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1.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 539: 111472, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606964

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, on skeletal muscles in rats with type 2 diabetes. Male SDT fatty rats (8-week-old) were provided liraglutide, or insulin-hydralazine for 8 weeks; control SDT fatty rats and SD rats were administered a vehicle. At 16 weeks of age, muscle strength of limbs was significantly lower in all SDT fatty rats compared to SD rats. While cross-sectional areas of type IIb muscle fibers in extensor digitorum longus muscle were significantly lower in SDT fatty rats than in SD rats, those of type I muscle fibers in soleus were similar in all rats. In the soleus of SDT fatty rats, liraglutide led to greater citrate synthase activity and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5 B protein expression, independently of blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Liraglutide may contribute to preservation of mitochondrial content on soleus muscle in type 2 diabetes.

2.
J Anus Rectum Colon ; 5(4): 414-418, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746506

RESUMO

Background: Some studies have reported that adhesion prevention barriers (APBs) reduce adhesion after abdominal surgery; however, evidence showing that APBs reduce the incidence of postoperative small bowel obstruction (SBO), one of the most serious complications after abdominal surgery, is little. One concern is that APBs are usually applied only under the midline incision, although adhesion can occur at any place in the peritoneum where an incision is made during surgery. INTERCEEDⓇ is an APB that reportedly prevents postoperative SBO after surgery. This study aims to assess the clinical utility of INTERCEEDⓇ for the prevention of SBO after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery and determine whether the application site of INTERCEEDⓇ affects the incidence of SBO. Methods/Design: This study is a prospective, multicenter, observational study conducted in Japan. The primary end point is the incidence of postoperative SBO 2 years after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. The secondary end points include whether the site of the application of INTERCEEDⓇ affects the incidence of SBO. Each surgeon selects one of the following three procedures: 1) INTERCEEDⓇ is placed only under the midline incision; 2) INTERCEEDⓇ is placed at the site of bowel mobilization and/or lymph node dissection, but not under the midline incision; and 3) INTERCEEDⓇ is placed at both sites. Discussion: This is the first study to assess whether the placement of APBs affects the incidence of SBO. The study results may lead to a subsequent randomized study.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1245, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic changes underlying carcinogenesis in patients with risk factors of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) remains controversial, especially in patients with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM). This study aimed to clarify the association between risk factors of GBC and genetic changes using next-generation sequencing (NGS). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed resected tissues of 64 patients who were diagnosed with GBC (n = 26), PBM [with GBC (n = 8), without GBC (n = 20)], and chronic cholecystitis, used as a control group (n = 10). DNA was extracted from tumors and their surrounding tissues, which were precisely separated by laser-capture microdissection. Gene alterations of 50 cancer-related genes were detected by NGS and compared with clinical information, including PBM status. RESULTS: The most frequent gene alterations in GBC tissues occurred in TP53 (50%), followed by EGFR (20.6%), RB1 (17.6%), and ERBB2 (17.6%). Gene alterations that were targetable by molecular targeted drugs were detected in 20 cases (58.8%). Statistical analysis of gene alterations and risk factors revealed that TP53 alteration rate was higher in GBC patients with PBM than those without PBM (p = 0.038), and the TP53 mutation rates in the epithelium of control patients, epithelium of PBM patients without GBC, peritumoral mucosa of GBC patients with PBM, and tumor tissue of GBC patients with PBM were 10, 10, 38, and 75%, respectively (p <  0.01). CONCLUSIONS: TP53 alteration more than KRAS mutation was revealed to underlie carcinogenesis in patients with PBM.

4.
Surg Today ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817683

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent studies have highlighted the importance of understanding trends in blood glucose levels. We examined the differences in blood glucose fluctuations according to the reconstruction method used after distal gastrectomy (DG) in patients with non-diabetic gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: Sixty-one patients who underwent DG followed by either Billroth 1 (B1) or Roux-en-Y (R-Y) reconstruction were enrolled in this study. We used flash continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), a new technique for assessing glycemic control, to document the post-gastrectomy glycemic profile. Immediately before discharge, a CGM sensor was placed subcutaneously to evaluate blood glucose trends for 2 weeks. RESULTS: The coefficient of variation of glucose levels was significantly higher in the Roux-en-Y (R-Y) group than in the Billroth I (B-I) group (p = 0.0260). The time below range (TBR, glucose levels of < 70 mg/dL) was also significantly higher in the R-Y group (p = 0.0115). Logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative casual glucose levels of < 100 mg/dL and R-Y reconstruction were independently correlated with risk factors for a postoperative nocturnal TBR of > 30% (p = 0.006 and 0.042, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide new insights into the post-DG reconstruction method selected for patients with non-diabetic gastric cancer by assessing postoperative blood glucose fluctuations using flash CGM.

