prognosis. These locally aggressive neoplasms exhibit a predilection for the long bone or mandible of young adults, causing a severe bone resorption. In particular, the tumor stromal cells of these lesions are responsible for the recruiting of multinucleated giant cells which ultimately lead to bone disruption. In this regard, the underlying pathological mechanism of osteoclastogenesis processes in GCTB and DF is still poorly understood. Although current therapeutic strategy involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the benefit of the latter is still debated. Thus, in order to shed light on these poorly investigated diseases, we focused on the molecular biology of GCTB and DF. The expression of bone-vicious-cycle- and neoangiogenesis-related genes was investigated. Moreover, combining patient-derived primary cultures with 2D and 3D culture platforms, we investigated the role of denosumab and levantinib in these diseases. The results showed the upregulation of RANK-L, RANK, OPN, CXCR4, RUNX2 and FLT1 and the downregulation of OPG and CXCL12 genes, underlining their involvement and promising role in these neoplasms. Furthermore, in vitro analyses provided evidence for suggesting the combination of denosumab and lenvatinib as a promising therapeutic strategy in GCTB and DF compared to monoregimen chemotherapy. Furthermore, in vivo zebrafish analyses corroborated the obtained data. Finally, the clinical observation of retrospectively enrolled patients confirmed the usefulness of the reported results. In conclusion, here we report for the first time a molecular and pharmacological investigation of GCTB and DF combining the use of translational and clinical data. Taken together, these results represent a starting point for further analyses aimed at improving GCTB and DF management.

5.
Cancer ; 128(10): 1958-1966, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to retrospective osteosarcoma series, ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression predicts for poor outcomes. A prospective trial to assess a risk-adapted treatment strategy using mifamurtide in Pgp+ patients was performed. METHODS: This was a phase 2, multicenter, uncontrolled trial including patients 40 years old or younger with nonmetastatic extremity high-grade osteosarcoma stratified according to Pgp expression. All patients received high-dose methotrexate, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MAP) preoperatively. In Pgp+ patients, mifamurtide was added postoperatively and combined with MAP for a good histologic response (necrosis ≥ 90%; good responders [GRs]) or with high-dose ifosfamide (HDIFO) at 3 g/m2 /d on days 1 to 5 for a histologic response < 90% (poor responders [PRs]). Pgp- patients received MAP postoperatively. After an amendment, the cumulative dose of methotrexate was increased from 60 to 120 g/m2 (from 5 to 10 courses). The primary end point was event-free survival (EFS). A postamendment analysis was performed. RESULTS: In all, 279 patients were recruited, and 194 were included in the postamendment analysis: 70 (36%) were Pgp-, and 124 (64%) were Pgp+. The median follow-up was 51 months. For Pgp+ patients, 5-year EFS after definitive surgery (null hypothesis, 40%) was 69.8% (90% confidence interval [CI], 62.2%-76.2%): 59.8% in PRs and 83.7% in GRs. For Pgp- patients, the 5-year EFS rate was 66.4% (90% CI, 55.6%-75.1%). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that adjuvant mifamurtide, combined with HDIFO for a poor response to induction chemotherapy, could improve EFS in Pgp+ patients. Overall, the outcomes compared favorably with previous series. Mifamurtide and HDIFO as salvage chemotherapy are worth further study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Osteossarcoma , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Criança , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Extremidades/patologia , Humanos , Ifosfamida , Itália , Metotrexato , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e220290, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201309

