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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900456, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Off-label use of vemurafenib (VMF) to treat BRAFV600E mutation-positive, refractory, childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients from 12 countries took VMF 20 mg/kg/d. They were classified according to risk organ involvement: liver, spleen, and/or blood cytopenia. The main evaluation criteria were adverse events (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.3]) and therapeutic responses according to Disease Activity Score. RESULTS: LCH extent was distributed as follows: 44 with positive and 10 with negative risk organ involvement. Median age at diagnosis was 0.9 years (range, 0.1 to 6.5 years). Median age at VMF initiation was 1.8 years (range, 0.18 to 14 years), with a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 4.3 to 57 months), whereas median treatment duration was 13.9 months (for 855 patient-months). At 8 weeks, 38 complete responses and 16 partial responses had been achieved, with the median Disease Activity Score decreasing from 7 at diagnosis to 0 (P < .001). Skin rash, the most frequent adverse event, affected 74% of patients. No secondary skin cancer was observed. Therapeutic plasma VMF concentrations (range, 10 to 20 mg/L) seemed to be safe and effective. VMF discontinuation for 30 patients led to 24 LCH reactivations. The blood BRAFV600E allele load, assessed as circulating cell-free DNA, decreased after starting VMF but remained positive (median, 3.6% at diagnosis, and 1.6% during VMF treatment; P < .001) and was associated with a higher risk of reactivation at VMF discontinuation. None of the various empirical therapies (hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, cladribine and cytarabine, anti-MEK agent, vinblastine, etc) used for maintenance could eradicate the BRAFV600E clone. CONCLUSION: VMF seemed safe and effective in children with refractory BRAFV600E-positive LCH. Additional studies are needed to find effective maintenance therapy approaches.

2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare inflammatory myeloid neoplasm which can infiltrate any organ or tissue. Endocrine involvement has mostly been described in case reports and small retrospective studies. We aimed to describe endocrine manifestations in a large cohort of adulthood onset (AO) and childhood onset (CO) patients with LCH. DESIGN: single-center observational study conducted between January 2002 and December 2017 at Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital (Paris, France), a tertiary care hospital. METHOD: Clinical, biological and morphological evaluations of pituitary, gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid function evaluations performed in 63 consecutive patients with LCH (AO patients:40, CO patients:23). Fifty-eight patients underwent follow-up assessments. RESULTS: Complete pituitary evaluation was performed in 38/63 patients (60.3%); at least 1 anterior pituitary dysfunction (APD) was found in 63.2% of them. In this subgroup of patients, the most prevalent deficiencies were diabetes insipidus (DI,) and GHD (55.3% each), followed by gonadotropin deficiency (34.2%) and thyrotropin deficiency (23.7%). In the subgroup of the 25 incompletely evaluated patients, we found DI in 44%, GHD in 50%, gonadotropin deficiency in 30.4% and thyrotropin deficiency in 16%. APD was more common in CO patients (p=0.003) but was not systematically associated with DI regardless of the age of onset. Endocrine dysfunction was most often permanent; moreover, occurrence of new deficiencies has been described during follow-up. CONCLUSION: The spectrum of endocrine disorders appears to be large in LCH (both in AO and CO patients) and should be evaluated carefully at diagnosis and during follow-up. APD was not always associated with DI.