5.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is an increasingly recognized major symptom of breast cancer which can seriously disrupt the quality of life during and many years after treatment. Sleep problems have also been linked with survival in women with breast cancer. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of insomnia in breast cancers survivors, clarify the clinical characteristics of their sleep difficulties and use machine learning techniques to explore clinical insights. METHODS: Our analysis of data, obtained in a nationwide questionnaire survey of breast cancer survivors in Japan, revealed a prevalence of suspected insomnia of 37.5%. With the clinical data obtained, we then used machine learning algorithms to develop a classifier that predicts comorbid insomnia. The performance of the prediction model was evaluated using 8-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: When using optimal hyperparameters, the L2 penalized logistic regression model and the XGBoost model provided predictive accuracy of 71.5 and 70.6% for the presence of suspected insomnia, with areas under the curve of 0.76 and 0.75, respectively. Population segments with high risk of insomnia were also extracted using the RuleFit algorithm. We found that cancer-related fatigue is a predictor of insomnia in breast cancer survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of sleep problems and its link with mortality warrants routine screening. Our novel predictive model using a machine learning approach offers clinically important insights for the early detection of comorbid insomnia and intervention in breast cancer survivors.

6.
Pancreas ; 50(7): 994-999, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the relationship between cytoglobin (Cygb) expression and both clinicopathologic factors and prognosis in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: Seventy-five patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatectomy between 2009 and 2014 at our department were included. Diagnosis was based on World Health Organization standards, with staging by TNM classification of Union for International Cancer Control. Expressions of Cygb, phosphoinositide-3 kinase, phosphorylated protein kinase B, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of resected surgical specimens and densitometrical analysis. RESULTS: Elevated expression of Cygb was found mainly in carcinoma cells of PDAC. Patients with low expression of Cygb showed significantly shorter disease-free survival and disease-specific survival than those with high expression. There was also a significant negative correlation between Cygb expression and the expressions of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phosphorylated protein kinase B, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor. In univariate analysis, Cygb expression, clinical stage, histologic tumor grade, lymphatic invasion, and vascular invasion were prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, Cygb expression and the clinical stage were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of Cygb may contribute to tumor recurrence and poor prognosis of PDAC by increases in angiogenic factor.

7.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580726

RESUMO

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm that develops during infancy and early childhood. The array-based international consensus definition of DNA methylation has recently classified patients with JMML into the following three groups: high methylation (HM), intermediate methylation (IM), and low methylation (LM). To develop a simple and robust methylation clinical test, 137 patients with JMML have been analyzed using the Digital Restriction Enzyme Analysis of Methylation (DREAM), which is a next-generation sequencing based methylation analysis. Unsupervised consensus clustering of the discovery cohort (n=99) using the DREAM data has identified HM and LM subgroups (HM_DREAM, n=35; LM_DREAM; n=64). Of the 98 cases that could be compared with the international consensus classification, 90 cases of HM (n=30) and LM (n=60) had 100% concordance with the DREAM clustering results. For the remaining eight cases classified as the IM group, four cases were classified into the HM_DREAM group and four cases into the LM_DREAM group. A machine-learning classifier has been successfully constructed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM), which divided the validation cohort (n=38) into HM (HM_SVM; n=18) and LM (LM_SVM; n=20) groups. Patients with the HM_SVM profile had a significantly poorer 5-year overall survival rate than those with the LM_SVM profile. In conclusion, a robust methylation test has been developed using the DREAM analysis for patients with JMML. This simple and straightforward test can be easily incorporated in diagnosis to generate a methylation classification for patients so that they can receive risk-adapted treatment in the context of future clinical trials.