RESUMO

Importance: Data about the optimal timing for the initiation of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for advanced, well-differentiated enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are lacking. Objective: To evaluate the association of upfront PRRT vs upfront chemotherapy or targeted therapy with progression-free survival (PFS) among patients with advanced enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors who experienced disease progression after treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSAs). Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study analyzed the clinical records from 25 Italian oncology centers for patients aged 18 years or older who had unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic, well-differentiated, grades 1 to 3 enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and received either PRRT or chemotherapy or targeted therapy after experiencing disease progression after treatment with SSAs between January 24, 2000, and July 1, 2020. Propensity score matching was done to minimize the selection bias. Exposures: Upfront PRRT or upfront chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the difference in PFS among patients who received upfront PRRT vs among those who received upfront chemotherapy or targeted therapy. A secondary outcome was the difference in overall survival between these groups. Hazard ratios (HRs) were fitted in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model to adjust for relevant factors associated with PFS and were corrected for interaction with these factors. Results: Of 508 evaluated patients (mean ([SD] age, 55.7 [0.5] years; 278 [54.7%] were male), 329 (64.8%) received upfront PRRT and 179 (35.2%) received upfront chemotherapy or targeted therapy. The matched group included 222 patients (124 [55.9%] male; mean [SD] age, 56.1 [0.8] years), with 111 in each treatment group. Median PFS was longer in the PRRT group than in the chemotherapy or targeted therapy group in the unmatched (2.5 years [95% CI, 2.3-3.0 years] vs 0.7 years [95% CI, 0.5-1.0 years]; HR, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.28-0.44; P < .001]) and matched (2.2 years [95% CI, 1.8-2.8 years] vs 0.6 years [95% CI, 0.4-1.0 years]; HR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.27-0.51; P < .001]) populations. No significant differences were shown in median overall survival between the PRRT and chemotherapy or targeted therapy groups in the unmatched (12.0 years [95% CI, 10.7-14.1 years] vs 11.6 years [95% CI, 9.1-13.4 years]; HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.62-1.06; P = .11]) and matched (12.2 years [95% CI, 9.1-14.2 years] vs 11.5 years [95% CI, 9.2-17.9 years]; HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.56-1.24; P = .36]) populations. The use of upfront PRRT was independently associated with improved PFS (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.26-0.51; P < .001) in multivariable analysis. After adjustment of values for interaction, upfront PRRT was associated with longer PFS regardless of tumor functional status (functioning: adjusted HR [aHR], 0.39 [95% CI, 0.27-0.57]; nonfunctioning: aHR, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.16-0.56]), grade of 1 to 2 (grade 1: aHR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.12-0.34]; grade 2: aHR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.29-0.73]), and site of tumor origin (pancreatic: aHR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.24-0.61]; intestinal: aHR, 0.19 [95% CI, 0.11-0.43]) (P < .001 for all). Conversely, the advantage was not retained in grade 3 tumors (aHR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12-1.37; P = .13) or in tumors with a Ki-67 proliferation index greater than 10% (aHR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.29-1.43; P = .31). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, treatment with upfront PRRT in patients with enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors who had experienced disease progression with SSA treatment was associated with significantly improved survival outcomes compared with upfront chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Further research is needed to investigate the correct strategy, timing, and optimal specific sequence of these therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Radioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/epidemiologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/mortalidade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/métodos , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptores de Peptídeos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Mol Oncol ; 16(4): 921-939, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109737

RESUMO

To improve the success rate of current preclinical drug trials, there is a growing need for more complex and relevant models that can help predict clinical resistance to anticancer agents. Here, we present a three-dimensional (3D) technology, based on biomimetic collagen scaffolds, that enables the modeling of the tumor hypoxic state and the prediction of in vivo chemotherapy responses in terms of efficacy, molecular alterations, and emergence of resistance mechanisms. The human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 (triple negative) and MCF-7 (luminal A) were treated with scaling doses of doxorubicin in monolayer cultures, 3D collagen scaffolds, or orthotopically transplanted murine models. Lineage-specific resistance mechanisms were revealed by the 3D tumor model. Reduced drug uptake, increased drug efflux, and drug lysosomal confinement were observed in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. In luminal A MCF-7 cells, the selection of a drug-resistant subline from parental cells with deregulation of p53 pathways occurred. These cells were demonstrated to be insensitive to DNA damage. Transcriptome analysis was carried out to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in treated cells. DEG evaluation in breast cancer patients demonstrated their potential role as predictive biomarkers. High expression of the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1) and the tumor protein p53-inducible protein 3 (TP53I3) was associated with shorter relapse in patients affected by ER+ breast tumor. Likewise, the same clinical outcome was associated with high expression of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 LAMP1 in triple-negative breast cancer. Hypoxia inhibition by resveratrol treatment was found to partially re-sensitize cells to doxorubicin treatment. Our model might improve preclinical in vitro analysis for the translation of anticancer compounds as it provides: (a) more accurate data on drug efficacy and (b) enhanced understanding of resistance mechanisms and molecular drivers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Biomimética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 697298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858389