3.
Oncologist ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Astroblastoma (ABM) is a rare glial brain tumor. Recurrent meningioma 1 (MN1) alterations have been recently identified in most pediatric cases. Adolescent and adult cases, however, remain molecularly poorly defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed clinical and molecular characterization of a retrospective cohort of 14 adult and 1 adolescent ABM. RESULTS: Strikingly, we found that MN1 fusions are a rare event in this age group (1/15). Using methylation profiling and targeted sequencing, most cases were reclassified as either pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXA)-like or high-grade glioma (HGG)-like. PXA-like ABM show BRAF mutation (6/7 with V600E mutation and 1/7 with G466E mutation) and CD34 expression. Conversely, HGG-like ABM harbored specific alterations of diffuse midline glioma (2/5) or glioblastoma (GBM; 3/5). These latter patients showed an unfavorable clinical course with significantly shorter overall survival (p = .021). Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway alterations (including FGFR fusion, BRAF and NF1 mutations) were present in 10 of 15 patients and overrepresented in the HGG-like group (3/5) compared with previously reported prevalence of these alterations in GBM and diffuse midline glioma. CONCLUSION: We suggest that gliomas with astroblastic features include a variety of molecularly sharply defined entities. Adult ABM harboring molecular features of PXA and HGG should be reclassified. Central nervous system high-grade neuroepithelial tumors with MN1 alterations and histology of ABM appear to be uncommon in adults. Astroblastic morphology in adults should thus prompt thorough molecular investigation aiming at a clear histomolecular diagnosis and identifying actionable drug targets, especially in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Astroblastoma (ABM) remains a poorly defined and controversial entity. Although meningioma 1 alterations seem to define a large subset of pediatric cases, adult cases remain molecularly poorly defined. This comprehensive molecular characterization of 1 adolescent and 14 adult ABM revealed that adult ABM histology comprises several molecularly defined entities, which explains clinical diversity and identifies actionable targets. Namely, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma-like ABM cases show a favorable prognosis whereas high-grade glioma (glioblastoma and diffuse midline gliome)-like ABM show significantly worse clinical courses. These results call for in-depth molecular analysis of adult gliomas with astroblastic features for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

4.
J Neurooncol ; 144(1): 33-41, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain cancer in adults. Few cytotoxic chemotherapies have been shown to be effective against GBM, due in part to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which reduces the penetration of chemotherapies from the blood to the brain. Ultrasound-induced BBB opening (US-BBB) has been shown to increase the penetration of multiple chemotherapeutic agents in the brain in animal models. In the current study, the anti-tumor activity of carboplatin chemotherapy with and without US-BBB was investigated in several GBM mouse models. METHODS: First, the IC50 of two commercial (U87 and U251) and six patient-derived GBM cell lines (PDCL) to carboplatin was measured. Next, U87 was subcutaneously grafted to a nude mouse model to test the in vivo response of the tumor to carboplatin in the absence of the BBB. Lastly, nude mice bearing orthotopically xenografted GBM cell lines (U87 or a PDCL) were randomized to four experimental groups: (i) untreated, (ii) US-BBB alone, (iii) carboplatin alone and, (iv) carboplatin + US-BBB. Mice were treated once weekly for 4 weeks and monitored for toxicity, tumor growth, and survival. RESULTS: Carboplatin plus US-BBB enhanced survival (p = 0.03) and delayed tumor growth (p < 0.05) of GBM-bearing mice compared to carboplatin alone, with a 4.2-fold increase of carboplatin penetration in the brain, without evidence of significant neurological or systemic toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Carboplatin efficacy was enhanced in GBM mouse models with US-BBB and appears to be a promising chemotherapy for this approach.

5.
Neurology ; 92(24): e2754-e2763, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Imaging necrosis on MRI scans was assessed and compared to outcome measures of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 26101 phase III trial that compared single-agent lomustine with lomustine plus bevacizumab in patients with progressive glioblastoma. METHODS: MRI in this post hoc analysis was available for 359 patients (lomustine = 127, lomustine + bevacizumab = 232). First, imaging necrosis at baseline being formally measurable (>10 × 10 mm, given 2 slices) was assessed. At weeks 6 and 12 of treatment, it was analyzed whether this necrosis remained stable or increased >25% calculated by 2 perpendicular diameters or whether necrosis developed de novo. Univariate and multivariate associations of baseline necrosis with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were tested by log-rank test. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval were calculated by Cox model. RESULTS: Imaging necrosis at baseline was detected in 191 patients (53.2%) and was associated with worse OS and PFS in univariate, but not in multivariate analysis. Baseline necrosis was predictive for OS in the lomustine-only group (HR 1.46, p = 0.018). At weeks 6 and 12 of treatment, increase of baseline necrosis and de novo necrosis were strongly associated with worse OS and PFS in univariate and multivariate analysis (PFS both p < 0.001, OS univariate p < 0.001, multivariate p = 0.0046). CONCLUSION: Increase of and new development of imaging necrosis during treatment is a negative prognostic factor for patients with progressive glioblastoma. These data call for consideration of integrating the assessment of imaging necrosis as a separate item into the MRI response assessment criteria.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(13): 3793-3801, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890548

