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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: A risk-stratification score may be useful for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, alongside screening colonoscopy (CS) and fecal immunochemical test (FIT). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of population-based CRC screening strategies using CS, FIT, and the Japanese CRC screening score. METHODS: The effectiveness in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cost-effectiveness, and required number of CS procedures were evaluated for screening strategies with primary screening CS (strategy 1), FIT (strategy 2), and the risk score (strategy 3), using a simulation model analysis with two scenarios. In scenario 1, uptake rates for all tests were 60%. In scenario 2, uptake rates for FIT and a risk score were 40%, and those for screening CS and CS following a positive FIT or high risk score were 20% and 70%, respectively. RESULTS: In scenario 1, strategy 1 gained the highest QALYs and required the highest cost. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per QALY gained for strategy 1 against the others were lower than 5 000 000 JPY. Strategy 1 required more than twice as many CS procedures as the other strategies. In scenario 2, strategy 3 had the highest QALYs and lowest cost, and strategy 1 had the lowest QALYs and highest cost. CONCLUSIONS: Screening CS has the potential to be the most effective and cost-effective form of CRC screening, although it requires a large number of CS procedures. However, if non-invasive tests are preferred by recipients, other screening strategies, particularly those using the risk score, can be more effective and cost-effective.

2.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(3): 403-417, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of novel antitumor agents and accompanying biomarkers has improved survival across several tumor types. Previously, we published provisional clinical opinion for the diagnosis and use of immunotherapy in patients with deficient DNA mismatch repair tumors. Recently, efficacy of tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitors against neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) fusion gene-positive advanced solid tumors have been established as the second tumor-agnostic treatment, making it necessary to develop the guideline prioritized for these patients. METHODS: Clinical questions regarding medical care were formulated for patients with NTRK-positive advanced solid tumors. Relevant publications were searched by PubMed and Cochrane Database. Critical publications and conference reports were added manually. Systematic reviews were performed for each clinical question for the purpose of developing clinical recommendations. The committee members identified by Japan Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO) and Japanese Society of Medical Oncology (JSMO) voted to determine the level of each recommendation considering the strength of evidence, expected risks and benefits to patients, and other related factors. Thereafter, a peer review by experts nominated from JSCO, JSMO, and Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, and the public comments among all Societies' members was done. RESULTS: The current guideline describes 3 clinical questions and 15 recommendations for whom, when, and how NTRK fusion should be tested, and what is recommended for patients with NTRK fusion-positive advanced solid tumors. CONCLUSION: In the NTRK guideline, the committee proposed 15 recommendations for performing NTRK testing properly to select patients who are likely to benefit from tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitors.

3.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-9, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960737

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by using the GRADE approach.Methods: We searched PubMed, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina Web (Ichu-shi web), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Articles fulfilling the predefined inclusion criteria were appraised and used for meta-analysis. The primary outcomes were American College of Rheumatology 20 (ACR20) and serum creatinine elevation. Other outcomes included ACR50, ACR70, changes in C-reactive protein, modified Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, gastrointestinal disorders, metabolic and nutritional disorders, and infections and infestations.Results: We identified five randomized controlled studies, four of which compared tacrolimus to placebo and were included in the meta-analysis. The risk ratio of ACR20 achievement was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-2.42) for 1-2 mg/day and 2.30 (95% CI 1.79-2.96) for 3 mg/day. The risk ratio of creatinine elevation was 1.95 (95% CI 1.18-3.23) for 1-2 mg/day and 3.81 (95% CI 2.43-5.99) for 3 mg/day.Conclusion: Tacrolimus is effective with acceptable safety in the management of RA.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 74(1): 127-138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the Japanese population ages, caring for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia is becoming a major socioeconomic issue. OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of patient and caregiver costs to total societal costs associated with AD dementia. METHODS: Baseline data was used from the longitudinal, observational GERAS-J study. Using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, patients routinely visiting memory clinics were stratified into three groups based on AD severity. Health care resource utilizationwas recorded using the Resource Utilization in Dementia questionnaire. Total monthly societal costs were estimated using Japan-specific unit costs of services and products (patient direct health care use, patient social care use, and informal caregiving time). Uncertainty around mean costs was estimated using bootstrapping methods. RESULTS: Overall, 553 community-dwelling patients withADdementia (28.3% mild[MMSE21-26], 37.8% moderate[MMSE 15-20], and 34.0% moderately severe/severe [MMSE < 14]) and their caregivers were enrolled. Patient characteristics were: mean age 80.3 years, 72.7% female, and 13.6% living alone. Caregiver characteristics were: mean age 62.1 years, 70.7% female, 78.8% living with patient, 49.0% child of patient, and 39.2% sole caregiver. Total monthly societal costs of AD dementia (Japanese yen) were: 158,454 (mild), 211,301 (moderate), and 294,224 (moderately severe/severe). Informal caregiving costs comprised over 50% of total costs. CONCLUSION: Baseline results of GERAS-J showed that total monthly societal costs associated with AD dementia increased with AD severity. Caregiver-related costs were the largest cost component. Interventions are needed to decrease informal costs and decrease caregiver burden.