RESUMO

Introduction: Bone metastases (BMs) are a negative prognostic factor in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of NSCLC, little information is available on BMs from NSCLC treated with ICIs alone or in association with bone-targeted therapy (BTT) such as zoledronate or denosumab. Methods: From 2014 to 2020, 111 of the 142 patients with BMs secondary to NSCLC extrapolated from the prospective multicenter Italian BM Database were eligible for analysis. Information on blood count, comorbidities, and toxicity was retrospectively collected. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) pre- and post-treatment was calculated. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, with statistical significance of survival differences assessed using the log-rank test. Results: Median age was 66 (range, 42-84) years. Performance status (PS) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) was 0-1 in 79/111 patients. The majority of patients (89.2%) had adenocarcinoma histology. At a median follow-up of 47.4 months, median progression-free (mPFS) and overall survival (mOS) was 4.9 (95%CI, 2.8-10.0) and 11.9 (95%CI, 8.2-14.4) months, respectively. Forty-six (43.4%) patients with BM NSCLC underwent first- or further-line therapy with ICIs: 28 (60.8%) received nivolumab, 9 (19.6%) pembrolizumab, and 9 (19.6%) atezolizumab. Of the 46 patients treated with ICIs, 30 (65.2%) underwent BTT: 24 (80.0%) with zoledronate and 6 (20.0%) with denosumab. The ICI-alone group had an mOS of 15.8 months [95%CI, 8.2-not evaluable (NE)] vs. 21.8 months (95%CI, 14.5-not evaluable) for the ICI plus BTT group and 7.5 (95%CI, 6.1-10.9) months for the group receiving other treatments (p < 0.001). NLR ≤5 had a positive impact on OS. Conclusion: BTT appears to have a synergistic effect when used in combination with ICIs, improving patient survival.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Ácido Zoledrônico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768995

RESUMO

Adult rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents an uncommon entity with an incidence of less than 3% of all soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Consequently, the natural history and the clinical management of this disease are infrequently reported. In order to fill this gap, we investigated the molecular biology of an adult RMS case series. The expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related gene and chemoresistance-related gene panels were evaluated. Moreover, taking advantage of our STS translational model combining patient-derived primary culture and 3D-scaffold, the pharmacological profile of an adult head and neck sclerosing RMS was assessed. Furthermore, NGS, microsatellite instability, and in silico analyses were carried out. RT-PCR identified the upregulation of CDH1, SLUG, MMP9, RAB22a, S100P, and LAPTM4b, representing promising biomarkers for this disease. Pharmacological profiling showed the highest sensitivity with anthracycline-based regimen in both 2D and 3D culture systems. NGS analysis detected RAB3IP-HMGA2 in frame gene rearrangement and FGFR4 mutation; microsatellite instability analysis did not detect any alteration. In silico analysis confirmed the mutation of FGFR4 as a promising marker for poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target. We report for the first time the molecular and pharmacological characterization of rare entities of adult head and neck and posterior trunk RMS. These preliminary data could shed light on this poorly understood disease.


Assuntos
Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação/genética , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Regulação para Cima
11.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 179-190, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The REGOMA trial showed that regorafenib significantly improved overall survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma compared with lomustine. Patients treated with regorafenib experienced a higher occurrence of grade 3-4 drug-related adverse events than those receiving the standard treatment. Because this safety profile was expected, it was considered of great importance to assess the patient point of view regarding the disease and treatment impact on different aspects of life and patient well-being. We here report the final results of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment, a secondary end-point of the study. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02926222. METHODS: Patient-reported outcomes were assessed, within a prospective, randomised, multicentre, open-label phase II trial, by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer core questionnaire and brain module at baseline and every 8-weekly neuroradiological assessment till disease progression. Mixed-effect linear models were fitted for each of the HRQoL domain to examine the change over progression-free time within and between arms. Furthermore, differences were also classified as clinically meaningful changes. To correct for multiple comparisons and avoid type I errors, the level of significance was set at P = 0.01 (2-sided). RESULTS: Of 119 enrolled patients, 56/59 (95%) patients and 58/60 (97%) patients treated with regorafenib and lomustime completed questionnaires at baseline, respectively. No significant differences were observed in any generic or cancer-specific domain during treatment in both arms, or between the two arms, except for the appetite loss and diarrhoea scales which were significantly worse in patients treated with regorafenib. The rate of patients with a clinically meaningful worsening for appetite loss, diarrhoea and for any other domain was not statistically different between the two arms. CONCLUSIONS: Regorafenib did not negatively affect HRQoL in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. These data combined with the survival benefit shown in the REGOMA trial support the use of regorafenib as a treatment option for these patients.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Lomustina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Lomustina/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas/farmacologia , Recidiva , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209309