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the efficacy of drug therapies for glioblastoma (GBM). Preclinical data indicate that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPU) can transiently disrupt the BBB and increase intracerebral drug concentrations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A first-in-man, single-arm, single-center trial (NCT02253212) was initiated to investigate the transient disruption of the BBB in patients with recurrent GBM. Patients were implanted with a 1-MHz, 11.5-mm diameter cranial ultrasound device (SonoCloud-1, CarThera). The device was activated monthly to transiently disrupt the BBB before intravenous carboplatin chemotherapy. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2016, 21 patients were registered for the study and implanted with the SonoCloud-1; 19 patients received at least one sonication. In 65 ultrasound sessions, BBB disruption was visible on T1w MRI for 52 sonications. Treatment-related adverse events observed were transient and manageable: a transient edema at H1 and at D15. No carboplatin-related neurotoxicity was observed. Patients with no or poor BBB disruption (n = 8) visible on MRI had a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 2.73 months, and a median overall survival (OS) of 8.64 months. Patients with clear BBB disruption (n = 11) had a median PFS of 4.11 months, and a median OS of 12.94 months. CONCLUSIONS: SonoCloud-1 treatments were well tolerated and may increase the effectiveness of systemic drug therapies, such as carboplatin, in the brain without inducing neurotoxicity.See related commentary by Sonabend and Stupp, p. 3750.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
7.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVEOne of the goals in this study was to set up a semiautomatic method to estimate blood-brain barrier disruption obtained in patients with glioblastoma by using an implantable, unfocused, ultrasound device. Another goal was to correlate the probability of significant ultrasound-induced signal enhancement (SUISE) with local acoustic pressure in the brain.METHODSGd-enhanced MR images acquired before and after ultrasound treatments were analyzed prospectively. The image sets were segmented, normalized, and coregistered to evaluate contrast enhancement. The volume of SUISE was calculated with voxels labeled as gray or white matter, in a cylindrical region of interest, and with enhancement above a given threshold. To validate the method, the resulting volumes of SUISE were compared to qualitative grades previously assigned by 3 clinicians for 40 ultrasound treatments in 15 patients. A parametric study was performed to optimize the algorithm prediction of the qualitative grades. The 3D acoustic field in the brain was estimated from measurements in water combined with simulations accounting for ultrasound attenuation in brain and overlaid on each MR image to correlate local acoustic pressure with the probability of SUISE (defined as enhancement > 10%).RESULTSThe algorithm predicted grade 2 or 3 and grade 3 openings with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.831 and 0.995, respectively. The probability of SUISE was correlated with local acoustic pressure (R2 = 0.98) and was 3.33 times higher for gray matter than for white matter.CONCLUSIONSAn algorithm for evaluating blood-brain barrier disruption was validated and can be used for future clinical trials to further understand and quantify this technique in humans.Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02253212 (clinicaltrials.gov).

8.
J Neurooncol ; 142(1): 139-148, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536197

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is common and potentially fatal in patients with primary malignant brain tumors (PMBT). However, few data are available regarding its precipitating factors and prognosis. We sought to: (1) compare the causes of ARF and the outcome between patients with PMBT and patients with other peripheral solid tumors (PST), (2) identify the factors influencing ICU survival in PMBT patients. METHODS: Two-center retrospective case-control study from March 1996 to May 2014. Primary central nervous system lymphomas were also included. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with PMBT and 133 patients with PST were included. Acute infectious pneumonia was more frequent in PMBT than PST patients (77 vs. 36%, p < 0.001). Pulmonary embolism was also more frequent in PMBT patients (13% vs. 5%, p = 0.042), while cardiogenic pulmonary edema and acute-on-chronic respiratory failure were more frequent in PST patients (37 vs. 10%, p < 0.001). Among acute infectious pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia were more frequent in PMBT patients (19 vs. 2%, p < 0.001 and 19 vs. 8%, p < 0.001, respectively). ICU mortality was similar between PMBT and PST patients (24% vs. 24%, p = 0.966). In multivariate analysis, cancer progression (OR 7.25 95% CI 1.13-46.45, p = 0.034), need for intubation (OR 7.01 95% CI 1.29-38.54, p = 0.022), were independently associated with ICU mortality in PMBT patients. CONCLUSIONS: The cause of ARF in patients with PMBT differs significantly than those with PST and up to 50% may have been prevented. Mortality did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest that PMBT alone is not a relevant criterion for ICU recusal.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Pneumonia Aspirativa/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Aspirativa/mortalidade , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Presse Med ; 47(11-12 Pt 2): e185-e186, 2018 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502027
10.
Br J Haematol ; 183(4): 608-617, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421536