5.
J Pain Res ; 12: 2785-2797, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576163

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pregabalin versus other analgesics among patients with chronic cervical pain with neuropathic components during routine clinical practice in Japan. Patients and methods: The analysis considered patients with chronic cervical pain with a neuropathic pain component (radiating pain to the upper limb) and who were treated with pregabalin with or without other analgesics (pregabalin-containing treatments) or other analgesics alone (usual care) for 8 weeks. Other analgesics included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), weak opioids, antidepressants, and antiepileptic drugs. A Markov cohort simulation model was constructed to estimate costs and effectiveness (in terms of quality-adjusted life-years, QALYs) of each treatment over a 12-month time horizon. In the model, patients transitioned among three states of pain severity (no/mild, moderate, and severe). Data were derived from a previous observational study (pregabalin-containing treatments, n = 138; usual care, n = 211). Cost inputs included medical costs and productivity losses. QALYs were calculated using the EuroQol five-dimensional, five-level questionnaire. The cost-effectiveness was evaluated using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of results. Results: From the payer's perspective, pregabalin-containing treatments were more costly (JPY 61,779 versus JPY 26,428) but also more effective (0.763 QALYs versus 0.727 QALYs) than the usual care, with an ICER of JPY 970,314 per QALY gained. From the societal perspective, which also included productivity losses, the ICER reduced to JPY 458,307 per QALY gained. One-way sensitivity analyses demonstrated the robustness of the results. Given a hypothetical threshold value of one additional QALY of JPY 5,000,000, the probability of pregabalin-containing treatments being cost-effective was 100%. Conclusion: Compared with using other analgesics alone, the use of pregabalin, alone or in addition to other analgesics, was cost-effective for the treatment of chronic cervical pain with a neuropathic pain component in Japan.

6.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-7, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625435

RESUMO

Objectives: To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan using data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions, a nationwide questionnaire survey conducted in 2016.Methods: In total, 222,365 men and 245,251 women aged ≥16 years were included in the study. RA patients were defined as those who reported 'currently receiving treatment for RA at hospitals, clinics, or a facility for Japanese traditional massage, acupuncture, moxibustion, or judo-orthopedics.' The number of RA patients was estimated from the age-specific prevalence and total Japanese population in 2016. Further, the prevalence of individuals experiencing difficulties in activities of daily living due to health problems and those with mental distress as evaluated by K6 Scale was examined.Results: The estimated number and prevalence of RA in Japan with 95% confidence interval was 822 (768-880) thousand and 0.75% (0.70-0.80%). The population peaked in the late 60s, and the prevalence continued increasing until the early 80s, regardless of sex. Compared with non-RA participants, RA patients were more likely to experience difficulties in activities and to be distressed.Conclusion: High prevalence of RA in older age and mental and physical burden among RA patients were confirmed.

7.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 31(7): 594-602, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537120

RESUMO

The objective of our study is to evaluate the prevalence and health care cost of malnutrition in Japan. Using the health insurance data, we defined 2 types of malnutrition, strictly diagnosed malnutrition (SDM) and disease-associated malnutrition (DAM) by International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision. We also analyzed the health care costs by body mass index (BMI) data from medical checkups. The nationwide prevalence of SDM was estimated 0.8%, and that of SDM plus DAM was 2.9%. The total annual health care cost for SDM patients in Japan was $14.5 billion, representing 4.3% of the national health expenditures in 2014; the excess cost for patients with SDM was estimated to be $9.7 billion. The health care costs became high among the patients with either low BMI or high BMI. Because of the rapidly aging population, actions are urgently needed to avoid increasing the current high health care costs of malnutrition.