RESUMO

Myxoid liposarcoma (MLPS) is the second most common subtype of liposarcoma and has tendency to metastasize to soft tissues. To date, the mechanisms of invasion and metastasis of MLPS remain unclear, and new therapeutic strategies that improve patients' outcomes are expected. In this study, we analyzed by immunohistochemistry the immune cellular components and microvessel density in tumor tissues from patients affected by MLPS. In order to evaluate the effects of primary human MLPS cells on macrophage polarization and, in turn, the ability of macrophages to influence invasiveness of MLPS cells, non-contact and 3D organotypic co-cultures were set up. High grade MLPS tissues were found heavily vascularized, exhibited a CD3, CD4, and CD8 positive T lymphocyte-poor phenotype and were massively infiltrated by CD163 positive M2-like macrophages. Conversely, low grade MLPS tissues were infiltrated by a discrete amount of CD3, CD4, and CD8 positive T lymphocytes and a scarce amount of CD163 positive macrophages. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a shorter Progression Free Survival in MLPS patients whose tumor tissues were highly vascularized and heavily infiltrated by CD163 positive macrophages, indicating a clear-cut link between M2-like macrophage abundance and poor prognosis in patients. Moreover, we documented that, in co-culture, soluble factors produced by primary human MLPS cells induce macrophage polarization toward an M2-like phenotype which, in turn, increases MLPS cell capability to spread into extracellular matrix and to cross endothelial monolayers. The identification of M2-like polarization factors secreted by MLPS cells may allow to develop novel targeted therapies counteracting MLPS progression.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299136

RESUMO

Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a family of rare malignant tumors encompassing more than 80 histologies. Current therapies for metastatic STS, a condition that affects roughly half of patients, have limited efficacy, making innovative therapeutic strategies urgently needed. From a molecular point of view, STSs can be classified as translocation-related and those with a heavily rearranged genotype. Although only the latter display an increased mutational burden, molecular profiles suggestive of an "immune hot" tumor microenvironment are observed across STS histologies, and response to immunotherapy has been reported in both translocation-related and genetic complex STSs. These data reinforce the notion that immunity in STSs is multifaceted and influenced by both genetic and epigenetic determinants. Cumulative evidence indicates that a fine characterization of STSs at different levels is required to identify biomarkers predictive of immunotherapy response and to discover targetable pathways to switch on the immune sensitivity of "immune cold" tumors. In this review, we will summarize recent findings on the interplay between genetic landscape, molecular profiling and immunity in STSs. Immunological and molecular features will be discussed for their prognostic value in selected STS histologies. Finally, the local and systemic immunomodulatory effects of the targeted drugs imatinib and sunitinib will be discussed.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Imunoterapia/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Sarcoma/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Humanos , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/patologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072360

RESUMO

For many years, oncological clinical trials have taken advantage of dendritic cells (DC) for the design of DC-based cellular therapies. This has required the design of suitable quality control assays to evaluate the potency of these products. The purpose of our work was to develop and validate a novel bioassay that uses flow cytometry as a read-out measurement. In this method, CD3+ cells are labeled with a fluorescent dye and the DC costimulatory activity is measured by the degree of T cell proliferation caused by the DC-T cell interaction. The validation of the method was achieved by the evaluation of essential analytical parameters defined by international guidelines. Our results demonstrated that the method could be considered specific, selective, and robust. The comparison between measured values and estimated true values confirmed a high level of accuracy and a lack of systematic error. Repeated experiments have shown the reproducibility of the assay and the proportionality between the potency and the DC amount has proven its linearity. Our results suggest that the method is compliant with the guidelines and could be adopted as a quality control assay or batch-release testing within GMP facilities.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
15.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(5)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067837