8.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 40(1): 12, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facial cooling (FC) is effective in improving endurance exercise performance in hot environments. In this study, we evaluated the impact of intermittent short-lasting FC on the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. METHODS: Ten healthy men performed 40 continuous minutes of ergometric cycle exercise at 65% of the peak heart rate in a climatic chamber controlled at an ambient temperature of 35 °C and a relative humidity of 50%. In the control (CONT) trial, the participants performed the exercise without FC. In two cooling trials, each participant underwent 10 s of FC at 2- (FC2) and 4-min (FC4) intervals while continuing to exercise. FC was achieved by applying two soft-gel packs (cooled to 0 °C) directly and bilaterally on the forehead, eyes, and cheeks. In another cooling trial, 10 s of FC was performed at 2-min intervals using two soft-gel packs cooled to 20 °C (FC2-20). RESULTS: The RPE values in the FC4 trial were significantly lower than those in the CONT trial at 20 min (FC4, 11.6 ± 2.2 points; CONT, 14.2 ± 1.3 points; P < 0.01). Further, significant differences in the RPE values were observed between the FC4 and CONT trials at 5-15 min and 25-40 min (P < 0.05). RPE values were also significantly lower in the FC2 trial than in the CONT trial (5-40 min). Although the RPE values in the FC2-20 trial were significantly lower (5-10 min; 15-20 min) than those in the CONT trial, there were no significant differences in the RPE between the FC2-20 and CONT trials at 25-40 min. At 35 min, the RPE values were significantly higher in the FC2-20 trial than in the FC2 trial (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Intermittent short-lasting FC was associated with a decrease in RPE, with shorter intervals and lower temperatures eliciting greater attenuation of increase in the RPE.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Face/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4505-4513, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor vascular microenvironment has an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of metastatic hepatic tumor vascular microenvironment in relation to the response to systemic fluorouracil-based chemotherapy [folinic acid/fluorouracil/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or folinic acid/fluorouracil/irinotecan (FOLFIRI)]. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 48 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with hepatic metastasis were retrospectively reviewed, and factors such as metastatic tumor vascular microenvironment, chemotherapy response and hepatic resection, were analyzed. Tumor angiogenesis was microscopically evaluated by microvessel density (MVD) in sections stained immunochemically with antibody to CD34 in patients with hepatic resection. Angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment in association with ring enhancement (RE) on computed tomography (CT) was also examined. RESULTS: Microscopic examination revealed that peripheral RE on CT of the metastatic tumor was associated with tumor angiogenesis by MVD. The overall response rate after six courses of first-line chemotherapy for liver metastasis with RE on CT was 64% (23/36), whereas the response rate for those without RE was 25% (3/12), which was significantly lower, although the survival of patients with RE-positive and RE-negative tumors did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: Peripheral RE of metastatic hepatic tumor on CT was associated with angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment and higher chemotherapy response.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/farmacologia , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Intern Med ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373379

RESUMO

We herein report two cases in which add-on acetazolamide to furosemide was effective for diuretic-resistant volume overload and hypercapnia. Case 1 was a woman in her 40s presenting with volume overload due to the nephrotic syndrome with diabetes mellitus. Case 2 was a man in his 60s with fluid overload and non-nephrotic proteinuria and sepsis. In both cases, although fluid overload was resistant to high-dose loop diuretics and complicated with hypercapnia due to pulmonary effusion, add-on acetazolamide administration resulted in symptom resolution. The additional effect of acetazolamide occurred regardless of the degree of proteinuria and kidney function.

14.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(8): 2114-2121, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386660

RESUMO

Introduction: WT1 missense mutation in exon 8 or 9 causes infantile nephrotic syndrome with early progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), Wilms tumor, and 46,XY female. However, some patients with missense mutations in exon 8 or 9 progress to ESKD in their teens or later. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and functional analysis of WT1 transcriptional activity. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of 174 cases with WT1 exon 8 or 9 missense variants from our cohort (n=13) and previous reports (n=161). Of these cases, mild and severe genotypes were selected for further in vitro functional analysis using luciferase assay. Results: The median age of developing ESKD was 1.17 years. A comparative study was conducted among three WT1 genotype classes: mutations of the DNA-binding site (DBS group), mutations outside the DNA-binding site but at sites important for zinc finger structure formation by 2 cysteines and 2 histidines (C2H2 group), and mutations leading to other amino acid changes (Others group). The DBS group showed the severest phenotype and the C2H2 group was intermediate, whereas the Others group showed the mildest phenotype (developing ESKD at 0.90, 2.00, and 3.92 years, respectively, with significant differences). In vitro functional analysis showed dominant-negative effects for all variants; in addition, the DBS and C2H2 mutations were associated with significantly lower WT1 transcriptional activity than the other mutations. Conclusion: Not only the DNA-binding site but also C2H2 zinc finger structure sites are important for maintaining WT1 transcriptional activity, and their mutation causes severe clinical symptoms.

15.
Int J Oncol ; 59(2)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278462

RESUMO

NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are a family of transmembrane proteins that generate reactive oxygen species. It was previously reported that patients with colon cancer who had high NOX5 expression had poor prognosis. However, no studies have investigated the cellular functions of NOX5 in colon cancer. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between NOX5 and cancer development using an in vitro model. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR was performed to determine the NOX5 expression levels of colon cancer cell lines. NOX5­knockdown experiments were conducted, and the effect on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were analyzed. In addition, mRNA microarray was conducted to assess changes in gene profile. NOX5 mRNA expression was high in HCT116 cells and moderate in SW48 cells. NOX5 knockdown significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in both HCT116 and SW48 cells; however, NOX5 knockdown reduced cell proliferation in only HCT116 cells. mRNA microarrays revealed a strong relationship between NOX5 expression levels and integrin­linked kinase signaling pathways. The NOX5 expression in colon cancer cells affected cancer progression, especially cell motility. NOX5 may be a novel therapeutic target for the future development of treatments for colon cancer.