8.
J Gastroenterol ; 54(12): 1083-1095, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be treated using a vonoprazan-first strategy (first-line treatment with vonoprazan), or esomeprazole-first/rabeprazole-first strategies (first-line treatment with proton-pump inhibitors [PPIs], esomeprazole/rabeprazole, followed by a switch to vonoprazan). This cost-utility analysis used long-term simulation modeling to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a vonoprazan-first strategy compared with the esomeprazole-first and rabeprazole-first strategies. METHODS: A Markov simulation model was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of vonoprazan-first, esomeprazole-first, and rabeprazole-first strategies, comprising healing and maintenance therapies, over 5 years (4-week cycles). Healing therapy began with the administration of a normal dose of drug per real-world practice. If patients were not healed endoscopically, either a longer duration of healing therapy was provided (vonoprazan), the dose was increased (rabeprazole), or patients were switched to vonoprazan (immediately for esomeprazole, and after dose-escalation for rabeprazole, respectively). Healed patients received maintenance (lower/same dose as healing therapy). Recurrence resulted in re-challenge with healing therapy. Transition probabilities were derived from the results of indirect comparisons (network meta-analysis) and costs calculated from the Japanese payer perspective. Outcomes were defined as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), with utilities based on published values. RESULTS: Expected costs of the vonoprazan-, esomeprazole-, and rabeprazole-first strategies were ¥36,194, ¥76,719, and ¥41,105, respectively, over 5 years. QALY gains for vonoprazan-first strategy versus the esomeprazole- and rabeprazole-first strategies were 0.014 and 0.003, respectively. Both estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were dominant and robust to two sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Vonoprazan-first strategy increased QALYs and appeared to be cost-effective for GERD patients compared with the esomeprazole- or rabeprazole-first strategies.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219929, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost differences between magnetic resonance-guided focussed ultrasound (MRgFUS) and unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of medication-refractory essential tremor (ET) in Japan using a cost-minimisation model. METHODS: A cost-minimisation model estimated total costs for MRgFUS and unilateral DBS by summing the pre-procedure, procedure, and post-procedure costs over a 12-month time horizon, using data from published sources and expert clinical opinion. The model base case considered medical costs from fee-for-service tariffs. Scenario analyses investigated the use of Diagnosis Procedure Combination tariffs, a diagnosis-related group-based fixed-payment system, and the addition of healthcare professional labour costs healthcare professionals using tariffs from the Japanese Health Insurance Federation for Surgery. One-way sensitivity analyses altered costs associated with tremor recurrence after MRgFUS, the extraction rate following unilateral DBS, the length of hospitalisation for unilateral DBS and the procedure duration for MRgFUS. The impact of uncertainty in model parameters on the model results was further explored using probabilistic sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Compared to unilateral DBS, MRgFUS was cost saving in the base case and Diagnosis Procedure Combination cost scenario, with total savings of JPY400,380 and JPY414,691, respectively. The majority of savings were accrued at the procedural stage. Including labour costs further increased the cost differences between MRgFUS and unilateral DBS. Cost savings were maintained in each sensitivity analysis and the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, demonstrating that the model results are highly robust. CONCLUSIONS: In the Japanese healthcare setting, MRgFUS could be a cost saving option versus unilateral DBS for treating medication-refractory ET. The model results may even be conservative, as the cost of multiple follow-ups for unilateral DBS and treatment costs for adverse events associated with each procedure were not included. This model is also consistent with the results of other economic analyses of MRgFUS versus DBS in various settings worldwide.