RESUMO

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have widened the therapeutic scenario of different cancer types. Phase I/II trials have been designed to evaluate the role of ICIs both as single agents and in combination in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), but as yet no randomized controlled phase III trials have been carried out. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published could help to reduce the biases of single-phase II trials. Efficacy data were obtained on 636 patients. Pooled percentages of the overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were 10% (95% CI: 6-15%, I2 = 67%, p < 0.1) and 42% (95% CI: 28-56%, I2 = 93%, p < 0.1), respectively. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 4.1 months (95% CI 2.6-5.4; I2 = 96%, p < 0.1) and median overall survival (mOS) was 11 months (95% CI 4.8-21.1; I2 = 98%, p < 0.1). Among the ICIs used as single agents, the anti-PD1 toripalimab achieved the highest ORR. Combination regimens were superior to monotherapy, e.g., the ICI combination nivolumab + ipilimumab, and the ICI + anti-angiogenetic combination atezolizumab + bevacizumab, both of which warrant further investigation. Promising efficacy and a good safety profile of ICIs represent a valid opportunity for expanding the therapeutic landscape of NENs. Predictive biomarkers are needed to identify the most suitable candidates for these regimens.

16.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 678532, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124067

RESUMO

Bone metastasis (BM) is a dismal complication of cancer that frequently occurs in patients with advanced carcinomas and that often manifests as an osteolytic lesion. In bone, tumor cells promote an imbalance in bone remodeling via the release of growth factors that, directly or indirectly, stimulate osteoclast resorption activity. However, carcinoma cells are also characterized by an altered metabolism responsible for a decrease of extracellular pH, which, in turn, directly intensifies osteoclast bone erosion. Here, we speculated that tumor-derived acidosis causes the osteoblast-osteoclast uncoupling in BM by modulating the pro-osteoclastogenic phenotype of osteoblasts. According to our results, a low pH recruits osteoclast precursors and promotes their differentiation through the secretome of acid-stressed osteoblasts that includes pro-osteoclastogenic factors and inflammatory mediators, such as RANKL, M-CSF, TNF, IL-6, and, above the others, IL-8. The treatment with the anti-IL-6R antibody tocilizumab or with an anti-IL-8 antibody reverted this effect. Finally, in a series of BM patients, circulating levels of the osteolytic marker TRACP5b significantly correlated with IL-8. Our findings brought out that tumor-derived acidosis promotes excessive osteolysis at least in part by inducing an inflammatory phenotype in osteoblasts, and these results strengthen the use of anti-IL-6 or anti-IL-8 strategies to treat osteolysis in BM.

17.
Acta Oncol ; 60(9): 1192-1200, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify and validate baseline magnetic resonance imaging (b-MRI) radiomic features (RFs) as predictors of disease outcomes in effectively cured head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Training set (TS) and validation set (VS) were retrieved from preexisting datasets (HETeCo and BD2Decide trials, respectively). Only patients with both pre- and post-contrast enhancement T1 and T2-weighted b-MRI and at least 2 years of follow-up (FUP) were selected. The combination of the best extracted RFs was used to classify low risk (LR) vs. high risk (HR) of disease recurrence. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of the radiomic model were computed on both TS and VS. Overall survival (OS) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves were compared for LR vs. HR. The radiomic-based risk class was used in a multivariate Cox model, including well-established clinical prognostic factors (TNM, sub-site, human papillomavirus [HPV]). RESULTS: In total, 57 patients of TS and 137 of VS were included. Three RFs were selected for the signature. Sensitivity of recurrence risk classifier was 0.82 and 0.77, specificity 0.78 and 0.81, AUC 0.83 and 0.78 for TS and VS, respectively. VS KM curves for LR vs. HR groups significantly differed both for 5-year DFS (p<.0001) and OS (p=.0004). A combined model of RFs plus TNM improved prognostic performance as compared to TNM alone, both for VS 5-year DFS (C-index: 0.76 vs. 0.60) and OS (C-index: 0.74 vs. 0.64). CONCLUSIONS: Radiomics of b-MRI can help to predict recurrence and survival outcomes in HNSCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e25972, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011083