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative (ND) complications in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are a late-onset but dramatic sequelae for which incidence and risk factors are not well defined. Based on a national prospective registry of paediatric LCH patients, we determined the incidence rate of clinical ND LCH (cND-LCH) and analysed risk factors, taking into account disease extent and molecular characteristics. Among 1897 LCH patients, 36 (1·9%) were diagnosed with a cND-LCH. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cND-LCH was 4·1%. cND-LCH typically affected patients previously treated for a multisystem, risk organ-negative LCH, represented in 69·4% of cND-LCH cases. Pituitary gland, skin and base skull/orbit bone lesions were more frequent (P < 0·001) in cND-LCH patients compared to those without cND-LCH (respectively 86·1% vs. 12·2%, 75·0% vs. 34·2%, and 63·9% vs. 28·4%). The 'cND susceptible patients' (n = 671) i.e., children who had experienced LCH disease with pituitary or skull base or orbit bone involvement, had a 10-year cND risk of 7·8% vs. 0% for patients who did not meet these criteria. Finally, BRAFV 600E status added important information among these cND susceptible patients, with the 10-year cND risk of 33·1% if a BRAFV 600E mutation was present compared to 2·9% if it was absent (P = 0·002).

12.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 6(1): 89, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193580

RESUMO

Diffuse gliomas are classified according to the 2016 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System, which now defines entities by both histology and molecular features. Somatostatin receptor subtype 2A (SSTR2A) expression has been reported in various solid tumors as associated with favorable outcomes. Its expression has been reported in gliomas with uncertain results regarding its prognostic value. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of SSTR2A protein expression in a large cohort of grade III and IV gliomas classified according to the updated 2016 WHO classification. We further validated our result with an independent cohort of low grade glioma using dataset generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network.We analyzed clinical and molecular data from 575 patients. SSTR2A protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. High expression of SSTR2A protein associated with the anaplastic oligodendroglioma IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted subgroup (p < 0.001). Among these tumors, SSTR2A protein expression was significantly associated with a lower proliferative index, the absence of microvascular proliferation and the absence of necrosis (p < 0.001). Furthermore SSTR2A protein expression associated with better overall survival (p = 0.007) and progression-free survival (p = 0.01) in both univariate and multivariate analysis when adjusted by the age, the presence of necrosis and the mitotic index. Similar results were obtained regarding SSTR2 mRNA expression in the TCGA low grade glioma, subtype IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted, dataset.SSTR2A might represent an attractive biomarker and therapeutic target in anaplastic oligodendroglioma IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted specific subgroup. Understanding the implicated molecular pathways may represent a step forward to improve therapeutic approaches.

13.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 18(9): 729-737, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099909

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the deadliest primary malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumor with a median overall survival of 15 months despite a very intensive therapeutic regimen including maximal safe surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Therefore, GBM treatment still raises major biological and therapeutic challenges. Areas covered: One of the hallmarks of the GBM is its tumor microenvironment including tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). TAM, accounting for approximately 30% of the GBM bulk cell population, may explain, at least in part, the immunosuppressive features of GBMs. The TAM are active and highly plastic immune cells and include two major ontogenetically different cell populations: (i) microglia and, (ii) monocytes-derived macrophages (MDM). TAM recruited to the tumor bulk can be reprogramed by GBM cells resulting in an ineffective anti-tumor response. Interestingly, interactions between TAM and GBM cells promote tumor oncogenesis (i.e. tumor cells proliferation and migration/invasion). This review aims to explore TAM targeting in GBM as a promising therapeutic option in the near future. Expert Commentary: A better understanding of TAM-GBM interactions and dynamics will certainly uncover new anti-GBM therapeutic avenues.