10.
J Med Econ ; 22(10): 1041-1046, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262236

RESUMO

Objectives: Theoretically, willingness-to-pay (WTP) for quality-adjusted life years (QALY) can vary depending on social and personal preferences and on ex-ante and ex-post settings. However, empirical investigations into the theoretical differences are lacking. In Japan, setting the threshold has been controversial since a pilot project to implement health technology assessments (HTA) launched in 2016. The study aim is to estimate WTP values for one additional QALY from different perspectives, health statuses, and contexts to confirm the difficulty in setting a uniform price threshold using WTP. Methods: More than 1,000 respondents representing a cross-section of the Japanese population answered each of nine questionnaire decks in an online panel. WTP values were estimated on three different perspectives (personal, social, and socially inclusive) and on two contexts (ex-ante and ex-post). This study primarily used the non-parametric spike model based on double-bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) settings to obtain the conditional WTP values. Results: WTP per QALY was higher in the severe health status than in the moderate health status from all perspectives. Respondents from the socially inclusive perspective estimated the highest WTP value for a new drug. Respondents were also asked about life-threatening diseases in ex-post and ex-ante. The WTP value in ex-ante was higher than in ex-post, and demographic factors affecting the WTP were different in both situations. The various WTP values were obtained from these surveys. Limitations: The analysis was based on data collected from an internet panel, which could be biased. There is also a risk that respondents answered the questionnaire differently if asked in everyday situations. Conclusion: Use of a uniform price threshold may not be appropriate in policy settings, because it may not reflect diverse preferences based on different situations, such as disease type and severity. Setting a price threshold as Japan institutes an HTA system requires further research.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
11.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e023405, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A number of publications have demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (SOF+RBV) compared with the former standard therapy with interferon (IFN)-containing regimens. Unlike these cost-effective analyses, where efficacy parameters were obtained from registration trials for drug approval, this analysis is a cost-effectiveness analysis of SOF+RBV for genotype (GT) 2 non-cirrhosis (NC) and compensated cirrhosis (CC) patients using efficacy parameters obtained from a multicentre cohort study (Kyushu University Liver Disease Study; KULDS) in Kyushu area in Japan in order to reflect real-world clinical practice in Japan. METHOD: A Markov model followed 10 000 patients (62 years old) over their lifetime. Four populations were followed: treatment-naïve (TN)-NC, treatment-experienced (TE)-NC, TN-CC and TE-CC. Comparators were Peg-IFNα2b+RBV for TN-NC and CC patients and telaprevir (TVR)+Peg-IFNα2b+RBV for TE-NC patients. The sustained virological response (SVR) rates of SOF+RBV were taken from KULDS and those of comparators were obtained from systematic literature reviews. There were nine states (NC, CC, decompensated cirrhosis [DC], hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], SVR [NC], SVR [CC], liver transplantation [LT], post-LT and death) in this model, and an increase in the progression rate to HCC due to ageing was also considered. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of a public healthcare payer, and a discount rate of 2% was set for both cost and effectiveness. RESULTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of SOF+RBV versus Peg-IFNα2b+RBV were ¥323 928 /quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for TN-NC patients, ¥92 256/QALY for TN-CC patients and ¥1 519 202/QALY for TE-CC patients. The ICER of SOF+RBV versus TVR+Peg-IFNα2b+RBV was ¥849 138/QALY for TE-NC patients. The robustness of the results was determined by sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this analysis strongly demonstrate the robustness of our previous findings that SOF+RBV regimens are cost-effective in the real world and clinical trial settings for Japanese GT2 NC and CC patients.

12.
J Pain Res ; 12: 1411-1424, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118759

RESUMO

Background: Despite high prevalence of chronic neck pain in Japan and the negative impact pain has on patient's quality of life (QoL), the therapeutic value of pregabalin for chronic neck pain with a neuropathic pain (NeP) component has not been assessed in a typical Japanese health care setting. Methods: An 8-week, non-interventional, multicenter, observational study of Japanese adults (≥20 years) with chronic refractory cervical pain including a NeP element (for ≥12 weeks) and sleep disturbance on the Pain-Related Sleep-Interference Scale (PRSIS) ≥1 (from 0 "does not interfere with sleep" to 10 "completely interferes"). Patients received either usual care with conventional analgesics or pregabalin (150-600 mg/day) for 8 weeks. "Usual care" with analgesics or other treatment(s) was determined based on physician's best clinical judgment. Primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 8 in PRSIS. Secondary endpoints included: change from baseline to week 4 in PRSIS, and to week 4 and 8 in pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS; from 0 "no pain" to 10 "worst possible pain"), and on the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Other assessments of QoL were undertaken. Safety was monitored. Results: Overall, 369 patients received pregabalin (n=145) or usual care (n=224). The median (range) dose of pregabalin was 49.6 (25.0-251.5) mg/day. Least-squares mean change in PRSIS from baseline to week 8 favored pregabalin (-1.167 vs -0.269; treatment difference -0.898 [95% CI -1.262, -0.535], P<0.001). Similar observations were seen at week 4 in favor of pregabalin versus usual care (P<0.001). Pregabalin significantly improved pain NRS and NDI scores at weeks 4 and 8 (all P<0.001). Improvements in QoL versus usual care were also observed. Pregabalin was generally well tolerated. Conclusion: In this open-label study, pregabalin improved PRSIS and resulted in clinically meaningful reductions in pain in Japanese patients with NeP associated with chronic cervical pain. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02868359.