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor that is prevalent among children and adolescents. Surgery is the most important therapeutic approach for IMT and complete resection is recommended. Although 50% of IMTs show anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, crizotinib has proven an effective therapeutic approach. However, the genetic landscape of this tumor is still not fully understood and treatment options are limited, especially in the majority of ALK-negative tumors. PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe the clinical case of a healthy 18-year-old female in whom a pulmonary nodule was incidentally detected. DIAGNOSES: Following a small increase in the size of the nodule, the patient underwent both 18FDG-PET/CT and 68Ga-PET/CT, resulting in a suspicion of bronchial hamartoma. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent surgery and a salivary gland-like lung tumor was diagnosed. OUTCOMES: After surgery, the patient was referred to our cancer center, where a review of the histology slides gave a final diagnosis of ALK-negative lung IMT. Given the histology, it was decided not to administer adjuvant therapy and the patient was placed in a 3-monthly follow-up program. The patient is still disease-free 2 years post-surgery. LESSONS: Although there is no standard of care for the treatment of IMT, identifying genomic alterations could help to redefine the management of patients with negative-ALK disease. Our review of the literature on IMT and other kinase fusions revealed, in addition to ALK rearrangements, the potential association of ROS1, NTRK, RET, or PDGFR beta alterations with the tumor.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Tecido Muscular/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Broncopatias/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Hamartoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Miofibroblastos/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecido Muscular/genética , Neoplasias de Tecido Muscular/imunologia , Neoplasias de Tecido Muscular/cirurgia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(20): 2304-2312, 2021 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Approved systemic therapies for advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) have shown limited capacity to reduce tumor burden and no antitumor activity after progression to targeted agents (TAs). We investigated the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in patients with previously treated advanced GEP-NETs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a multicenter, single-arm, open-label, phase II trial with two parallel cohorts (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02678780) involving 21 institutions in 4 European countries. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed advanced grade 1-2 pancreatic (panNET) or GI (GI-NET) NETs with documented tumor progression after treatment with a TA (panNET) or somatostatin analogs (GI-NET). Patients were treated with lenvatinib 24 mg once daily until disease progression or treatment intolerance. The primary end point was overall response rate by central radiology review. Secondary end points included progression-free survival, overall survival, duration of response, and safety. RESULTS: Between September 2015 and March 2017, a total of 111 patients were enrolled, with 55 (panNET) and 56 (GI-NET) patients in each cohort. The median follow-up was 23 months. The overall response rate was 29.9% (95% CI, 21.6 to 39.6): 44.2% (panNET) and 16.4% (GI-NET). The median (range) duration of response was 19.9 (8.4-30.8) and 33.9 (10.6-38.3) months in the panNET and GI-NET groups, respectively. The median progression-free survival was 15.7 months (95% CI, 14.1 to 19.5). The most common adverse events were fatigue, hypertension, and diarrhea; 93.7% of patients required dose reductions or interruptions. CONCLUSION: We report the highest centrally confirmed response reported to date with a multikinase inhibitor in advanced GEP-NETs, with a particularly strong response in the panNET cohort. This study provides novel evidence for the efficacy of lenvatinib in patients with disease progression following treatment with other TAs, suggesting the potential value of lenvatinib in the treatment of advanced GEP-NETs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/mortalidade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 165, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a rare group of solid neoplasm including among others liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma (L-sarcoma) and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) entities. The current first-line treatment is represented by anthracycline based- regimens, second-line may include trabectedin. Currently the activity of trabectedin and its mechanism of action is not completely elucidated. METHODS: Taking the advantages of our 3D patient-derived primary culture translational model we performed genomic-, chemobiogram, proteomic- and in vivo analysis in a UPS culture (S1). Furthermore pharmacological profiling of a UPS and L-sarcoma patient-derived case series and in silico analysis were carried out. RESULTS: Trabectedin exhibited an increased activity in 3D respect to 2D cultures suggesting an extracellular matrix (ECM) and timp1 involvement in its mechanism of action. Moreover 3D S1 xenotranspanted zebrafish model showed an increased sensitivity to trabectedin. Finally the results were further validated in a UPS and L-sarcoma case series. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together these results confirmed the activity of trabectedin in these STS histotypes. Moreover the data underline the ECM involvement in the cytotoxic effect mediated by trabectedin and could open the door for researches aimed to focus on the patient setting that could benefit from this agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Trabectedina/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Peixe-Zebra
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