14.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(9): 1170-1179, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab is frequently used in the treatment of recurrent WHO grade II and III glioma, but without supporting evidence from randomised trials. Therefore, we assessed the use of bevacizumab in patients with first recurrence of grade II or III glioma who did not have 1p/19q co-deletion. METHODS: The TAVAREC trial was a randomised, open-label phase 2 trial done at 32 centres across Europe in patients with locally diagnosed grade II or III glioma without 1p/19q co-deletion, with a first and contrast-enhancing recurrence after initial radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or both. Previous chemotherapy must have been stopped at least 6 months before enrolment and radiotherapy must have been stopped at least 3 months before enrolment. Random group assignment was done electronically through the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer web-based system, stratified by a minimisation procedure using institution, initial histology (WHO grade II vs III), WHO performance status (0 or 1 vs 2), and previous treatment (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both). Patients were assigned to receive either temozolomide (150-200 mg/m2, orally) monotherapy on days 1-5 every 4 weeks for a maximum of 12 cycles, or the same temozolomide regimen in combination with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg, intravenously) every 2 weeks until progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival at 12 months in the per-protocol population. Safety analyses were done in all patients who started their allocated treatment. The study is registered at EudraCT (2009-017422-39) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01164189), and is complete. FINDINGS: Between Feb 8, 2011, and July 31, 2015, 155 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either monotherapy (n=77) or combination therapy (n=78). Overall survival in the per-protocol population at 12 months was achieved by 44 (61% [80% CI 53-69]) of 72 patients in the temozolomide group and 38 (55% [47-69]) of 69 in the combination group. The most frequent toxicity was haematological: 17 (23%) of 75 patients in the monotherapy group and 25 (33%) of 76 in the combination group developed grade 3 or 4 haematological toxicity. Other than haematological toxicities, the most common adverse events were nervous system disorders (59 [79%] of 75 patients in the monotherapy group vs 65 [86%] of 76 in the combination group), fatigue (53 [70%] vs 61 [80%]), and nausea (39 [52%] vs 43 [56%]). Infections were more frequently reported in the combination group (29 [38%] of 76 patients) than in the monotherapy group (17 [23%] of 75). One treatment-related death was reported in the combination group (infection after intratumoral haemorrhage during a treatment-related grade 4 thrombocytopenia). INTERPRETATION: We found no evidence of improved overall survival with bevacizumab and temozolomide combination treatment versus temozolomide monotherapy. The findings from this study provide no support for further phase 3 studies on the role of bevacizumab in this disease. FUNDING: Roche Pharmaceuticals.

16.
Oncologist ; 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 1p/19q-codeleted anaplastic gliomas have variable clinical behavior. We have recently shown that the common 9p21.3 allelic loss is an independent prognostic factor in this tumor type. The aim of this study is to identify less frequent genomic copy number variations (CNVs) with clinical importance that may shed light on molecular oncogenesis of this tumor type. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 197 patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma was collected as part of the French POLA network. Clinical, pathological, and molecular information was recorded. CNV analysis was performed using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Computational biology and feature selection based on the random forests method were used to identify CNV events associated with overall survival and other clinical-pathological variables. RESULTS: Recurrent chromosomal events were identified in chromosomes 4, 9, and 11. Forty-six focal amplification events and 22 focal deletion events were identified. Twenty-four focal CNV areas were associated with survival, and five of them were significantly associated with survival after multivariable analysis. Nine out of 24 CNV events were validated using an external cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas. Five of the validated events contain a cancer-related gene or microRNA: CDKN2A deletion, SS18L1 amplification, RHOA/MIR191 copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, FGFR3 amplification, and ARNT amplification. The CNV profile contributes to better survival prediction compared with clinical-based risk assessment. CONCLUSION: Several recurrent CNV events, detected in anaplastic oligodendroglioma, enable better survival prediction. More importantly, they help in identifying potential genes for understanding oncogenesis and for personalized therapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Genomic analysis of 197 anaplastic oligodendroglioma tumors reveals recurrent somatic copy number variation areas that may help in understanding oncogenesis and target identification for precision medicine. A machine learning multivariable model built using this genomic information enables better survival prediction.