13.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 29(1): 13, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036818

RESUMO

Although the global economic burden of asthma is well described, detailed data regarding Asia, particularly for Japan, are relatively scarce. This retrospective study aims to fill this evidence gap by evaluating asthma-associated healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and economic burden in Japanese patients aged ≥16 years, identified using anonymized patient data from the Japan Medical Data Center (JMDC) database from April 2009 to March 2015. Asthma severity was classified according to asthma treatment guidelines from the Japanese Society of Allergology. HCRU was calculated based on hospitalizations, emergency room visits, outpatient visits, and prescriptions. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for HCRU and per-patient-per-year direct costs were reported. In addition, differences across HCRU and cost variables for severe versus non-severe asthma patients were also compared. Of 541,434 asthma cases identified from the JMDC database during the study period, 54,433 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. HCRU and costs were heavily concentrated within severe asthma, a subgroup comprising 12.7% of total study population. Moreover, patients with severe asthma had significantly higher all-cause hospitalizations, outpatient visits, outpatient prescriptions (IRR [95% CI], 1.60 [1.46-1.76]; 1.43 [1.41-1.45]; 1.24 [1.22-1.25], respectively), and total medical costs (mean ± SD costs, US$ 4345 ± 11,104 versus US$ 1528 ± 3989, P < 0.001 (t-test); US$ 1 = 110 JPY) compared with those with non-severe asthma. The burden of asthma is significantly and disproportionately concentrated in Japanese severe asthma patients, suggesting clinical failure to achieve adequate disease control. This study highlights the unmet needs for severe asthma in Japan and provides a catalyst for important dialogues in advancing public health.

14.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(8): 1316-1328, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease caused by reflux of gastric contents to the esophagus. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are recommended as a first-line therapy to treat GERD. Recently, a new potassium-competitive acid blocker, vonoprazan, was launched in Japan. We aimed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of vonoprazan and other PPIs in healing GERD. METHODS: We used MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to search the literature. Double-blind randomized controlled trials for PPIs and/or vonoprazan that were published in English or Japanese and assessed healing effects in adult GERD patients were included. To estimate the comparative efficacy of treatments, we performed a Bayesian network meta-analysis to assess the consistency assumption. RESULTS: Of 4001 articles identified in the database, 42 studies were eligible. One study was hand-searched and added to the analysis. For the main analysis of healing effects at 8 weeks, odds ratios (ORs) of vonoprazan (20 mg daily) to esomeprazole (20 mg), rabeprazole (20 mg), lansoprazole (30 mg), and omeprazole (20 mg) were 2.29 (95% credible interval, 0.79-7.06), 3.94 (1.15-14.03), 2.40 (0.90-6.77), and 2.71 (0.98-7.90), respectively. Subgroup analysis for patients with severe esophagitis at baseline showed significantly higher ORs for vonoprazan versus most of the comparator PPIs. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis shows that the GERD healing effect of vonoprazan is higher than that of rabeprazole (20 mg) but not higher than other PPIs. Subgroup analysis indicated that vonoprazan is more effective than most PPIs for patients with severe erosive esophagitis.


Assuntos
Esofagite Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Teorema de Bayes , Esofagite Péptica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Péptica/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Seleção de Pacientes , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Gastroenterol ; 54(8): 718-729, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term maintenance treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is important to prevent relapse. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used for both treatment and maintenance therapy of GERD. Recently, a potassium-competitive acid blocker vonoprazan was launched in Japan. We evaluated the comparative efficacy of vonoprazan and other PPIs for GERD maintenance. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PPIs, vonoprazan, and placebo for GERD maintenance published in English or Japanese were selected. Among them, studies conducted at the recommended dose and for the recommended use, and containing information on maintenance rate based on endoscopic assessment, were included. The comparative efficacies of treatments were estimated by performing a Bayesian network meta-analysis, which assessed the consistency assumption. Outcomes were number or rate of patients who maintained remission. RESULTS: Of 4001 articles identified, 22 RCTs were eligible for analysis. One study published as an abstract was hand-searched and added. The consistency hypothesis was not rejected for the analysis. The odds ratio of vonoprazan 10 mg to each PPI was 13.92 (95% credible interval [CI] 1.70-114.21) to esomeprazole 10 mg; 5.75 (95% CI 0.59-51.57) to rabeprazole 10 mg; 3.74 (95% CI 0.70-19.99) to lansoprazole 15 mg; and 9.23 (95% CI 1.17-68.72) to omeprazole 10 mg. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of vonoprazan in GERD maintenance treatment may be higher than that of some PPIs. However, a direct comparison of vonoprazan and PPIs is required to confirm these effects.