16.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111362, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nutritional status significantly influences postoperative prognosis in gastrointestinal cancers. It has been evaluated using sarcopenia before treatments such as surgery and chemotherapy, despite constant changes in nutritional status. We consider that nutritional status at cancer recurrence is one of the important factors that affect treatment choice and intensity. This study evaluated the prognostic effects of improved postoperative nutritional status for people with colorectal cancer recurrence. METHODS: We enrolled 209 participants with pathologically confirmed stage II or III colorectal cancer who underwent radical resection. Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the psoas muscle index obtained from analysis of three-dimensional computed tomographic images. We adopted the cutoff value that was proposed by Hamaguchi et al. (psoas muscle index < 6.36 cm2/m2 for men and < 3.92 cm2/m2 for women). Evaluation was performed before surgery and at the time of recurrence. Participants with preoperative sarcopenia who relapsed were divided into two groups at the time of recurrence: sarcopenia continuation and sarcopenia improvement. We compared the prognosis of the two groups and examined the effect of postoperative nutritional improvement. RESULTS: Among the 209 participants, 81 (38.8%) had preoperative sarcopenia; this group had significantly lower overall survival than those without sarcopenia (P = 0.028). Colorectal cancer recurred in 48 participants. Of those 46, sarcopenia was evaluated at the time of recurrence; 19 of those 46 had preoperative sarcopenia. Preoperative sarcopenia did not affect the cancer recurrence ratio (sarcopenia, 23.5%; non-sarcopenia, 21.3%; P = 0.893). The sarcopenia-improvement group had higher overall survival than the sarcopenia-continuation group (P = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Among participants with preoperative sarcopenia, the prognosis at the time of recurrence improved for the sarcopenia-improvement group compared to the sarcopenia-continuation group. In people with colorectal cancer and sarcopenia, nutritional management is important not only before but also after surgery.

18.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(13): 8263-8272, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatectomy is a highly invasive procedure with extensive intraoperative blood loss (IBL) and high risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). We conducted an experimental and retrospective clinical study to determine whether the malignant behaviors of pancreatic cancer cells were enhanced by exposure to blood components in vitro and to evaluate the oncological significance of high IBL and POPF in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: This study included 107 patients undergoing radical pancreatectomy in the University of Yamanashi Hospital between 2011 and 2017, classified into high (n = 29) and low (n = 78) IBL groups. In vitro experiments included functional analyses of Panc-1 pancreatic cancer and normal mesothelial cells exposed to patient blood components, and clinical data were used to assess the contribution of IBL and POPF to patient outcomes. RESULTS: The migration (p = 0.007), invasion (p < 0.001), and proliferation (p < 0.01) of Panc-1 cells were enhanced with platelet coculture. The ability of Panc-1 cells to adhere mesothelial cells was enhanced by plasma coincubation, especially in the presence of inflammation (p < 0.001). High IBL was associated with worse overall survival (p = 0.007) and increased locoregional recurrence (p = 0.003) in patients. POPF enhanced the negative prognostic significance of high IBL (p < 0.001 for overall survival, p = 0.001 for locoregional recurrence), indicating the oncological negative effects of high IBL and POPF. CONCLUSIONS: Blood components, especially platelets, and inflammation enhance the malignant behaviors of pancreatic cancer cells, potentially contributing to poor prognosis for pancreatic cancer patients.


Assuntos
Fístula Pancreática , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Inflamação , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
NPJ Genom Med ; 6(1): 49, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131151

RESUMO

Pediatric solid tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with over 100 subtypes. Clinical and histopathological diagnosis remains challenging due to the overlapping morphological and immunohistochemical findings and the presence of atypical cases. To evaluate the potential utility of including RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) in the diagnostic process, we performed RNA-seq in 47 patients with suspected pediatric sarcomas. Histopathologists specialized in pediatric cancer re-evaluated pathological specimens to reach a consensus diagnosis; 42 patients were diagnosed with known subtypes of solid tumors whereas 5 patients were diagnosed with undifferentiated sarcoma. RNA-seq analysis confirmed and refined consensus diagnoses and further identified diagnostic genetic variants in four of the five patients with undifferentiated sarcoma. Genetic lesions were detected in 23 patients, including the novel SMARCA4-THOP1 fusion gene and 22 conventional or recently reported genetic events. Unsupervised clustering analysis of the RNA-seq data identified a distinct cluster defined by the overexpression of rhabdomyosarcoma-associated genes including MYOG and CHRNG. These findings suggest that RNA-seq-based genetic analysis may aid in the diagnosis of suspected pediatric sarcomas, which would be useful for the development of stratified treatment strategies.

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