17.
Cancer Cell ; 34(1): 163-177.e7, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990498

RESUMO

We explored the clinical and pathological impact of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) extracellular domain missense mutations. Retrospective assessment of 260 de novo glioblastoma patients revealed a significant reduction in overall survival of patients having tumors with EGFR mutations at alanine 289 (EGFRA289D/T/V). Quantitative multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging analyses indicated increased tumor invasion for EGFRA289D/T/V mutants, corroborated in mice bearing intracranial tumors expressing EGFRA289V and dependent on ERK-mediated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1. EGFRA289V tumor growth was attenuated with an antibody against a cryptic epitope, based on in silico simulation. The findings of this study indicate a highly invasive phenotype associated with the EGFRA289V mutation in glioblastoma, postulating EGFRA289V as a molecular marker for responsiveness to therapy with EGFR-targeting antibodies.

18.
Neurology ; 90(23): e2086-e2094, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prevalence and prognostic significance of major driver molecular alterations in adult midline diffuse gliomas (MLG). METHODS: Adults with histologically proven MLG diagnosed between 1996 and 2017 were identified from our tumor bank, systematically reviewed, and reclassified according to WHO 2016. Targeted sequencing was performed, including determination of H3F3A, HIST1H3B, TERTp, IDH1/2, FGFR1, p16/CDKN2A, and EGFR status. RESULTS: A total of 116 adult patients (M/F 71/45, median age 46.5 years) with MLG (17 cerebellar, 8 spinal, 30 brainstem, 57 thalamic, and 4 diencephalic nonthalamic) were identified. Most patients had high-grade disease at presentation (grade II: 11%, grade III: 15%, grade IV: 75%). Median overall survival was 17.3 months (14.5-23.8 months). Main molecular alterations observed were TERT promoter, H3F3A, and hotspot FGFR1 (N546 and K656) mutations, in 37%, 34%, and 18% of patients, respectively. IDH1 mutations only affected brainstem gliomas (6/24 vs 0/78; p = 7.5 × 10-5), were mostly non-R132H (contrasting with hemispheric gliomas, p = 0.0001), and were associated with longer survival (54 vs 12 months). TERT promoter mutation (9.1 vs 24.2 months), CDKN2A deletion (9.9 vs 23.8 months), and EGFR amplification (4.3 vs 23.8 months) were associated with shorter survival. Of interest, in contrast with pediatric MLG, H3K27M mutations were not associated with worse prognosis (23 vs 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with adult MLG present with unique clinical and molecular characteristics, differing from their pediatric counterparts. The identification of potentially actionable FGFR1 mutations in a subset of adult MLG highlights the importance of comprehensive genomic analysis in this rare affection.

19.
J Neurooncol ; 138(3): 487, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549621

RESUMO

The names of authors Marc Sanson and Jean-Yves Delattre were incorrectly presented in the initial online publication. The original article has been corrected.

20.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 18(3): 13, 2018 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520561

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Personalized medicine is a challenge to improve survival and quality of life of patients suffering from primary malignant brain tumor. Molecular biology is integrated in initial diagnosis and relapse, and, in the nearest future, over treatment schedule and monitoring. Liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive way to obtain tumor material. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past years, three fluids have been explored to provide tumor information in primary malignant brain tumor: blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and vitreous liquid. Different tumor components were identified: (1) circulating tumor cells, (2) circulating tumor DNA, (3) RNA and non-coding miRNA, and (4) extracellular vesicles. The performance of the liquid biopsy depends on the tumor type and on the method of detection. Liquid biopsy could be a valuable tool to improve patient care in primary malignant brain tumor. Improvement of its sensitivity is the major challenge to generalize its use in daily practice.

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