16.
Dig Endosc ; 31(1): 40-50, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recommendations vary on postpolypectomy surveillance, and no consensus has been reached even regarding the necessity of risk stratification based on polyp characteristics for surveillance. We examined an optimal postpolypectomy surveillance program by performing a cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: We performed a Markov model analysis using parameters based on Japanese data and evaluated four postpolypectomy surveillance programs with respect to their effectiveness in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), cost-effectiveness and required number of colonoscopies. Two were non-risk-stratified programs with 1-year (program 1) and 3-year (program 2) postpolypectomy surveillance colonoscopy, and the other two were risk-stratified programs. In program 3, surveillance colonoscopy was performed 3, 10 and 10 years after resection of advanced adenomas, low-risk adenomatous polyps, and no polyps, respectively. In program 4, those intervals were shortened to 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. RESULTS: Risk-stratified programs (3 and 4) yielded higher QALYs with lower costs than non-risk-stratified programs (1 and 2). Program 4 yielded higher QALYs (23.046) and lower required cost (107,717 JPY) than program 3. The required number of colonoscopies for program 4 was 1.2, 1.5 and 1.6 times that for programs 1, 2 and 3, respectively. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of program 4 being chosen as the most cost-effective was highest. CONCLUSIONS: After polypectomy, risk-stratified colonoscopy surveillance based on the polyp characteristics should be considered. A risk-stratified program with relatively short examination intervals could be effective and cost-effective in Japan, although further investigation and consideration of colonoscopy capacity are required.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Pólipos do Colo/cirurgia , Colonoscopia/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Japão , Cadeias de Markov , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Med Econ ; : 1-9, 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289010

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of secukinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, compared to other clinically used biologics (adalimumab, infliximab, and ustekinumab) in Japan for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis from the healthcare system (total costs) and patient co-payment (using different frequencies of drug purchase) perspectives. METHODS: A decision-tree (first year)/Markov model (subsequent years), with an annual cycle, was developed. The model adopted a 5-year time horizon. Efficacy inputs were obtained from a mixed-treatment comparison analysis, and other model inputs were collected from published literature and local Japanese sources. Model outcomes included quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in terms of cost per QALY gained. The annual discounting rate of 2% was applied to both costs and outcomes. RESULTS: Results for the healthcare system perspective showed that secukinumab had the highest number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (4.07) vs other biologics, dominated ustekinumab and infliximab, and the ICER of secukinumab compared to adalimumab was ¥8,418,222/QALY gained. In the patient co-payment perspective with the monthly purchase of drugs, ustekinumab had the lowest co-payment cost, followed by infliximab, adalimumab, and secukinumab. In the patient co-payment perspective with a once every 3 months purchase of secukinumab and adalimumab, the co-payment costs of secukinumab, adalimumab, and ustekinumab became comparable, and infliximab had the highest co-payment cost. LIMITATIONS: Only short-term efficacy data was modeled, as there was a lack of data on long-term outcomes. Treatment sequencing was restricted to first-line biologic treatment. Drop-out rates for comparators were assumed to be equivalent to secukinumab in the absence of available data. CONCLUSIONS: Secukinumab is a cost-efficient treatment for moderate-to-severe psoriasis, providing greater health outcomes to patients at lower total costs compared to infliximab and ustekinumab, as well as comparable patient co-payment relative to other biologic treatments.

18.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 13: 2629-2641, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214181

RESUMO

Background: COPD remains a major health problem in Japan. Patients with COPD experience a reduced quality of life (QoL) and have a higher chance of work impairment and productivity loss. However, there is a lack of data on the impact of COPD in terms of QoL and work activity impairment in Japan. This study assessed the socioeconomic burden of COPD in Japan and the impact it may have on the working age population. Patients and methods: This was a 2-year retrospective chart review in COPD patients aged ≥40 years, with at least one health care visit to clinic or hospital in the previous 12 months. Patients were required to have available medical charts for at least the previous 24 months. Symptoms were assessed using COPD assessment test score; EuroQoL Group 5 Dimension (EQ-5D-5L) and work productivity and activity impairment general health questionnaires were used to evaluate health-related QoL and work productivity, and health care resource utilization data were obtained from clinical charts. Results: In total, 71 patients aged <65 years, and 151 patients aged ≥65 years were included; the majority of patients had moderate or severe airflow limitation. Exacerbations (moderate or severe) were reported by ~35% of patients in both age groups; 52.1% and 62.9% of patients in the <65-year and ≥65-year age groups had COPD assessment test scores ≥10. EQ-5D-5L index scores in the <65-year and ≥65-year age groups were 0.79 and 0.77, respectively. Work productivity and activity impairment scores were higher in <65-year age group. Annual costs of health care resource use per patient in the <65-year and ≥65-year age groups were ¥438,975 (US$4,389) and ¥467,871 (US$4,678), respectively. Costs due to productivity loss were estimated to be ¥5,287,024 (US$52,870) in the <65-year age group and ¥3,018,974 (US$30,187) in the ≥65-year age group. Conclusion: COPD represents a significant socioeconomic burden in Japan. Patients with COPD report significant use of health care resources. Higher impact on work impairment and productivity loss was observed frequently in the working age population.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desempenho Profissional , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Eficiência , Ex-Fumantes , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Med Econ ; 21(5): 443-449, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316823

RESUMO

AIMS: The short-term effects of smoking cessation (SC) on overall healthcare costs are unclear. This study aimed to compare the short-term medical costs between patients with SC outpatient visits (SCOVs) and those without SCOVs, consisting of SCOV itself and overall medical costs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a retrospective, observational study using a Japanese employee-based health insurance claims database (January 1, 2005-December 31, 2013). It analyzed individuals who were registered as smokers based on their medical checkup details. It compared the per-patient-per-year (PPPY) medical costs for male smokers who made ≥1 claim for SCOVs with those who made no claims. We also assessed whether the number of SCOVs by male and female smokers impacted medical costs. The Index Year was the year after the first SCOV claim and that after the first registration as a smoker (non-SCOV group). Medical costs were calculated using regression analysis and adjusted for baseline costs. RESULTS: In Index Year -1, PPPY medical costs for male smokers were ∼USD 323.01 (JPY 36,500, as of November 2017) higher in the SCOV (n = 5,608) vs the non-SCOV (n = 81,721) group; however, by Year 6 the costs were similar. From Year 4-6, PPPY medical costs for SCOVs were lower than those in the adjusted non-SCOV group. For 2,576 male and female smokers in the SCOV group, the average rates of increasing medical costs before and after the SCOV for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 SCOVs made were 58%, 44%, 50%, 41%, and 34%, respectively. LIMITATIONS: The database includes limited data on individuals >65 years. Only SCOVs based on claims data and not on other outcomes were assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Medical costs declined in the short-term following the first SCOV. Attendance at a greater number of SCOVs was associated with a lower increase ratio of medical costs.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econométricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mod Rheumatol ; 28(1): 39-47, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the economic impact of adalimumab (ADA) on Japanese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: ANOUVEAU was a 48-week multicenter, prospective, observational, single-cohort study. Work-related outcomes including absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work impairment (OWI), and activity impairment (AI) were evaluated using the RA-related work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI/RA). The amount of productivity loss was estimated via multiplication of absenteeism, presenteeism and OWI by the national average occupational wage for paid worker (PW) and part time worker (PTW), and via multiplication of AI by the estimated wage for domestic work for home maker (HM). RESULTS: In this analysis, 1196 patients were included. At week 48, measures of productivity loss due to absenteeism, presenteeism, OWI, and AI were significantly improved by administrating ADA to RA patients in all employment types (PW, PTW, and HM), compared to baseline (p < .01). Productivity loss of Japanese society by RA disease was estimated to be $9.80 billion. The annual decrease in productivity loss through ADA administration to Japanese RA patients was estimated to be $3.76 billion. CONCLUSIONS: The socioeconomic burden of RA is high, but ADA treatment may reduce productivity loss related to RA.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/economia , Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Absenteísmo , Atividades Cotidianas , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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